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service. The lady for whom she works is pleased with her and the progress she is making.

Several who are discharged are earning good wages with the needle, some at dressmaking, others at plain sewing; and one crippled girl has more orders for hemstitching and drawn-work than she can fill. Many of our girls darn so neatly that it might be put to good account some time. We train and teach to patch, darn, and mend old clothing, also to clean gloves; for any of these little accomplishments may help to add to their income, as there are many ladies to-day looking for help to rip, repair, clean, and make over old garments. And we say to the girls, If you learn to do all this well, you need never lack for employment.

Light gardening and raising small fruit are both pleasant and profitable work for girls. They delight in berry-picking, and also in the delicious shortcakes which come on to their tables frequently during berry time. We raise both strawberries and raspberries, and have found it so helpful and beneficial in many ways that we shall put out a quantity of blackberry bushes this year. Our girls pick the peas, string beans, gather the lettuce and radishes, set out plants, pick tomatoes, dig and pick up potatoes, besides caring for the lawns, spraying bushes, and cultivating the flowers. When one

of our girls shows a tendency to consumption or to a low physical condition, we get her out of doors, at light work at first; but, before the summer is over, she will, as a rule, be able to do as much as any In some schools bee culture has been considered practical; in others, silk culture and poultry raising.


Domestic work in all its branches should be taught; and for the majority we recommend that they go into good families in the country to be assistants, for there they have better homes, a better room and bed, more wholesome food, and more natural family relation and sympathy. They will have better ventilated rooms in which to work and more healthful bodily exercise, in pure, fresh air, than any working-girl in the city.

But over all and above all, in whatever branch of industry, let not the motive be one of monetary value, of what it may profit the State or institution, but how we may fit them for womanhood.

Womanhood comes in advance of wifehood and motherhood; and the girl who is trained to a noble ideal of womanhood cannot make of life a failure, although she may be no man's wife and no child's

mother. If she be worthless as a woman, she would be worse than worthless as a wife and mother. Let her training be such that, whether married or single, she shall have character and ability to stand alone, with value in herself and with a high regard for honesty and purity.



The Catholic Church is prompted by the desire of securing eternal. happiness for the souls of men. Her unyielding doctrine, that “faith without good works is vain," compels her, in fulfilment of her mission, to endeavor that men shall not only believe, but that they shall live and act righteously and do good, in order that they may thereby attain a blessed immortality. The only hope for the intentional evil-doer, in the eyes of the Church, is that he shall voluntarily cease from evil and freely do good. To bring about this reform in the evil-disposed, she must effect a change of heart. Mere outward conformity to rule or law can never be considered by her the sum total of reformation. This, then, is her primary end. It is distinctively a religious one. The means she takes to attain it are religious. And that is why, in every system of reform, she prescribes as first and indispensable the application of religious methods. But the salvation of the soul is not her only end. Her ethical system does not stop here. She recognizes that man's relations are not only with his Maker and eternity, but with his fellow-man and with time. Civil society is the means by which man can live the life of a social being, which he is. This society has its laws, which, when not inconsistent with the higher law, he is bound to obey. He assumes duties as a father, husband, brother, son, or citizen, which he is bound to perform. The good works required of him are not merely confined to the worship of the Supreme Being, but in the fulfilment of his duties to his fellow-man and to the State.

When, therefore, she endeavors to induce the erring to conform to either the moral or the civic law, she has in view not alone the glory

of God, but the welfare of humanity. On this double ground reststhe theory of all her works of charity, especially of her works of mercy for the wayward and the delinquent. Other churches doubtless act from precisely the same motives. I only specifically mention this point, that her practice may be more clearly discernible from her theory.

Work of this character is generally committed to religious orders of men and women, whose lives are consecrated to the cause, after a long probationary period of careful training. The impulse which directs them to devote themselves to the work must be shown to be more than a mere emotional piety or a momentary exaltation of soul. They are tested for years under a most ingenious system, the result of centuries of experience; and, unless they measure up to the required standard, they are not accepted for the work, they may not take the vows. It is remarkable that as a result of this system, of hundreds of thousands, the world over, who have consecrated themselves to this undertaking, few have ever resigned until called to the bosom of their God. Who are these men and women ? The weak of mind, sentimental souls, the disappointed with life? Oh, no! They are the best, the noblest, the most duteous, the strongest in mind and body, of our sons and daughters.

And here comes into play another of the singular influences of our Church upon family life. When the son or daughter of a devoted household, just ripened into manhood and womanhood, comes to the parent and announces his or her determination to enter a life like this, the parent deems it to be a call from God; for he recognizes that no human motive, no material consideration, could prompt the young heart to make that supreme sacrifice. Although the parent may have looked forward to the solace and companionship of such a child, may have made sacrifices to prepare him for a station in life in which he might fill a place of honor or distinction, and even though it may mean the extinction of his house,—the end of his race,— he bows to the voice of the One who has given and has the right to take away. Not Abraham, leading his darling Isaac bearing the wood for the sacrificial fire, showed a greater resignation than does the parent loyal to the faith.

And now to come to my special theme,— the work of reforming juvenile delinquents and the young girls or women who, having sinned against the holy virtue, have become habitual offenders

against it. I invite your attention to the work of reforming wayward girls, or, as they are so often unfortunately called, "fallen women,” far too many believing that they can never be lifted up to the plane of honorable womanhood again, but that they are fallen forever. This belief has been proven to be false by the experience, among other agencies, of two orders of religious women, the Sisters of the Divine Compassion and the Sisters of the Good Shepherd. The former have two houses in New York, one in the city, the other in White Plains. The Sisters of the Good Shepherd have numerous establishments throughout the world, of which a great number are in the United States and the Dominion of Canada. The subjects for reformation in these institutions are usually classified under four general heads.

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1. The first is the "preservation class." This is composed of children of tender years, who have shown a wayward disposition, or who have been subjected to dangerous environment, or are the offspring of bad parentage. They are of various ages, almost from girlhood up to sixteen. Their lives have not been wicked, but might, if not properly directed, become so. They are trained in the ordinary branches of education and industry. They are entirely separated from the older girls, never being permitted to come into contact with them or even to see them. With the Sisters of the Good Shepherd they are housed in a separate building. With the Sisters of the Divine Compassion they are not only not housed on the same grounds, but by a rule of the order cannot be quartered in the same town or city, unless the city be very large, and then in a separate institution bearing a separate name and in an entirely remote locality from the house for older girls. This is done for the benefit of the children, so that among other reasons they will not in after life be confounded with the older subjects, and feel any sense of shame from having spent the years of their girlhood in such an institution. These institutions in reality have more of the character of private boarding-schools, and are deserving of the name of Preservation Classes; for they have undoubtedly prevented almost their entire charge from swelling the ranks of human degeneracy. The children, when they leave, are soundly grounded in principles of religion and morality, and equipped with a good elementary education and industrial skill, which will enable them to earn easily an honest living in their sphere of life.

2. The second general class is composed of poor unfortunates. recently taken into the institution from the ways of sin. With the Sisters of the Good Shepherd they are either committed by courts. or placed in the institution by parents or guardians, or come of their own volition, seeking human and divine aid to protect their honor against their own weak, depraved natures. With the Sisters of the Divine Compassion they must all, to some degree, willingly come under the influence of the institution, and must stay at least six months. The great majority of those committed reform, although to some of them the institution serves simply as a penal one; and, when their terms of commitment expire, they return to their old life.

3. But many leave earnestly desirous of reform, and, fearful of their own strength to resist temptation, return, and pray to be taken in until discipline and prayer shall make them better able to wage the fight for the safety of their souls. Many others at the expiration of their terms remain voluntarily, in order to make the work of reform complete. Their spirit is thus fortified; and thousands have goneout into the world strong and true women, now happy wives and faithful mothers, knowing by sad experience the dangers of the world, and vigilantly guarding their daughters from the snares in which they themselves were entrapped, thus contributing to the propagation of an upright citizenship.

4. The fourth general class is largely made up of the elect of the third class of those reclaimed, whose reform is proven by from five to ten or more years of an unfaltering practice of virtue and of service to the institution, and who are promoted from the third class, called "penitents," to be known in the houses of the Good Shepherd as 'Magdalenes," and in the houses of the Sisters of the Divine Compassion as "Children of the Precious Blood."

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They consecrate their entire lives to the work of the order, take certain vows, and live for the good of others who are, as most of themselves once-were, outcast from decent womanhood. I say "most of themselves"; for there have been cases where pure and unsullied girls, desirous of leading a life of humility, have voluntarily sought. and obtained admission to this consecrated class. Thus, until death calls her, the formerly wayward Magdalene lives, working earnestly and ever to atone for her early offences and to help others back to the paths of Christian rectitude. The fact that these women are Magdalenes is no certain evidence of past dishonor. Only those

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