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diffusion, as a newspaper or pulpit may spread abroad a general influence, a kind of atmosphere, and effect good thereby, while there may be no examples of its certain and separate effect upon a specific individual or act. There is also in the phrase a suggestion of coherence and unity. A large group of men considered as individuals makes a mob; considered and organized as a social force, they may constitute a regiment. The phrase also suggests something concerning the character of the force exerted. A "social force" socializes. It makes opportunity more ample and life more abundant for the less favored ones who make up so large and important a part of modern "society."

If friendly visiting, therefore, is a social force, we shall expect to see that its effects are diffused, that they reach entire neighborhoods or groups of the lowly, and improve life conditions for the latter in an inclusive, general manner; while we may also expect to see that visitors are capable of some such organic unity in purpose and in organization as is the chief element of power in, for example, an army.

At its inception in Englewood the Bureau of Associated Charities consisted of an old table, three unreliable chairs, a slim agent, and the free use of a clammy basement room. Publications concerning the work of charity organization societies had made clear to the district superintendent that his function was, first, to serve as a clearing house through which co-operation would be effected, and, second, as a trained investigator. But the actual situation did not prove itself so scientific. As for the work of co-operation, there were almost no philanthropic organizations to be "co-operated," while the individuals who would naturally be expected to report applicants for investigation were usually reached by only one class of poor, the tramps, whom there was little chance or use of investigating. Thus it proved that the great burden and importance of the bureau's work must lie upon its initiative side. Co-operation must be preceded by creation; and, instead of the well-to-do sending the bureau's agent to investigate the poor, the poor sent him to cultivate acquaintance with those scattered individuals who might lend a helping hand. So the conviction grew that in so far as the charity organization society stands for more than co-operation, or the rearrangement of established forces, and investigation, or the deepening of prevailing methods,- in so far as it stands for a new spirit, an innovation, a new movement, it is chiefly and essentially

a friendly visitor movement. During the first week in Englewood ten friendly visitors were enlisted, for there was no one else to whom one might refer a family in distress. Four conferences or circles of visitors were established during the first month in localities where they might be expected to become enlistment agencies. Appeals for visitors were made everywhere, and during the first twelve months three hundred had been enlisted. It might be maintained that almost, though not quite, all of the social force which sprang from the bureau sprang from friendly visiting; for the bureau was essentially an organization of friendly visitors.

The social resultants from this system were as follows:

First. A "Social Study Club" grew up from a circle of friendly visitors who gathered in the office of the district superintendent to study social questions and make investigations of neighborhood and city conditions.

Second. As a work-test for homeless men, two local coal companies were persuaded to give two hours' work on wood or coal to every man sent by the bureau, and to pay him a lodging ticket, fivepenny meal tickets, and a car-fare ticket to the lodging-house in the centre of Chicago. During the past winter all of our homeless men were referred to this test, and some opportunity was thereby afforded for diverting the sympathy of charitable people to the resident poor. The establishment of this work-test was accomplished by the employment committee, whose relations to friendly visitors will be indicated later.

Third. An "applications" or "advisory" committee was organized to pass, at a weekly meeting, upon all investigations made by the superintendent. The social significance of this was that the social body in Englewood had established in it an organ of responsibility for the intelligent care of the poor.

Fourth. A work-room for women was organized; and during the three months of its operation last winter it gave 663 days' work to 121 women recommended by the bureau, paying each fifty cents a day in kind, besides her dinner. This work-room was planned and inspired by the employment committee. Friendly visitors composed its chief working force.

Fifth. An emergency relief committee was organized, which was less composed of friendly visitors than any other outgrowth of the bureau; but the generosity of its members was largely attracted by

their confidence in the visitors. During the extreme distress of last winter this committee gave several carloads of coal and wagon-loads of food to be used upon the recommendation of friendly visitors indorsed by the district office.

Sixth. An employment committee was appointed, which found permanent work for several applicants, established mutual relations with a few employers, and carried on a modest experiment in relief work through street cleaning, paid for by voluntary subscriptions of property holders upon the streets cleaned. In the name of this committee 15,000 cards were recently distributed through public school children and church members, advertising to furnish for odd jobs or steady work persons whose homes and references have been visited. 225 such jobs were filled by the district office during May, 1897. Of the seven who composed this employment committee, six were friendly visitors.

Seventh. A forty-acre tract of unused land was opened last April in the form of quarter-acre vegetable gardens for families registered by the district office or the county agent. 148 families, including 908 individuals, took up the work, for which ploughing, harrowing, seed, and superintendence were provided free. To this enterprise, the first step of its kind in Chicago, the friendly visitors were an essential help. Not only had the general interest and confidence of the community been won by their labors, but, of the chief committee men themselves, all but two were either visitors or had been attracted to the organization by the work of its friendly visitors.

Eighth. During the second week of June, 1897, the first Chicago stamp for the Penny Provident System was issued. The introduc tion of this stamp-saving among the poor in Englewood was immediately taken up by the friendly visitors, and at first depended entirely upon them.

In summarizing this direct reference to the work in Englewood, it cannot be asserted that these social results might not have been obtained elsewhere or, perhaps, in Englewood, even without friendly visiting; for the latter is not the only social force in existence. But it is within bounds of the scientific method to draw the following conclusions: First, the eight lines of work above specified evince social force or forces. They were mainly the result of the enlistment and organization of friendly visitors. Therefore, the bureau's sys

tem of volunteer visitation has been, in this specific case and place, "a social force." Second, it is our testimony that these social results were established more quickly, easily, and soundly through friendly visiting than they could have been by any other plan. Third, the source for future power and wisdom and spirit in these social works is made broader and deeper through friendly visiting than it could become through the work of individual organizers, committees, or the bureau's ordinary functions of registration and investigation. "Friendly visiting," therefore, is a "social force."

Any principle which has come up into consciousness in this way out of an organization or movement reacts upon the latter. So this conclusion that friendly visiting is a social force serves naturally as a standard of judgment and a source of pertinent suggestions on such subsidiary topics as the enlistment, organization, and instruction of visitors.

This principle gives rise, first, to the conclusion that in the instruction and training of visitors there should be a certain broadening quality; that visitors need to have their interests more and more widely identified with the interests of the group or society which they are expected to affect. Thus a possible question arises as to the limiting of every visitor to one or two families. Would it not often be wise, where it is possible, to introduce the visitor to several families or to a small neighborhood? It was suggested in Englewood that the explanation of our vegetable gardens or the introduction of the penny-savings system might furnish to a volunteer a natural reason for the first visits to all the residents of a chosen little square. The visitor who interested himself thus in several families or in a small district was neither expected to assume for every family the entire responsibility of an ordinary friendly visitor nor to sacrifice the one or two families for which he was especially responsible. He was only expected to gain a larger, truer thought and feeling for the neighborhood and for the class with whom he would thus acquaint himself.

Again, while we limited our conferences of visitors to reports concerning individual families which the visitors represented, it was observed that a time came, and came quickly, when the stories had all been told, when there was little progress in the thought or interest, and when, consequently, there was a danger of retrogression. To meet this difficulty, the Methodist class-meeting plan of conduct

ing a conference was altered. The first half-hour was still devoted to considering special difficulties which any visitor volunteered to present or to speaking of yet unassigned families, or in requesting reports from members who needed to be drawn out; but the last three-quarters of an hour was devoted to a program. One visitor reviewed a portion of Warner's "American Charities or Loch's "How to help Cases of Distress," a free library of such volumes having been started in the office. A second visitor spoke for five minutes on such a subject as the "Boot Clubs of London," and the attitude of local school principals toward a similar plan for leading children to save their pennies for those winter's needs which public charities were at present relieving. These talks and papers ordinarily consumed only five or ten minutes each, and there was usually one in which was described a visit paid by a group of friendly visitors to some philanthropic or public institution. Perhaps these inspection visits have been the most effective features of the training work; for in these the visitors had before them in concrete and especially impressive form the essential ideas in modern philanthropy and the institutional expressions of society. Usually we tried, also, to have with us at each conference some settlement worker, some person of large experience and truly social spirit, who would give that influence of example and personality which does more than any schooling to inspire and guide the philanthropic, social impulses.

Concerning the proper organization of visitors, our principle that friendly visiting is a social force would suggest that every effort should be made to develop in the conference a sense of its own selfhood, to make it truly a society. An esprit de corps should be cherished. Members should feel that the conference is a social organ. It should elect its own chairman and secretary, should have by-laws, and ample but vital minutes. It should form the habit of voting upon definite motions. The conference should probably have intrusted to its power important questions concerning not only the planning of a visitor's work, but also the larger relations of the district organization as a whole.

Inasmuch as visitors are enlisted by the superintendent or committee, here and there, with little reference to the personnel of the conference they join, there is need of especial effort to put the new visitor in sympathy with his colleagues, if they are to be a unified

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