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incentive for gain to cause them to send unworthy help, either male or female, to positions of trust or domestic service. Receiving their salary direct, either from the State or municipality in which the office is located, they are independent, and are always able and free to discriminate in favor of the good and worthy help for whatever positions they seek; and in no case do they fill unworthy positions, nor send unworthy applicants out in response to requests for help.

Again, it is invariably the case that the free offices urge those in place to hold what they have, if at all satisfactory, in place of changing; while with pay offices it is the custom to have them change as often as possible, in order that they may make more fees out of both sides, a contemptible practice, but too often resorted to by the pay offices.

There are some good reasons why the office force should not be changed very often. One important reason is that it takes some little time to become familiar with the applicants.

The office force should be good judges of human nature, quick to discern, prompt to act, and firm in doing right. They should be absolutely fair and impartial toward all equally worthy applicants. They should be just as sure to know who and what the people are that apply for help as they are to know regarding the applicants for places. There are two sides to the question throughout, and it ought to be considered faithfully. Justice and right should be the mainspring that operates all free fund employment offices, regardless of all other considerations. My experience in this office has taught me some things about people that before coming here I had not been aware of. Among others is the fact that those who do not hesitate to call on charitable organizations for assistance or to accept charity are, as a rule, unworthy, and, when they are employed, do not give good service, if nothing worse comes of it. The employee who is a mere machine without pride, knowledge, or energy, will never prove satisfactory when engaged, but will prove a constant source of trouble and annoyance. And, as a rule, they are those who call on charitable organizations.

Only use or dispense charity when necessity demands it, and you will raise the standard of manhood as well as the standard of citizenship; and that will always increase loyalty to country, to home, and to God. The full realization of the brotherhood of man will never be brought about by lowering the standard. It can only be

done by raising man's thoughts to something better, higher, and nobler. This can be accomplished when man is stimulated to be proud for himself, his home, his State, his country. Do for him that which is his of right, not as a charity, and you make a better man, a better citizen, and a better brother.

Free public employment offices, conducted by the State or municipality, are as much the people's as are the public parks, or any of the public resorts or institutions. This being the case, and being known by the people, they use them as willingly and freely as the man of means. In fact, our applicants are not limited to the poor or distressed; but often we have calls for something to do from those owning property, or in circumstances that put them beyond the needy class; but they prefer work, and come to the offices as the quickest and most probable place to find it.

Conduct the office in such a manner that the needy applicant who` calls will receive the same courteous treatment that the rich or influential caller does. Therein will lie a large element of success. There are no set rules that can be devised for the successful conducting of free employment offices, as each case must be met according to its own circumstances and surroundings. Let me correct that statement. There is one rule that always needs to be borne in mind in an office of this kind: it is the Golden Rule. Without it you will never make a success.

CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETIES AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES.

The Brooklyn Bureau of Charities and the Baltimore Charity Organization Society have recently limited the use of their offices as employment agencies. The lessons they have learned may be of use to some other societies.

Mr. W. E. Nichols, general secretary of the Brooklyn Bureau, writes that for years the agents of the bureau have been able to secure places at service on ordinary work of various kinds in the community for a large number of the bureau's beneficiaries. So it has become common for employers of labor in Brooklyn to resort to the bureau of charities when laborers are desired. But, while there is much that is gratifying in the success of the endeavors to afford industrial aid to the poor, some evil effects of the methods employed have appeared. Applications for skilled laborers, and especially for

'domestic servants, have been received far in excess of the power of the bureau to supply from families which can rightly be said to be in need of assistance. On the other hand, the applications of 'capable servants for situations, which were supposed to be obtainable through the bureau, occupied a large proportion of the time of the agents of the society.

To permit such a condition to continue and to grow, as it naturally would, if not in some way checked, would interfere seriously with the business of the regular employment bureaus and intelligence offices of the city. Clearly, there would be no inducement for either employers or those seeking employment to resort to agencies where a fee is charged if the service can be secured without expense from a charitable society. Nor would the difficulty be relieved by the charitable society charging a fee: first, because the taking a fee by a charitable society from its beneficiaries would not be approved; and, second, because an organization formed for helping those in need of assistance ought not to expend its time and energy in aiding those who are capable of taking care of themselves. Moreover, it would often be positively harmful to perform a service freely for those who are able to pay for it. Almost always one securing a situation could afford to pay a moderate fee, if not in advance, at all events in the form of an order upon the prospective employer, to be deducted from future earnings.

From an extensive experience of the working of a free employment bureau in' connection with the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, the conclusion has been reached that work of this kind should be restricted to finding employment for those who cannot obtain it through employment agencies conducted on business principles or through the newspapers. And it may be safely assumed that competent domestic servants can find situations without the help of a charitable society. The demand for such service always exceeds the supply. The rule adopted for deciding whether or not an attempt shall be made to secure a situation for a domestic servant is as follows: If the person in question is not skilled, and recognizes the necessity of taking small wages on this account, such a one is properly a beneficiary of the society; and it is right to try to find an employer willing to take her. If, on the other hand, the applicant considers herself worth the ordinary wages paid for competent servants, she is told that she must secure her situations through some

other agency. And she is encouraged to expect no difficulty in so doing. Only in this limited way is an employment bureau a proper part of the work of a charity organization society. The finding of day's work can be properly undertaken by a charitable society, since there are always persons among its legitimate beneficiaries to be recommended for such work.

Mr. Nichols believes, furthermore, that not only does it not belong to a charity organization society to conduct a free employment bureau, through which skilled servants are allowed to secure situations, but it is doubtful whether a free employment bureau for such a class is desirable, by whomsoever conducted. It has a tendency to keep employees and would-be employees in a constantly unsettled state of mind. If it costs nothing to secure a situation, there is a temptation to apply for it by those already employed in the hope of possibly bettering their condition. If at first they do not succeed, it costs nothing to try again. It is bad for any one to get something for nothing, if it is possible for him to earn it. A free employment bureau may have a pauperizing and demoralizing influence as truly as a free soup-house. The service which it renders alike for the employer who desires a servant and for the servant who desires a position is one that should be paid for, and both parties will be benefited by paying a reasonable compensation for that which they receive.

Miss Mary E. Richmond, general secretary of the Charity Organization Society of Baltimore, writes that, "while the Baltimore society has never established a free employment bureau, it has drifted into allowing one of its district offices to be used as one. The conditions in the district happened to favor this. There was a large colored population, and more than half of the district was a residence section of homes of moderate means. The society had always busied itself in finding work for individuals in families under its care, and the district agent in this particular district had been skilful in finding such work. Gradually, the district office became known as a good place to find work and a good place to find workers in domestic service. The increase in applications from employers was welcomed at first as increasing our facilities for helping families; but the work of merely recording applications from employers and employees grew in time to such dimensions as to interfere seriously with other work. Finally, a special clerk was put in charge of it, and applications were only received at hours other than the regular office hours.

"A committee appointed to investigate the matter has decided that our work is of no particular benefit to the poor of the neighborhood, that an improvident class of domestics has been merely making a convenience of the office, and that this class should be encouraged to use some trustworthy but pay employment bureau instead. Arrangements have been made with such a bureau by which employers of domestics are referred there; and employees in whom the society has a charitable interest are to receive, in return, special attention from the bureau. Employers are still urged to come to us for unskilled labor, for cleaners, furnacemen, etc. In January and February, 1896, the applications for work only in this one district numbered 975; and permanent employment was secured for 387. In January and February, 1897, under the new system, only 309 applications were made for work; and permanent employment was secured for 93.

"I think our managers feel that the charity organization society is chiefly useful in finding work for the people who fall between classes, where the good word of a friend or the ingenuity of a visitor is needed. The able-bodied laborer can find work for himself best by being on the spot when workers are needed, and it is possible to cripple his activity by letting him feel that you will seek work for him."

Other leading societies have already taken, in general, the same position. From New York, Mr. Devine, general secretary of the charity organization society, writes:

"Our view of the employment question is that district committees should do everything possible to secure relief by work for families who apply to us in the ordinary way and are known to be in need of treatment. We do not go beyond that. It is sometimes difficult to draw the line, to decide whether or not we shall make a case of one who is in need of work only, and not in present actual distress; but the following resolution adopted by the committee on district work covers the ground, so far as it can be decided in a general way:

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Resolved, That it is the sense of the committee that cases should not be investigated or considered by the district committees unless the society is advised that distress exists."

Mr. P. W. Ayres, of Chicago, says that "a charity organization society, if it has a corps of friendly visitors, is an employment bureau on a large scale. Our society here asks people to send to us

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