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Proportion of Total Population Aided.*- Probably the most significant fact contained in these statistics is that, in a total population of less than two and a quarter millions, over 71,000 persons received official outdoor relief during the year, or an average of 1 in every 31 of the entire population of the State. The natural inference would be that in Indiana the agricultural and mineral resources are poor or are in the hands of monopolies, and the standard of living among the masses of the people low; that extreme poverty is common and wide-spread. The truth is, however, that the State is peculiarly rich in the amount and quality of its fertile soil, its

*The census statistics referred to in this paper are for the year 1890, while the statistics of outdoor relief relate to the year ending Aug. 31, 1896. The increase in population from 1890 to 1896 would slightly modify some of the proportions and percentages here given, were it possible to determine what that increase has been.

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hardwood timber, its great beds of coal and stone, and its immense natural gas field. There is a notable absence of corporations or individuals of great wealth, and the natural resources of the State are in no instance in the control of monopolies. There are no great cities with congested populations, to which we may look for general or extreme destitution. Building and loan associations have done for Indiana what savings-banks have done for Massachusetts and other Eastern States. In 1896, 157,264 people were stockholders in building and loan associations in the State; and the total amount of their investment was $38,095,147.70. These associations operate principally in towns, but have thousands of stockholders in the country districts. The number and value of mortgages is not excessive, transportation facilities are of the best, and markets for all manner of products are easily accessible. The average value of the taxable holdings for every voter is $2,050. With all these favorable conditions existing, why has so large a proportion of the population received poor relief? Is it because of actual need, or is it the fault of the system of relief giving?

Outdoor Relief to Children.—It is noteworthy that 472 per cent., or nearly one-half, of those who received aid from overseers of the poor during the year, were children sixteen years of age or under. We touch here upon one of the most obdurate and exasperating problems in the whole field of charity. What shall be done in the case of a family in which children are suffering from destitution because of the general worthlessness of their parents? Without the children the problem would be simple: the adults would be compelled to take care of themselves. How far are we justified in permitting children to lack comfortable food, clothing, and shelter, when to assist them involves the assistance also of their improvident or vicious parents? It is plain that in the distribution of outdoor relief in Indiana scores of thousands of dollars have been expended to maintain homes in which children are educated into pauperism. These children would be vastly better cared for, were those homes broken up and the children placed in the care of thrifty and well-todo families, where they would receive, free from public expense, such training as would make them industrious and self-reliant. To solve the child problem would be practically to solve the problem of official outdoor relief.

Assigned Reasons for Aid Given.— The statistics under considera

tion show the reasons assigned by overseers of the poor for giving relief in 19,882 cases. The reason for relief is shown in but 19,882 cases, while 71,414 persons were given aid because an entire family may be in destitution on account of a single cause. For instance, a man's illness may be the reason for giving aid to an entire family.

It will be noted that lack of employment was the reason for giving aid in but 1,962 cases, or 10 per cent. of the total number of assigned causes. The "hard times" which have prevailed for several years past might reasonably have led to the expectation that the percentage of relief due to lack of employment would have been much greater than these reports indicate. The natural inclination of applicants for aid to justify their plea by the statement that they cannot procure employment, and the tendency of relieving officers to justify their expenditure by citing reasons which appeal to the common mind, give the assurance, on the other hand, that the number of persons rendered destitute by lack of employment has not been underestimated.

In a very large proportion of the 3,035 cases in which transportation was given, a contribution was no doubt made to the tramp evil. It has long been the practice of township overseers of the poor in Indiana to ship away wandering mendicants, in order to be rid of the expense of supporting them, without regard to the actual place of residence of such persons or the rights of other communities to which they are sent. This is an admitted abuse, which has been the subject of much legislation; but in the Central and Western States the laws designed to regulate the transportation of those who have no legal settlement in the communities in which they become public charges are of such an imperfect character as to be of little value.

Aid to the Foreign-born.— The statistics of nationality, as reported, are too far from complete to serve as a basis for any exact conclusions. It may be broadly determined, however, from a careful examination of the figures, that the ratio of foreign-born persons receiving aid to the total number of persons aided is little, if any, greater than the ratio of foreign-born persons in the State to the entire population.

Percentage of Colored Persons Aided.— According to the reports of the United States Census of 1890, 2 per cent. of the population of the State of Indiana was colored. The reports of official outdoor

relief show that 4.9 per cent. of those who received such relief were colored.

Occupations of Those Aided. The township overseers' reports give the occupation of 14,592 persons aided. Reports of occupation refer only to heads of the families. The statistics upon this point are not complete. The figures given nevertheless demonstrate that the man or woman without a skilled trade is the first to require public assistance. Of the 14,592 cases in which occupation is given, 9,173, or 63 per cent., are classed as "laborers." On the other hand, the number of persons aided who had skilled trades was 1,961, or 13 per cent.

Amount of Relief as Related to Actual Needs. As official outdoor relief is now administered in Indiana, the amount of relief given in any community is not an index to the amount of actual poverty or distress in that community. To demonstrate this fact, it is only necessary to analyze the official reports. In a certain county, 1 person in every 13 of the population received aid from the township overseers of the poor in the year to which these statistics refer. Adjoining (and similar in topography, soil, climate, and character of population) is another county, in which but 1 person in every 208 received official outdoor relief. Although local conditions may account for a slight excess in amount of relief given by one of these counties, it is idle to claim that so great a difference is justified by any conditions of actual distress in one or prosperity in the other. The reports from which these statistics are drawn are honeycombed with inconsistencies hardly less striking than this. Great differences in the proportionate amount of relief given are to be found, not only between adjoining counties and between counties which, though not contiguous, are similar in almost every repect, but also between adjoining townships in most of the counties. Two or three illustrations must here suffice.

Take the group of wealthy, prosperous, and progressive counties in the west central portion of the State, composed of Tippecanoe, Montgomery, Boone, Clinton, and Carroll. The proportion of population receiving trustees' relief in these counties during the year was, in Boone County, 1 in 38; Carroll, 1 in 32; Clinton, 1 in 22; Tippecanoe, 1 in 18; and Montgomery, 1 in 16. In Tippecanoe and Montgomery Counties the proportion receiving township assistance was more than twice as great as in Boone County and about twice

as great as in Carroll County. These counties compose a compact body of fertile and highly cultivated land, with excellent transportation facilities, and with identically the same climate in every portion.

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Descend from counties to townships. The eight townships containing the largest eight cities in the State gave relief in proportion to the population as follows: the township containing the city of Lafayette gave official outdoor relief to 1 in II of its inhabitants ; that containing the city of Richmond aided 1 in 24; that containing the city of Evansville aided 1 in 24; that containing the city of South Bend aided 1 in 25; that containing the city of Fort Wayne aided 1 in 26; that containing the city of Terre Haute aided 1 in 30; that containing the city of New Albany aided 1 in 35; that containing the city of Indianapolis aided 1 in 59. The proportion of citizens aided in the city of Lafayette, which is one of the wealthiest cities according to population in the country, is more than five times as great as in the city of Indianapolis, and more than twice as great as in any of the other cities here mentioned. The city of Richmond, composed originally of a Quaker population, and still in many ways dominated by Quaker ideas of thrift and conservatism, has always been regarded, and undoubtedly is, one of the most prosperous and substantial cities in the State. Yet in Richmond I every 24 received official outdoor relief during the year. Clinton County is one of the best agricultural counties in Indiana. Its largest city has not more than 8,000 population, and its soil is uniformly fertile and in a high state of cultivation. The population is largely of New England descent, and is thrifty and prosperous at all times. Clinton County contains fourteen townships. The proportion of population in each of these townships which received official outdoor relief in the year under consideration was respectively as follows: Centre township, 1 in 8; Washington, 1 in 32; Johnson, 1 in 35; Sugar Creek, 1 in 36; Ross, 1 in 39; Kirklin, 1 in 43; Owen, 1 in 43; Forest, I in 52; Michigan, 1 in 57; Warren, I in 63; Union, 1 in 122; Jackson, 1 in 141; Madison, 1 in 180; Perry, I in 182. Centre township, in which the proportion was 1 in 8, contains the city of Frankfort, with a population of possibly 8,000. No other town in the county contains more than one thousand population. The people of the different townships appeal to the overseers of the poor for relief as educated by previous over

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