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a few days on the other side of the Atlantic, they would be counted among foreign-born. If the rule formulated in the last census respecting the parentage of young criminals should be applied to the Penitentiary, and those born in the United States, but of foreign parents, should be deducted from the native-born, and added to the foreign-born, the native-born would be found to be about 42 per cent., and the foreign-born about 58.
The total number of criminals imprisoned here annually is about 3,000. The 38 per cent. foreign-born were distributed as follows: 15.4 per cent. were born in Ireland, 9 per cent. in Germany, 3.3 in England, 2.5 in Italy, 1.1 in Russia, 1.1 in Austria and Hungary, 5.5 in the rest of the foreign world.
The Workhouse is a nameless hybrid. It is a part of the correction department of the metropolis, but it is a travesty on language to call it correctional institution. By certain officials it has been called a charity. If it is, it is the kind that curses instead of blesses. will not undertake to name it; but, for the sake of having your attention upon the character of its inmates while we read some figures, let us say it is the resort of our great metropolis for male and female vagabonds, the diseased dregs of a great city. Society would be the gainer if the gods above should decree that such institutions should not exist. The admissions to it are more than 20,000 every year. Of these, 42 per cent. were born in the United States, and 58 per cent. were foreign-born, 36.7 per cent. being born in Ireland, 6.8 in Germany, 4.4 in England, 1.4 in Italy, 1.4 in Scotland, 1.1 in Russia, and 5.4 per cent. in other parts of the foreign world.
This completes the list of institutions. It will now be profitable to make some comparisons between the nativities of the inmates of the institutions and the nativities of the inhabitants of New York City for the sake of seeing the ratio between the natives of some of the countries in the city and those of the same country in the several institutions. We will begin with the natives of our own country.
The 58 per cent. native-born in the city supply 36.3 of all hospital inmates, 25.7 per cent. of the insane, 14.6 per cent. of the almshouse paupers, 62 per cent. of the penitentiary criminals, and 42 per cent. of the workhouse vagabonds. The 42 per cent. foreign-born in the city supply 63.7 per cent. of the hospital inmates, 74.3 per cent. of the insane, 85.4 per cent. of the almshouse paupers, 38 per cent. of the penitentiary criminals, and 58 per cent. of the work
house vagabonds. The average of the percentages of the nativeborn in the several institutions is 36, while that of the foreign-born is 64. Only in case of the Penitentiary is the percentage of foreignborn lower than in the city, while the percentage of foreign-born almshouse inmates is more than twice as large as the percentage of all foreign-born in the city. The foreign-born percentage among the insane is nearly twice as large as that in the city.
Of the city's inhabitants, 12.6 per cent. were born in Ireland. These 12.6 per cent. supply 35.5 per cent. of all inmates of the hospitals and insane asylums, 60.4 per cent. of the almshouse paupers, 36.7 per cent. of the workhouse inmates, but only 15.4 per cent of the penitentiary convicts. This, however, is 3 per cent. higher than Ireland's percentage of the city's inhabitants. This is an astonishing record for little Ireland. It is an effect for which there is somewhere an adequate cause, but we cannot stop now to speculate as to causes.
In the case of Germany it will be noticed that her percentages in the institutions are lower than in the city except in the insane asylums. 14 per cent. of the city's inhabitants were born in Germany. From these 11.4 per cent. of the hospital inmates are supplied, 20 per cent. of the insane, 14 of the almshouse paupers, 6.8 of the workhouse inmates, and 9 of the penitentiary convicts. That Germany's percentage in the Workhouse is less than half her percentage in the city is a very favorable comment, when we remember the character of those that are found there; and the fact that her percentage in the insane asylums is 6 per cent. higher than in the city is worthy of thought.
England's percentages in all the institutions is considerably higher than in the city. 2.4 per cent. of the city's inhabitants were born in England. These English-born citizens supply 4.2 per cent. of hospital inmates, 3.4 per cent. of the insane, 4.4 per cent. of the almshouse paupers, 4.4 per cent. of the workhouse inmates, and 3.3 per cent. of the penitentiary convicts. The percentages for the Almshouse and Workhouse are the same, and are nearly twice as large as that for the city.
2.6 per cent. of the city's inhabitants were born in Italy. From these, 2.8 per cent. of the hospital inmates are supplied, 2 per cent. of the insane, .68 of 1 per cent. of the almshouse paupers, 1.4 per cent. of the workhouse inmates, and 2.5 per cent. of the penitentiary
convicts. Italy's lowest is in the Almshouse. Only in case of the hospitals does Italy's percentage go above her percentage in the city, and here only .2 of 1 per cent. Her quota in the Workhouse is also low.
Scotland's percentage in the city is .7 of 1 per cent. This fraction of a per cent. supplies 1.2 per cent. of hospital inmates, .9 of insane, 2.2 of the almshouse paupers, 1.4 of the workhouse inmates, and .9 of 1 per cent. of the penitentiary convicts. The percentage of the Scotland-born in all institutions is higher than that in the city, which is, of course, in no case complimentary. Their percentage in the Workhouse is just twice as large as that in the city, while that for the Almshouse is more than three times as large.
Instead of giving the percentages for the remaining six countries, I will simply indicate the most noticeable points. Russia's percentage in the city is much larger than in any of the institutions. Her highest percentage is in the insane asylums, her lowest is in the hospitals. The same three statements can be made of Austria and Hungary. The fact that the percentages of these Jewish citizens are lower in the public institutions than in the city's population is accounted for by some by the fact that the Jewish people care for their own in private institutions; but this cannot account for the fact that they supply only about 1 per cent. of the inmates of the Penitentiary and Workhouse, while their quota in the city's inhabitants is about 3 per cent.
France's highest percentage is in the insane asylums, where it is nearly double her percentage in the city. Her lowest is in the hospitals and Workhouse. Her percentage in all the institutions taken together is exactly the same as in the city, which is true of no other country.
In the case of the following six of the twelve foreign countries, the highest percentage is in the insane asylums; namely Germany, France, Russia, Austria and Hungary, and Switzerland. It is worthy of notice that this group of countries embraces all the Nihilism and most of the Socialism of Europe. Is this a meaningless coincident? Is it not more rational to think that in Europe conditions exist that produce at one and the same time anarchy and insanity?
There is one fact on the face of these figures I have given which I think I ought to read; but I do it with reluctance, since it is not complimentary to our Canadian friends and the great nation of which they
form a part. But I overcome my reluctance, when I remember that we are all seeking the betterment of our fellows; and the first step in this direction is a thorough understanding of existing conditions.
England, Ireland, Scotland, and Canada are all British territory. The percentage of each of these, except Canada, is highest in the Almshouse, 67.5 per cent. of whose inmates for the ten years under consideration were born British subjects. The percentage of the English-born inmates in any institution or group of institutions is higher than is the percentage of English-born inhabitants in New York City. The same is true of Ireland, Scotland, and Canada. Ireland's percentages in the institutions are about three times as great as in the city. Those of England and Scotland about twice as great, and those of Canada about one-half greater. Strange as it may seem, this is not true of any other one of the thirteen countries under consideration. In the cases of the United States, of Germany, Italy, Russia, France, Sweden, Austria and Hungary, and of Switzerland, the percentages of inmates in some or in all of the institutions. are lower than are their percentages of the inhabitants in the city. This would seem to indicate that the tendency toward both pauperism and crime of that portion of New York City's inhabitants who were born subjects of the British crown is greater than it is among those born in the United States or in the other European countries.
In the fact that such large numbers of British-born subjects are found in our institutions is an evidence of Great Britain's confidence in our skill and ability to support and care for her unfortunate and vicious classes; and if, on the other hand, it is an evidence of our willingness to do so, there certainly can be no reason why international arbitration, which ought to exist between these two countries, cannot be established. But, I am sorry to say, it must be postponed till after the funeral of our present Senate. Until then, and always thereafter, we hope that the peoples of both countries will be guided in all international relations by the principles of human conduct enunciated on the mount by the Great Master of ethics.
CARE OF THE FEEBLE-MINDED.
BY F. M. POWELL, M.D.
Between the years 1848 and 1884, eleven public institutions were organized in the United States for the care and training of feebleminded children, the latter year finding 2,429 feeble-minded persons cared for in institutions. In the centennial year, 1876, the officers of these institutions met in Pennsylvania, and organized an association for the interchange of ideas in relation to this work, designed to disseminate information relative to the condition of imbecility, with a view of further advancing their interests; but not until 1884 was this class of deficients accorded a hearing by the National Conference of Charities, when the late Dr. Kerlin and the Hon. H. M. Greene (of Kansas), representing that association, submitted their claims. Since then, questions pertaining to this form of charitable work have been presented and considered at each succeeding annual meeting. The inspiration of the apostle Seguin, and the labors of Wilbur, Knight, Brown, Howe, Kerlin, and others, are therefore not new to you. The seed planted by these early philanthropists has proven so prolific of practical results that we, their successors, must recognize and admire their wisdom and foresight in laying an abiding foundation for the development of this new charity.
As chairman of the Standing Committee on the Feeble-minded, I have to report, first, some statistics and data which indicate the present status of the work among this class, with brief remarks on the same.