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dicity in physical growth, let us observe the development of the muscles of the arm. The muscles of the upper arm those concerned in the functioning of the shoulder-joint -- are ripe and ready for training at least a year and one-half before the muscles of the fingers. The muscles of the shoulder mature for training six months before the muscles of the elbows, and these in turn five to eight months before the muscles of the wrist, which are ripe and ready for training from three to six months before the muscles of the fingers. When we insist that a child shall begin to write by means of the finger muscles only, with a small pencil, in narrow spaces on ruled paper or a slate, we run directly counter to the principles of growth and development that Nature has so plainly written in his constitution. Must not education, to be education at all, be in accord with these principles rather than in opposition to them?

Just as the body unfolds by stages, the mind also develops in the self-same way. The first of these periods is known as the period of the growth of the powers of sense. At birth, only two senses are operative,— the sense of touch and the sense of temperature. Shortly after birth the senses of vision, hearing, taste, smell, rotation, joints, and tendons, and the rest of the fourteen or fifteen senses with which we are all endowed, are added. During the first months and years of child-life the senses must be permitted to act freely, in order that later mental development may be full and complete. This is what we mean by "cultivation of the observing powers." All of the raw material of thought, of memory, imagination, judgment, reasoning, is supplied by the sense experiences.

The second epoch in the mind's process of unfolding is the memory stage. This is the period when the child is characterized by a prodigious power of remembering detail. A single hearing of rhyme or rule, of song or catchy phrase, is sufficient to insure its. correct reproduction. We are all aware how much more difficult it is for us now to commit rhymes or rules than it was during our second or third year of school life.

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The third epoch is the period of the growth of the imagination. Children love to live in a world of make-believe: they love to play. circus, church, or school. How easy it is for the child to assume the rôle of Davy Crockett, Daniel Boone, Robinson Crusoe, or Buffalo Bill! During this period there is developed a mania which frequently occasions grave concern to parents. I refer to children's lies.

Now the lie of the child, it must be remembered, is by no

means the same despicable moral offence as is the deceitful lie of the adult. It grows largely out of his desire to excite wonder. It is a bit of incipient research. He tries it; and, if it works, he tries it again. If not, he quits.

The fourth period is characterized by the peculiar activity of the powers of judgment and comparison. This in turn is followed by the period of curiosity. Curiosity must be properly developed. No child whose curiosity is throttled and starved will ever become a good reasoner. He must first ask questions and reasons of others, in order to be able to ask questions and reasons of himself.

I have thus outlined the periods of mental development, for the purpose of showing that a well-organized course of study must be in harmony with these processes of development in order to be successful. More depends upon the order in which studies are assigned than upon the contents of the studies themselves. Some years ago

four teachers in the city of Paris, in the Lycée (the school for boys), asked permission of the Minister of Education that each of them might give to his twenty-five pupils the same studies prescribed in the required course, but in a different order, an order believed by them to accord with the natural development of a boy's mind rather than the arbitrary order prescribed in a cast-iron law. These boys completed all of the prescribed studies in this natural order in three. and one-half years instead of seven years, the time assigned for the completion of the course as regularly given in the Lycée. Upon examination they were found to be equally proficient, and above the average in physical development, as compared with those who had spent seven years in going over the same ground. As teachers, we should have constant regard to the great principles of mental waste and mental economy. The course of study should fit the child. The child should not be jammed into an arbitrary curriculum, sustaining no relation to the natural order in which his powers of mind and body unfold.

In some of our schools seven or eight years are still devoted to the study of arithmetic; yet we know that all of arithmetic can be taught the child, and better taught, in the years between seven and one-half and ten. This is admirably done, to my personal knowledge, in at least one hundred and fifty schools, saving much time and energy, and making room for important studies which would otherwise be crowded out.

Some important discoveries have been made with reference to


fatigue and its influence upon mental and physical development. Fatigue is a physical poison, and bodily fatigue always induces mental fatigue. The nature of the chemical poison generated by fatigue has been investigated by the Russian chemist, Wedensky, as well as by Maggiori and Mosso in Italy. Overstrain at school, by producing fatigue, may be the occasion of such destruction and disintegration of bodily tissue as to cause serious and permanent mental defect.

Because of the violation of this law of fatigue, many children, who are compelled to work for long hours in factories, become maimed for life, and are thus drafted into the army of dependents who must be supported by the State. In the large stamping-works and canning factories in a city like Chicago, not a day passes but some child is made a helpless cripple. These accidents all occur after three o'clock in the afternoon. The child that has begun his work in the morning with a reasonable degree of vigor, after working under constant pressure for several hours, at about three o'clock becomes so wearied, beyond the point of recovery, that he can no longer direct the tired fingers and aching arms with any degree of accuracy. He thus becomes the easy prey of the great cutting-knives or of the jaws of the tin-stamping machine. Proper factory legislation would prevent young children from working so many hours as to become wearied to the point of danger.

The vision of 200,000 school children has been tested. Tests recently made, under my personal supervision, upon 38,000 school children in Illinois, revealed the fact that defects in vision increase, from grade to grade, with the increase of school work. The teacher may be unable to tell what is the matter with a particular child's eyes, but it is possible for him to ascertain the existence of defect. A case in point. A teacher in a school visited by me had written certain "text examples" on the blackboard. The problems were in arithmetic, and were concerned with partial payments. Four or five dates were given, to designate the time of the various payments. The problems were to be solved by the various members of the “ A " class, most of whom had seats, as it happened, in the back part of the room. The results were handed in. All but one, a bright-faced, industrious boy, were successful in getting the right answers. He was ordered to stay in at recess, and work the problems over. His method of solution was perfectly correct. He had not copied the dates correctly, hence the error in his answers. The teacher accused him of carelessness. I asked her to go to the back of the room

(after the boy had gone out); and, having changed the dates, I re-
quested her to write them on a convenient slate. This she did, and
came forward to compare what she had written on the slate with the
copy on the blackboard. She had copied four out of five incor-
rectly. She had chided the boy for carelessness, when it was a phys-
ical impossibility for him to read the figures on the board at that
distance, as it was for herself.
could have been recognized.
public schools have defective vision. This of itself would not be
so serious, were it not that defective vision will eventually cause
nervous disorders in any child.

By simple tests his defective eyesight
II per cent. of the children in our

The dull pupil has an open mouth and a long, drawn-down face. The voice of the stupid pupil has a dull, thick, nasal sound, such as we all have when the nasal air-passages are clogged by a bad cold. This elongated, stupid face of the dull pupil is due to adenoid growths in the vault of the pharynx. They should be removed by the surgeon. This can be done with great ease and facility. Multitudes of children can thus be saved from intense, acute, chronic suffering, as well as from the cloud of black-damp stupidity. We owe it to all children to examine their hearing as well as their vision. 19 per cent. of the pupils in our public schools have defective hearing in one or both ears. It does not seem to be a well-known fact that impaired hearing is so frequent. Children thus affected have been accused of being lazy, listless, inattentive, and stupid, when, in fact, it was their ears alone which were at fault.

No teacher, parent, clergyman, or other person interested in the welfare of children can afford to lose sight of the fact that the vast army of those suffering from nervous diseases is greatly augmented by subjecting the tender and immature nervous system of young children to the almost constant excitement and occasional overpressure and nervous strain attendant upon certain arbitrary, castiron requirements in some schools. How can the influences playing such havoc with the nervous system of children be guarded against? How can parents, kindergartners, teachers, nurses, and guardians be led to see the importance of this subject?

No reply can be more pertinent than that of Dr. Rachford: “If the campaign against the evil of constantly subjecting children to the nervous strain resulting from the artificial conditions which obtain in all cities is to be in any degree successful, then the whole subject must be placed upon a more exact physiological basis than it has


ever been before, so that those who have charge of the young may
be told not only that nervous strain is an important cause of neu-
rotic disease, but told also why this is so.'

Teachers and guardians of the young should know that the ner-
vous system of the child differs very materially from the nervous
system of the adult. They must be told that the child, especially in
his nervous organization, is not "a little man." His nervous system
is structurally and functionally immature. It is excitable, unstable,
and under feeble inhibitory control. The sources of reflex irritation
in the child are many, and the nerve centres discharge their force
more fitfully and readily than in the adult. The period correspond-
ing with the onset and establishment of the reproductive function in
girls is a time when they are especially predisposed to nervous.
disease. These and other physiological peculiarities of the nervous.
system of childhood are much more potent for evil when associated
with the various "blood conditions" casually related to the neurosis
of childhood.

With children of good physical constitution, working within the limitations of their proper grades, there is almost no danger that a moderate amount of school work will in any way assist the development of neurotic disease, provided always that the hygienic conditions of the school, especially the light and ventilation, are good. But the strain of ordinary school work affects children of poor physical development (many of whom are, unfortunately, precocious) very differently. A large number of these children, by reason of bad heredity, are neurotic, poorly nourished, and anæmic, and many of them have tuberculous, rheumatic, or syphilitic inheritance; while others, from accidental causes, such as bad hygiene, improper food, etc., are below the normal in physical development. The nervous systems of such children are in a condition of malnutrition, and are, therefore, not capable of doing the ordinary work of their grades in the public schools. And, if they are permitted to do this work, or if, as is often the case, they are encouraged to push forward into higher grades than the one to which their years and strength should assign them, disastrous consequences will surely follow, and their nervous systems may be injured beyond repair.

Such children, under the actual strain of school work, may develop chorea, hysteria, and other neuroses. An important duty, therefore, of every physician is to advise against much school work in children. of feeble physical development, and to explain to parents and

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