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the cost of criminal trials or the commitment of insane and delinquent persons.

2. Legislation and Administration in 1896.

In each of the six New England States there has been important legislation passed or attempted in the year ending July 1, 1897; and serious changes in administration have occurred in several States. In Maine, where the Insane Hospital at Augusta has long been overcrowded (as most of such establishments always are in New England), an appropriation of $150,000 for a second hospital at Bangor had been voted; and an effort was this year made to apply this sum to hospital building. But it failed in consequence of a wish on the part of the legislature of 1897 to have the chronic insane. cared for at less than the customary hospital rate. Consequently, the Maine Insane Hospital now contains 725 patients, 100 more than its capacity; and two years must pass before legislation can be had to relieve the overcrowding. The other estimated insane of the State (775) are in city and town almshouses, county jails, and private families. In New Hampshire legislation took a like course, except that the proposition there was to vote $100,000 to build a chronic asylum on the grounds of the State Hospital in Concord, which is also crowded. This was defeated, and no further legislation can be had for two years. In New Hampshire, however, there is a system

of asylums for the chronic insane in the ten counties, which now provides for some 300 of that class, and could be made, by some modification of the laws, to furnish good provision for all the chronic insane, and thus relieve the Concord Hospital, as is done successfully in Wisconsin. The Lunacy Commissioner having been made by an act of 1897 a member of the State Board of Charities, with certain powers in regard to the county asylums, the way seems opened for their improvement, as in Wisconsin. The same State Board has been given additional power in regard to children in the county almshouses, who are to be placed in families.

In Vermont no specific legislation was had; but an investigation of certain abuses and parsimonies in the new State Asylum at Waterbury led to a change of administration, which has much bettered the care of the insane poor, who are there housed to the number of 500. Others of this class remain in the old asylum at Brattleboro, where the State pays at the rate of $3.75 a week for their care.

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whole number at Brattleboro (public and private patients) is now small, but Vermont has under medical care at least 700 of her insane, the rest being in town almshouses and families. The criminal insane, to the number of 24, are kept in the Waterbury asylum, which is a new but ill-located and scantily furnished building in the heart of the village of Waterbury, but now under the experienced direction of Dr. F. W. Page. The Vermont laws seem to be mostly good in regard to the insane, but need to be administered more wisely than has been the practice till lately.

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In Massachusetts the special commission, mentioned in this report last year, recommended to the annual legislature many fundamental changes of law and administration,— so many that none of them were carried; and the law of charity, lunacy, and prison discipline remains much as it has been. But in regard to the charities and prisons of Boston, to which the State commission paid little attention, important legislation was had, upon the petition of the mayor and citizens of Boston. Instead of a single political head to direct the management of an average of more than 6,000 prisoners, poor children, young delinquents, insane persons, and paupers, all supported by the city of Boston, this power and duty have now been divided among three Boards of Trustees, containing both men and women, and a single prison director; while the board which manages the outdoor relief of Boston (annually expending some $120,000) is brought into co-operation with the newly appointed boards. Theoretically, this is a great improvement; and it has already brought about some practical changes for the better. The new chronic asylum for the insane at Medfield has been opened, and nearly filled, thus relieving the crowded wards of the State hospitals; and improvements are making in other State establishments.

In Rhode Island an important change was made at the spring session of the legislature, by authorizing the State Board to build a new State asylum for the insane who have for many years been lodged in unsuitable buildings at the Cranston State Farm (Howard Station). Dr. Keene, long the efficient medical officer of the establishment as a whole, now becomes superintendent of the insane, and will have the means of classifying and employing his patients better than has been possible in the old buildings. In other respects the Rhode Island law and administration remain unchanged.

Connecticut reports specifically through its member of our com

mittee, and therefore need not here be dwelt on at much length. Of the legislation attempted, some was carried, and some failed. The most important was that affecting the Reformatory Prison and the licensing of private asylums for the insane, both measures succeeding. The State Board of Charities has at last brought the establishments under its supervision into systematic comparison with one another, and is prepared to recommend general measures affecting the whole system. This is an advantage to any State, if prudently acted upon, but there will be many delays and defeats if too much is urged at once.

Upon the whole, the record of the year for New England is a good and advancing one. Much more might have been accomplished, but there are reasons for delay and debate which are not always seen by the eager advocates of change; and it is better to wait, and take no backward steps, rather than to hurry forward at the risk of undoing in future what has been inconsiderately adopted in advance of public opinion or real necessity.

NEW YORK.

Population and Dependents.

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This State is a kingdom in itself, and likes to be called an pire State." Its area is less than New England's; but its lands are more fertile, its waterways and ports more ample, and its population greater than that of its six north-eastern neighbors. Nearly 7,000,000 people now probably inhabit New York, and more than 3,000,000 of them will soon be under one municipal government at its great seaport. In a single year, probably 8,000,000 persons come within the scope of its laws regulating charity, insanity, and crime, many of these being the same who also appear in New England the same year, in the ceaseless currents of migration. This vast population has been divided, for administrative purposes, by the new constitution of New York, into three fields of jurisdiction, so far as public charity, lunacy, and prison discipline are concerned. The first, including poor children, paupers, hospitals, idiots, and epileptics, young delinquents, and the indefinite charities, as well as the instruction of the deaf, blind, and feeble-minded, has been assigned to the old State Board of Charities, enlarged in its jurisdiction and membership for the purpose. The second, restricted to insanity alone,

exclusive of epilepsy and idiocy, is given to the State Lunacy Commission of three members, two of whom - Dr. P. M. Wise and Mr. W. H. Parkhurst are new appointments. The third, now including the Elmira Reformatory, as well as the State and county prisons, and the new reformatory in Ulster County, has been given to a wholly new Board of Prison Commissioners for two years past. Between these three boards there is little co-operation, so that it is needful to look at the reports made to all three, in order to get all the facts which a State report from New York is to cover.

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The insane of the State, as above restricted, are now about 25,000 in a year, the average number registered being upward of 22,000. The idiotic, feeble-minded, and epileptic persons under public care are about 2,500 in a year, with an average of more than 2,300. The prisoners in State prisons (including 1,500 at, Elmira) must exceed 4,500. The juvenile offenders and reformatory women are more than 6,000 in a year, with an average of 5,700. The dependent children not reckoning any of the foregoing, nor of the blind or deaf· 30,000, with an average of more than 28,000. The almshouse inmate population exceeds 15,000, with an average of nearly 13,000. "Aged and friendless persons" count up to 9,000; hospital patients, 30,000 or more, with an average of 7,000; blind and deaf children, 2,500, with an average of 2,100; and disabled veterans, 1,200. All these aggregate in a year 125,000, with an average of more than 90,000; while those receiving outdoor relief in the whole State average 100,000, and the county prisoners average nearly 8,000. We shall not be excessive, therefore, if we reckon the whole number of different persons receiving support, restraint, or aid in all New York, in a year, at 175,000 or even 200,000, with an average constantly under care of 125,000. This, out of an available population, resident and migrant, of 8,000,000, gives an average of almost 1 in 60; and it is likely to be more rather than less.

The cost of all this support, restraint, care, and relief, cannot be less than $14,000,000, and probably exceeds $20,000,000; that is, from $2 to $3 for each resident in the State. The fact that this per capita cost is more than in New England is due to the greater density of population at the city centres, occasioning a larger apparatus of relief and restraint, which attracts persons from outside New York; while it increases the weekly cost of each person treated. Add to this an abnormal development in New York of the care of children in estab

lishments, thus increasing the number and cost of this form of charities. Add, further, the greater cost of supporting the insane in huge asylums and hospitals, containing from 800 to 2,300 inmates each, so that the cost of all the insane of New York will soon reach $5,000,000 a year if it has not already attained that figure.

Legislation and Administration.

Comparatively little legislation affecting the dependent population has been passed in 1897 in New York, but certain changes in administration are getting their fuller effect. The insane hospitals are becoming more crowded, under the laws forbidding the local care of the chronic insane; the provision for the epileptic and idiotic in the noble Craig Colony at Sonyea, and the asylum at Rome has become more ample; the extension of trade instruction and sanitary discipline at the Elmira prison has made the unwise restrictions on prison labor of little detriment there; while in the State prisons of Auburn, Sing-Sing, and Dannemora, the suspension of productive labor is having a bad effect, as might have been expected. The city and county authorities are giving increased attention to the placing of poor children in families; the county almshouses have been improved in management, though increased in weekly cost, by the removal of the insane to State establishments; and the new administration of New York City has bettered in most respects the care of its manifold charities.

A most useful organization in the State of New York, among many that are useful, is the annual Convention of County Superintendents of the Poor, which has existed for more than a quartercentury. It preceded in existence the National Conference of Charities, and is itself such a conference for the philanthropists and practical workers of the Empire State. The improvement in the county care of the poor is largely due to the discussions in these conventions; and they have been imitated in other States, though not to any great extent in New England.

PENNSYLVANIA.

Population and Dependents.

A fair estimate of the population of this State would be 5,800,000, intermediate between New England and New York. Its inland posi

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