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him ; for we had never engaged to sup- ' cenfure is entirely void of any foundaport him in an unjust rebellion against tion. his lawful sovereign ; and if by our Now with regard to the ad revolumeans the Shah Zada had been esta- tion, or rather intended revolution ; for blished upon the throne of his ances. to determine whether it succeeds or no, tors, the fame of the justice of this na. we must wait for further accounts from tion would, at all the courts of the east, . Bengal. In order to state the reason have accompanied that of our courage for this intended revolution, or breach and military conduct. Even Mr. Hol- with our new friend Coslim Aly, I must well seems to have been for adopting give some account of the nature of our this measure, or foinething like it, be- trade formerly in the Mogul empire, fore he began his close correspondence which I cannot do better than from a with Cocina Aly, after the death 'of pamphlet lately published, called Faits Mhir Jaffeir's son; and why it was not relating to governor Vanfittart's treaty of pursued, or at least attempted, after commerce, as follows ; the accidental death of that prince I " By the original phirmaund, says cannot divine.
this author, or royal grant, in favour Perhaps, our people in India, like of the East India company, they have our republican whigs here at home, a right to trade in that country, free of might imagine, that it would derogate duties ; in all articles, and in every from their character, as true whigs, place; no distinction is made as to the fhould they attempt to do any thing in kinds of goods, or whether they are for favour of the true heir to the Mogul exportation, or for inland commerce. Crown ; but the censorious world will The words of the grant are as extensive give a very different reason: they will as can be expressed by language, and be apt to say, the governors of our af. contain no limitations. The fubfequent fairs in India did not attempt to do any treaties with the nabobs, and funnods thing in favour of the true heir to the granted by them, are equally extensive ; Mogul crown ; because he had no crores, and therefore, upon the fooiing of these * either in jewels or ready money, to grants and treaties, the company have give privately to any one. He had no hitherto had a right of carrying on every thing but promises to give, which per- article of trade, both inland and foreign,
haps he might not be able or wiiling to free from duties. · perform, after being feated upon the It appears however, that the company.
throne ; and they could not involve the did not till some years ago, carry on company in a war, for obliging him to trade so extensively as their rights allowperform any promise he had privately ed them; in particular, they neglected made to them. Whereas, Coslim Aly several branches of the inland trade, and had probably, by cheating his father. contented themselves chiefly with those in-law, heaped up valt lums in jewels branches which consisted of exports and and ready money, and conlequently, imports. beside making public promises in favour The principal articles of inland trade of the company, could privately pay neglected by the company, were salt, money in hand, to any person that tobacco, and beetle nut: no exception would second his views against his un- is made in the phirmaund in sublequent fortunate father in-law, and this the treaties, as to any of these articles, no censorious world will probably say, was more than of opium or faltpetre ; and the cause of our people's joining with
therefore there could be no reason to Collim Aly not only againlt his father. doubt that the company, if they had in-law, but also against the true heir to inclined, might have carried on the the throne of the Mogul empire ; tho'I travie in these articles, as freely as in hope it will be made appear, that this any other.
Our • A crore of rupees is near 1,250,0001, Kerling.
Our little acquaintance with the in- be under no check, or the company land part of the country, and our hav- must give such high salaries and aping, till lately, no' check upon the pointments to their servants, as would country government, was probably the be sufficient to engage gentlemen of cause that very little of this trade was character and ability to undertake the carried on; and afterwards, when the management of their affairs. practice of dealing in salt and tobacco It appears therefore, that the trade commenced, the company's servants allowed to the company's servants iş who carried it on, did not scruple to really an advantage to the company itpay a fmall duty of 31 to 4 per cent on self, and a very great saving to them ; falt to the country government ; and on and on that account, the company have the tobaccos imported to Dacca, from been almost equally attentive to protect the country towards Rangamatty, Gual this private trade of their servants, as parah, &c. they paid, without object. tbey have been to protect their own ; ing, after its arrival at Dacca, a duty and this private trade is universally of four annas per maund. This duty known and understood as a matter with was inconfiftent with the phirmaund which the prosperity of the company and treaties ; but as the duty was small, has an intimate connection. and the trade but lately commenced, no Another reason occurs, why this priobjection was made.
vate trade of the company's servants is This inland trade does not directly intitled to the utmost protection which concern the company : it is carried on the company can possibly afford it, with. by the company's servants. But the right out hurting themselves ; namely, that of the company's servants to carry on the company have obtained from the -trade under their protection, is establish- government a sort of monopoly of the ed upon very solid grounds. The al- trade to India. This is an infringelowance given by the company to their ment of the natural rights of the other servants abroad is so inconsiderable, that subjects of Great Britain, tho' considernone but the meanest persons could be ed as a necessary measure. It is therefound to carry on their business, upon fore the duty of this company to stretch the footing of that allowance ; the com- their monopoly no farther than their pany therefore have always indulged own intereft necessarily requires, and to their servants with the privilege of car- encourage and support the trade carried rying on trade for their own account, on by every British subject, so far as it under the protection of the company, as does not interfere with the company. far as was not inconsistent with the in. It is certain that the wealth acquired terest of the company itself. By this by individuals, as well as that which is means, gentlemen of family -and cha. acquired by the company, centers at racter have been induced to engage in lait in Great Britain: and thus the the company's service. Of how great private trade of the company's servants consequence this has been, both with becomes an object in which the state respect to the faithful management of itself is particularly interested. the company's affairs, situated at such a After lord Clive had re-established distance, and to their success in the late the company's affairs in India, and had military transactions in those parts, mult extended their influence beyond what be obvious to all men.
had ever been known, the company's If the company's servants were not servants began to engage more exteri. to be protected in these privileges of fively in the inland trade." trade, the consequence would necessarily be, that either these great affairs [The Remainder in our next.] must be entrusted to the very dregs of mankird, who, at such a distance, would
nect our operations as a nation with it, Mere end
for lo as to partake of its influence, and From the GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE.
build upon its power.
It is not men
that form great events, but the crisis of Some Account of a Pamphlet, just pub- events, duly poflcfied and actuated, that lished, intitled, The Administration forms great men. of the Colonies.
We are not able to form this great HE Author observes, that in commercial power, but we are able to
the first rude ages of Europe, take the lead of it, already formed, and when men sought only to possess and to
rising falt into dominion. secure poffeffion, military prowess was
This lead, at the beginning of the the predominant fpirit of the world; war, seemed to vibrate between us and that this spirit formed the Roman em
the French ; it is now in our hands, pire, and afterwards divided the na
and, if we keep it, whenever it becomes tions into the several governments that the foundation of dominion, that do. were formed out of its ruins.
'minion will be ours: our kingdom will That afterwards, when leisure gave
be no more confidered as the mere king. men time for speculation, and Religion dom of this island, with its appendages was the only learning in the world, Re- of provinces, colonies, and settlements, ligion naturally became the ruling spíbut as a great marine dominion, conrit in the policy of Europe ; that this listing of our possessions in the Atlantic spirit formed and gave away kingdoms; and in America, united into one inset up and pulled down sovereigns : this tereit, of which Great Britain will be either allied the nations or divided them, the commercial center. and formed the balance of power a
It is a general maxim, that the trade mong them.
of colonies should be confined to the That since the discovery of America, mother country; but a total infraction the establiflıment of a commercial in of this principle is at present absolutely tercourse with Ala, and the settlement' necessary, not on'y to the trade of our of Europeans on all sides of the Atlan-' colonies, but their existence. tic Ocean and in America, men have
They are not naturally nor artificially felt the power they derive from this united with the interest, and submitted new source, and the spirit of commerce to the dominion of the mother country ; is now becoming the predominant prin-' that they may be at war, when ihe ciple that will forin the general policy, mother.country might otherwise be at and rule the powers of Europe.
peace, the Spanish war is a proof; that He suppoíes, that the rise and eitab. they may be in full posfellion of the lishment of this commercial dominion commerce of peace, when the motherconstitutes the present crisis.
countries may be at war, every war is This is the ground-work of his per a proof: they now have an interest, formance ; of the superstructure, the therefore, which requires a trade indereader will be able to form a general pendent of the mother.country; and idea from whai follows.
this independent interest of the several While each country supposes that colonies of different nations forms a its own government actuates and rules general conimercial interest, distinct the trade of its respective subjects, there from the interest of the powers on which is a general interest that is not con- they depend : this interest will naturala cerned in, nor governed by the separately lead, under the influence of that interests of particular states: that flows' branch of butiness which predominates in its owr. channel, and is held in mo in the general intercourse ; and this tion by its own laws: this will become lead will preclude the effect of ali ar. the basis of a commercial dominion, and tificial connections which government it is of the utmost importance to con
would create, and form the natural conVol. III.
nections under which these interests ac. The prosperity of a trading nation, tually exift.
as well as of a trading shop-keeper, deThe great question will be, what pends upon having a great number of Iate will pofiers such branch of business, good customers. The cultomers we gaią and, in consequence of that, take the under a foreign trade, we are liable to lead under this commercial dominion, lose; those whom we can, as it were, and unite its government with it. create under our own infuence, we
To enable Great Britain to do this, cannot lose; and such are the customers it is necessary that the administration procured by the colonies. at home should form such an estabiilh. It is the duty and interest, therefore, ment for the direction of such interests of the mother country to cultivate, and powers, as may lead them in their protect, and govern its colonies with natural channel, under due connections respect particularly to two effential points: with the government.
First, That all the profits of their proThis establishment must be sovereign duce and manufactures center in the and supreme, as to every thing proper- mother country. zdly, That they con. ly in its own department; it must be a tinue the sole customers of the mother. secretary of state's office in itself. It country. Care Ahould also be taken to fhould have cognizance and direction keep them unconnected and independent of the general trade of the kingdom, of each other ; because, by a union, as far as government can interfere ; it they might possibly shake off their de Thould be the depository and reporter of pendance upon the mother country, and the state and condition of it ; of every set up for themselves. It happens forthing that can advance or obstruct it ; tunately for us, that they are settled in and of the state of manufactories, of different manners, live under different the fisheries, of the employment of the modes of government, tho' essentially poor. It should derive every possible the same ; and are actuated by different advantage from every event that arises principles, both with respect to religion in commercial politics : apply every and policy. We have therefore little possible remedy to every evil ; prepare to do but to secure them in the free and proper laws for the confideration of par. full possession of their rights and priviliament ; take cognizance and direction leges, in order to preserve the disunion of the plantations with respect to go which these differences produce. vernment, in every matter judicial or Under the guidance therefore of these commercial ; direct the settlement of principles, that the final external procolonies; report to the king in council fits of the labour and produce of the on all these points, and its official fiat colonies should center in the motheror negative should be his majesty's in-country ; that the colonists should be formation in council. As to the legi- the appropriated customers of the moflature of the colonies, it should near ther-country; that the colonies, in and determine all matters of complaint, their government and trade, should be and of mal-administration of the crown- united in communion with and fubor. officers and others in the plantations, dination to the government of the mo. and examine witnesies on path. It ther-country, but always unconnected hould correspond with all the servants with and independent on each other ; of the crown on these points, and issue and with a spirit and temper suitable to the king's orders and instructions to his the remembrance that their inhabitants Servants.
are our own people, our brethren, faithThe executive officer of this departe ful, good, and beneficial subjects, and ment may be either the secretary of either free born Englishmen, or, by Atate, or the first lord and other coin. adoption, possessing all the rights of millioners of trade, or a minister may freedom : let a revision be made of the be created with ali neceffary powers for general and several governments of the his department in particular.
colonies ; of their laws and courts of money; or whether they hould be paid justice; of their trade; and the general by the assemblies. It is allowed, that British laws of trade, in the several res in England, where the executive power lations in which they stand to the mo- of the crown is administered by his mather-country, foreign countries and jesty, no inconvenience" arises from his cach other.
paying these officers; but in the coloUpon such a review, it will appear, nies, where a governor, often needý that the two great points which the and rapacious, is the fubftitute of his colonists have in view, are, the estab- majesty,it frequently happens, that when lishment of their rights and privileges he gets the public money into his hands, as Englishmen, and the keeping in their the officers have been left unpaid. own hands the revenue, and the pay Many doubtful points ought to be setof the officers of government, as a sea tled relative to the rules and maxims of curity for their conduct.
their law, especially as they have af. Under the first of these come all the sumed a power of extending parts not disputes about the king's instructions only of the common and tatute laws and the governor's power, the settling of England, but of statutes made fince and determining which, is of the moft they had a distinct legislature. It should effential import to the liberties of the also be determined, whether the crown colonifts on one hand, and to their sub. can, or cannot, erect courts, withoue the ordination to the mother-country on concurrence of the Assembly. the other.
There should be no military comIn the examination of this point, it mander in chief in tiine of peace; the will come under confideration, first, revenue should be raised by customs on Whether the whole legislature can, in trade, a stamp duty, a moderate land. any case, be fuspended ; and, 2dly, tax in lieu of quit-rents, and an excise. whether by the crown alone, or in con A paper currency ought to be eltajunction with the parliament.
blished, under proper regulations; for It will also come under examination, in colonies, where the balance of trade whether the votes or orders of the le- with the mother country being against gislatures of the colonies, not reduced them, their silver money must conitantto an act, shall have their effect without ly decrease, a certain quantity of paper being sent home for confirmation, as money is absolutely necessary. their acts are by their constitution oblig: It is also necessary, that a revision ed to be. If it should appear that any thould be made of the laws of trade ; of the colonies, by this device, carry a proper improvement of which will the power of their legilature into exe- produce greater advantages, both to cution, independent of the crown, even the colonies and the mother country, to the fufpending establishments for pay, than carrying the present laws into exand precluding the effects of acts which ecution, which, however, is impoffible, the crown has confirmed; it must be especially with respect to those for confinally determined, whether this should fining the trade of the colonies to thie or should not be allowed; for a point mother country? yet the trade might, of such importance hould never remain by proper regulations, be so confined'; questionable,
and it is of the utmost importance that Under the second general head, it it should be so. will be determined, whether, as it is It is certain, that the colonies should neceffary and conftitutional, that the not export but to a Britih-market, and executive and judicial officers of govern. they should not import but froni a Briment should be independent of the le. tih-market; but, in the application of gilature, the king hould not have both this principle, the present law directs, the appointment and payment of these that they shall only export and import to officers, the legidature furnithing the and from Britain. Instead of this, Bri