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These shouts recall Lydia to life; the Hall; but king Richard II. having opens her eyes; she sees Lausus at Me- occasion to call one in the year 1397, zentius's feet, holding in one hand the when that building was in a very ruinous bloody dagger, and in the other his dear condition, erected an house on purpose and faithful Phanor. “ It is I, " said in the middle of the palace court, at he to his father, " it is I alone who am a small distance from the gate of the culpable. Phanor's crinie was mine: old hall. This was a plain and mean it was for me to expiate it. I forced structure, open to the common people, him to resign me his place; I was about that all might hear what passed ; while to kill myself if he refused. I live, I the king's person, and those aflemowe that life to him ; and if your son bled there for the service of the nation, be dear to you still, you owe your son were secured by a guard of archers to him : but if your vengeance is not maintained at the public expence. Two appeased, our days are in your hands: years after, Westminster Hall being reftrike; we will perish together
" ; our built, and sufficiently accommodated hearts have sworn it." Lydia, trem. for the meeting of this great assembly, bling at this discourse, viewed Mezen- they met there again ; till at length a tius with eyes suppliant, and oveflowing taste for regularity and magnificence in with tears. The tyrant's cruelty could creasing with our improvements in arts, hot withstand this trial. The cries of this noble rooin was taken for the great nature, and the voice of remorse put to assembly of the national senate. Glence jealousy and vengeance in his This room is spacious, lofty, and heart. He remains for a long time every thing within it is disposed with iminoveable and dumb, rolling by turns great regularity. It is hung with tapeon the objects that surround him, looks itry, l'epresenting the defeat of the of trouble and confusion, in which love, Spanish Armada, which is shewn in va. hatred, indignation and pity, combat rious designs ; as, the first appearance and succeed each other. All tremble of the Spanish fleet; the several forms around the tyrant. Lausus, Lydia, in which it lay at different times on our Phanor, a multitude innumerable, wait coasts, and before the comparatively with terror the first words that he is to handful of England which pursued it : pronounce. He submits at last, in spite the place and disposition of the fleets of himself, to that virtue whose ascen- when engaged; and, in fine, its depard'ency overpowers him ; and passing of These are the great subjects: a sudden, with impetuous violence, from The whole is excellently performed ; rage to tenderness, he throws himself in- and as the materials in that original state. to his son's arms. “ Yes," says he to are perishable, the late Mr. Pine has him, “ 1 pardon thee, and I pardon perpetuated them in very fine engrav. also thy friend. Live, love one ano- ings. Thele designs are certainly well ther : but there remains one sacrifice adapted to the place, as they perpetually more for me to make thee, and thou present to view thie importance of our haft just now rendered thyself worthy of navy, on which our principal ftrength it. Receive it then," laid he with a depends. new effort, “ receive this hand, the Ac the upper end of the room is the gift of which is dearer to thee than life: throne, upon which the king is feated it is thy valour which has forced it froin on folemn occasions, in his robes, with me : it is that alone could obtain it." the crown on his head, and adorned
with all the enligns of majesty.
On the right hand of the throne is a From the ROYAL MAGAZINE.
seat for the prince of Wales, and on Manner of the Proceedings in the House the left for the next person of the royal of Corrmons.
family. ORMERLY the parliaments of Behind the throne are places for the England were held at Westminster VOL, III. D
Young peers who have no votes in the the lord chancellor or keeper signifies to house.
them, that the lords give them leave to At a fmall distance below the throne, be so. The king's council and masters on the King's right hand, are the seats in chancery also fit; but may on no acof the two archbishops, and a little below count be covered. them the bench of bishops. On the Upon the days when the king goes in opposite side of the house sit thofe peers state to the house, either at the opening who rank above barons ; the president or breaking up of the Teslions, the Park of the king's council, and the lord privy guns are discharged ; and his majesty seal, if they are barons, here fit above arriving at the house of lords, enters a all dukes, marquises, and earls ; and the room adjoining to it, called the prince's marshal, Lord Steward, and Lord Cham- chamber, where he puts on his rohes and herlaine, fit above all others of the crown, and from thence is conducted fame degree of nobility with themselves. into the house by the lord chainberlain;
- Just before the throne are the wool. wliere all the lords are dressed in their packs across the room, on which are fcarlet robes, and being feated on the seated the dignitaries of the law. The throne, fends for the commons by the lord high chancellor, or keeper of the gentleman ither of the black rod. On great seal, sits on that nearest the throne, their appearing, his majesty's speech is with his great feal and mace by him; read by:lıc lord chancellor io this grand he is speaker of the house of lords. On united aften bly; after which his mathe other two woolpacks, which are jesty returns in the same manner as he placed parallel to this, lit the lord chief came, in his state-coach drawn by eight justice, the master of the rolls, and the fine horses, attended by guards, and other judges. These have no vote in the guns firing. the house, but they are advised with in A stranger cannot any way form a points of law, on all occasions wherein a more just notion of the dignity of the knowledge of the laws is necessary. The English nation, than by attending this reason why all these Tages are placed on noble and august assembly, when the woolpacks, may probably be to remind king is present, with the crown upon them of the great importance of wool his head, and not only his majesty, but and sheep to this nation.
all the lords, are in their robes, and the The clerk of the crown, who is con commons attending without the bar. cerned in all writs of parliament, and The house, in conjunction with the the clerk of the parliament, who re- king and commons, has the power not cords every thing done there, fit on a only of inaking and repealing laws, but form behind a table.
of conitituting the fupreine judicature Without the bar fits the king's first of the kingdom ; the lords assembled gentleman ulher, called the black rod, take cognizance of treasons and high from a black wand he carries in his hand. crimes committed by their peers, and Under liim is a yéoman ulher, who waits others, try all who are impeached by at the inside of the door, a crier with- the commons, and acquit or condemn out, and a serjeant at mace, who ale without taking an oathi, only laying the ways attends the lord chancellor. right hand upon their brealts, and say- When the king is present, with the ing, Guilty, or Not Guilty, upon iny crown on his head, the lords Git unco honour. They reverse appeals from all vered, and the judges ftand, till his ma other courts, and even sometimes rejesty gives them leave to fit.
verse the decrees of chancery : and In the king's absence, the lords, at from this highest tribunal lies no appeal. their entrance, do reverence
to the All the lords spiritual and temporal throne, as is done by all who enter the have the peculiar privilege of appointpresence-chamber. The judges then ing proxies to vote in their stead, when, may fit, but may not be covered, till trom sickness, or any other cause, they
cannot conveniently appear: but such the first day of every new parliament, as would make proxies are obliged, at are dressed in scarlet gowns, and sit altothe beginning of every parliament, together on the right hand of the chair, enter them in person.
next to the speaker. The lords give their suffrages or votes, The time of sitting is upon any day beginning at the puisne, or lowest baron, in the morning, except on Sundays, or and then proceeding in a regular series, some other high festivals or fast-days, every one answering apart, Content, or upon which it is not usual to assemble, Not Content. If the ailirmatives and unless upon the most urgent occasions : negatives are equal, it passes in the ne. 'but though the speaker always adjourns gative, the speaker not being allowed a the house to nine o'clock of the mornvoice, unless he be a peer of the realm. ing of the day when they agree to meet
The next structure we visited was that again, the house seldom meets till 12. of the house of Commans, called also This house has an equal share with St. Stephen's chapel, which joins to the the lords in making laws, and none can south-east angle of Westminster- hall. be made without the consent of the com
King Stephen first founded a chapel mons, who are the guardians of the lihere, and dedicated it to St. Stephen, berties of the people; and as they are the protomartyr : but Edward III. re- the grand inquest of the nation, they building it in the year 1347, in a very have a power to impeach the greatest magnificent manner, converted it into lords in the kingdom, both spiritual and a collegiate church, the revenues of temporal. which, at its suppression, amounted to. On the day prefixed by the king in 1085). 10 s. and sd. per annum: but the writ of summons, his majesty goes being surrender'd to Edward VI. it was in person to the house of lords, where appropriated for the reception of the being seated with the crown on his head, representatives of the commons of Eng- and cloathed in his royal robes, he sendsland, who have ever since continued to for the commons by the gentleman ulher meet there every sessions of parliament, of the black rod, who coming to the bar except when summoned by the king's of the house, bows, and advancing writs to Oxford; and it is now general- a few steps, repeats this mark of refpect ly called the house of commons. a second and a third time, saying, “Gen
It is at present a spacious room,wain- tlemen of the house of commons, the scotted up to the cieling, accommo- king commands this honourable house dated with galleries, supported by flen- to attend him immediately in the house der iron pillars, adorned with Corin- of peers ;” and then retiring backwards, thian capitals and sconces; from the bowing, withdraws: the commons then middle of the cieling hangs a handsome immediately attend his majeity in the branch or fuftre. At the upper end, house of lords, where the lord chancelthe speaker is placed upon a raised seat, lor or keeper commands them in the ornamented behind with Corinthian co. king's nanie to chuse a speaker, upon lumns, and the king's arms carved and which they return to their own houle. placed on a pediment; before him is a One of the members itanding up in his table, at which the clerk and his affift- place, and making a short introductory ant sit near him on each hand, just be. speech, moves that such member as he low the chair ; and on each side, as well then names, may take the chair ; and below as in the galleries, the members his motion being seconded by some other are placed promilcuously. The speaker member, if no contest happens, they and clerks always wear gowns in the lead the person mentioned from his seat house, as the professors of the law do in to the bar of the house, from whence term time ; but no other of the mem they conduct him, bowing thrice, up bers wear robes, except the four repre. to the chair ; where being placed, le lentatives for the city of London, who, ftands up, and returns thanks to the
house for the honour done him ; and for a bill to be brought in ; which bem modestly acknowledging his inability to ing agreed to by the house, the person discharge fo great a trust, desires they who made the motion, with some of would make choice of a more able per- those who feconded it, are ordered to fon ; which being disapproved, he lub- prepare, and bring it in. When the mits to their pleasure ; and after re bill is ready, some of the members who ceiving the directions of the houle, on were ordered to prepare it, read the or. the usual requests to be made on his ap- der at the side bar of the house, design pearing before his majesty, adjourns io ing leave to bring the bill to the table ; the day appointed for that purpose. which upon the question being agreed
But before the commons can enter to, it has a first reading by the clerk upon any business, or even the choice at the table ; and then the speaker takof a speaker, all the members enter the ing the bill in his hand, reads the abcourt of wards, where they take the breviate or abftract of it: which done, oaths of allegiance and fupremacy, with after the debate upon the bill, if any those appointed by the act of the ift of happens, he puts the question, whether William and Mary, in the presence of it hall have a second reading and an officer appointed by his majesty, who sometimes, upon a motion being made, is usually the lord steward of the hour. appoints a day for it. hold ; and atter they have chosen the When the bill has been read a second speaker, they take the same oaths again time, the question is put, whether it in the house, at the table, and subscribe Thall be committed ? which is either ta their opinions against the doctrines of a committee of the whole house, if the transubitantiation, the invocation and bill be of importance; or to a private adoration of saints, and the sacrifice of committee, any member at pleasure the mass; and before they can give any naming the persons to be of that comvote in the house, except for the choice mittee ; and their names being read by of a speaker, they are obliged also to the clerk at the table, they are ordered abjure the pretender.
to meet in the speaker's chamber, and Upon the day appointed, the ylher report their opinion to the house. Acof the black rod is again sent for the cordingly, meeting there, they chuse commons, when he alters his ftile, and their chairman, and either adjourn to addresses himself to the speaker. The some other time, or proceed upon the members obeying his summons, return bill, which in this last case the chairman 10 the house of lords, and present their orders a clerk who attends him to read, speaker to the king, who is again seat- then taking the bill himself, and reading ed on the throne, and having obtained it paragraph by paragraph, he puts every his approbation, the speaker desires, that clause to the question, fills up the blanks, the commons, during their sitting,“may and makes amendments, according to have free access to his majesty, freedom the opinion of the majority of the comof speech in their house, and freedom mittee, of whom there must be eight from arrests." After which the king of the persons named, to proceed regu, makes his speech to both houses, the larly, though five may adjourn. whole house of commons being supposed When the committee have gone thro' to be at the bar of the house of lords. the whole bill, the chairman by their
After the speaker and members have desire makes his report at the side. bar taken the oaths, the standing orders of the house, reading all the alterations of the house are read, and grand com- made by the committee, and how any mittees appointcd to lit on usual days : of these amendments have altered the which being done, the house generally scope of the bill, the clerk having before begins with reading some bill left un- written down in what page and line of finished the sessions before. Any mem, the bill these amendments are to be ber of parliament is at liberty to move found; and if the committee þavethought
At to add any clauses, they are marked resolve themfelves into a committee of alphabetically, read by the chairman, the whole house, the mace is laid under and delivered to the clerk, who reads the table, and the chairman to that all the amendments and clauses. The committee takes the chair where the speaker then puts the question, whether clerk of the house usually fits. they fhall be read a second time and Forty members are necessary to make if this be agreed to, he then reads them a house, and eight a committee. But himself, and particularly as many of the speaker is not allowed to vote, exthem as the house agrees to. After cept the house is equally divided : nor which the question is put, whether is he to persuade or dissuade in passing the bill fo amended thall be engroiled, a bill, but only to make a short and plain that is, written fair on parchment, and narrative. read the third time fome other day? It The members of the house of combeing at length read the third time, the mons vote by yeas and noes; but if it Speaker holds the bill in his hand, and appear doubtful which is the greater puts the question, whether the bill thall number, the house divides. If the question pass? and if the major part be for it, relates to any thing already in the house, the clerk writes on the bill, Soit baillé the noes goes out ; but if it be to bring aux seigneurs, Be it delivered to the any thing in, as a bill, petition, &c. lords.
the yeas go out : where the house diWhen an engrossed bill is read, and vides, the speaker appoints four tellers, any clauses reserved to be added to it, two of each opinion, who after they have they must be on parchment ingroffed told those within, place themselves in like the bill, which are then called ri- the pallage between the bar and the door, ders; and, if agreed to, they are added and tell the others who went out ; which to the bill,
done, the two tellers who have the maPetitions are offered like bills at the jority take the right hand, and placing bar of the house, and brought up and themselves within the bar, all four ad. delivered at the table, by the member vance, bowing three times; and being who presents them.
come up to the table, deliver the numWhen a member speaks to a bill, he ber, saying, the yeas who went out, are ftands up uncovered, and addresses him- so many ; the noes who itaid, so many i self only to the speaker ; but if he be which is repeated by the speaker, who answered by another, he is not allowed declares the majority. to reply the same day, unless personally In a committee of the whole house, reflected on : for nobody is to speak to they divide by changing sides, the yeas a bill above once in a day, unless the taking the right hand of the chair, and whole house be turned into a committee, the noes the left; and then there are and then every member may reply as only two tellers. often as the chairman thinks proper. If when a bill is passed in one house, But if a bill be rejected, it cannot be any and sent to the other, they demur upon more proposed during the same sessions. it, a conterence is then demanded in the
Messengers from the lords, and all painted chamber, where certain mempersons appearing at the bar of the bers deputed from each house meet, and house, are introduced by the serjeant debate the affair, while the lords sit coattending the houle, with the mace up- vered at a table, and the commons stand on his shoulder.
without their hats. If they disagree, While the speaker is in the chair, the affair is dropped ; but if they come the mace lies upon the table, except to an agreement, it is at length brought, when fent upon any extraordinary oc with all the other bills that have palled calion into Westminster hall and the both houses, to receive the royal assent, court of requests, to summon the memo in the house, where the king being seat. bers to attend. But when the inembersed in the chair of state, the clerk of the