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" It should seem, the many lies, dis- be much upon his guard against antient cernible in books of travels, may be Pittol's phraseology. owing to accounts collected from inpro " Lord Shafteibury, in the genteel per people. Were cee to give a cha- management of some familiar ideas, racter of the English from what the seems to have no equal." He discovers vulgar act and believe, it would convey* an eloignment from vulgar phrales, a strange idea of the English under. 'much becoming a person of quality. standing

" His sketches thould be studied like “ Might not the poem on the Sea-, those of Raphael. His Enquiry is one fons have been rendered more uni, by of the shortest and clearest systeins of giving out the design of nature in the morality. beginning of winter, and afterwards " How different appears antient and considering all the varieties of season as modern dialogue, on account of the means aiming at one end ?

superficial subjects upon which we now Criticks must excuse me, if I com- generally converte! add to this, the pare them to certain animals called Ar ceremonial of modern times, and the les; who, by gnawing vines, originally number of titles with which some kings taught the great advantage of pruning clog and encumber conversation. them.

" The celebrated boldness of an e::st. “ Every gond poet includes a critic; ern metaphor, is, I believe, sometimes the reverse will not hold.

allowed it, for the inconfiderable fimili“ It is idle to be much assiduous in tude it bears to its subject. the perusal of inferior poetry. Homer, The style of letters, perhaps, Virgil, and Horace, give the true taste should not rise higher than the style of in composition ; and a person's' own 'refined conversation. imagination should be able to supply thie " Love-verles, written without real rest.

passion, are often the most nauseous of “ In the fame manner it is superflu- all conceits. Those written from the ous to pursue inferior degrees of fame, heart will ever bring to mind that deOne truly splendid action, or one well. lightful Teason of youth, and poetry, finished composition, includes more than and love. all the results from more trivial performances. I mean this for persons who make fame their only motive. " Very few sentiments are proper to

From the LONDON MAGAZINE. be put in a person's mouth, during the The History of all the Affairs of Bengal, first attack of grief. Every thing dir. gufts, but mere fimplicity ; the scriptu

comprehending all that has been puba ral writers describe their heroes using

lished on that Subject concluded. only fome such phrase as this: ' Alas ROM this account, and from the my brother, O Absalon my fon! my little knowledge our people had of fon! &c,' The lamentation of Saul the inland parts of that country, before over Jonathan is more diffusive, but at the late wars, we may see, that the the same time entirely fimple

Mogul court understood the nature of “ Necessity may be the mother of trade better than it was ever understood lucrative invention ; but is the death in this nation till very lately: they rea. of poetical.

dily agreed, that we should purchase " If a person fufpects his phrase to and export the manufactures of their be fomewhat ton familiar and abject, it country free of any duty, and our comwere proper he thould accustom himself pany's duftock, or permit, was to be to compose in blank verse: but let him allowed to pass the manufactures bought • Mishoirasies clap a cail to every Indian nation that slillike them,

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by them from the place of purchase to the head of a body of our troops, against the place of export, and from thence by the Morattoes, and the rebellious ra. fea wherever we pleased, free from sub- jahs of Burdomaan and Beerboon; sidy or duty; but notwithstanding the and he reduced both these rajahs, and general words of the phirmaund, if drove the Morattoes to the southward, our people, or their agents, engaged in without the assistance of the new subah; any branch of the inland trade, they for even Mr. Holwell tells us, that Collim were to pay the fame duties that were Aly stayed at Boodgaam, the first fron. paid by the natives. This was the state tier town of Beerboon, and the first of our trade in Bengal, Bahat, and O. that was attacked by major Yorke *. rixa, before Mhir Jaffeir was, by our About the same time we sent major Carmeans, made Nabob, when our people, nack, at the head of the main body of by themselves or their agents, not only our troops against the Shah Zadda ; and engaged deeply in the inland trade, but the major, in January 1761, defeated inlisted that the company's duftuck the Shah, without the assistance of our should free them from paying any duties new Subah ; I say defeated ; for there even in that trade ; and the inland du must have been some fort of battle, oties paid by the natives being then rais- therwise how could the major have ed from four to nine per cent. our peo- made prisoners of Mr. Law, and all the ple, by this means, foon ingrossed a French troops, that were in the Shah's great part of the inland trade.

army? Or how could the major have o. That this was the case during the bliged or induced the Shah, then actuwhole reign of Mhir Jaffeir, we may ally declared Mogul emperor, to furgather from the disputes that afterwards render himself to our army, and so to happened between us and his successor; put himself absolutely into our power, and I am persuaded, that it was the which power we, it seems, made so weak original cause of all the distress brought an use of, that we allowed our new Suupon the former ; for it so much di. bah to reconcile himself entirely to the minished his usual revenue, that he was Shah, upon conditions to which, upon unable to pay thechout,or tribute, usually what appears, we were, and still are, paid to the Morattoes, which of course absolute strangers; and if Major Carbrought them to plunder, and lay waste nack made such an answer to his impethe southern part of his dominions; and rial majesty, as Mr. Holwell has told this adding a new diminution to his rc- us, we may expect, that he will never venue, rendered him unable to pay his be a sincere friend to the Englith. troops, which made them mutinous and In fhort, from the conduct of the war disregardless of his commands, the con- before Mhir Jaffeir's abdication, and fequence of which was, that feveral of the conduct of it presently after that the rajahs, or lords of particular dir- revolution, one would be apt to suppose, tricts, neglected to pay the annual tribute that our successors to lord Clive had, or quit-rent, due to the fubah of the from his good luck, found out, that province; and fome of them broke out the trade of nabob-making was the most into actual rebellion, or joined the Sbab profitable trade they could carry on; Zadda against him. Thus every diftress and that the war, during Mhir Jaffeir's brought on another, and during the reign, was some way or other mismanag. whole year 3760, we did nothing effec- ed on purpose, to have a pretence for tually for his aflitance: whereas, as dismisling hin, and placing some other foon as we had got him removed, and rich grandee upon his musnud; for, in a new Subab placed in his room, we a few months after his abdication, every began to exert ourfelves with the usual enemy was, I may lay solely by our courage and conduct : before the end of means, driven out, and a perfect tran. the year 1760 major Yorke was sent, at quillity restored throughout the three

• See Mr. Howell Refutation, p.al.

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provinces of Baliar, Bengal and Orixa. prisoned, every grandee in his doBut our late accounts from thence are minions, that had thewn any warm afa 'fo dark and intricate, and so contra- fection for our people, all which prepadictory, that there is no judging of any rations he had carried on without its man's conduct, much less forming à being taken the least notice of by our probable conjecture as to his motives. governor, who, it seems, continued to In general, however, I believe, it will court his favour, instead of providing be allowed, that, Colsim Aly is a man means for commanding his justice. of more sense, more cunning, and As the Subah met with no opposition, more courage than Mhir Jaffeir could nor so much as a remonstrance, against ever pretend to ; and for that very rea. his preparing for war in the time of fon more unfit for our purpose. He from profound peace, and as we had disband. experience knew, what distress his pre-, ed most of the seapoys we had in our decessor and father in law had been pay, before the end of 1762, he thought. · thrown into, by the privilege we pre- himself in a condition not to fear any tended to, of carrying on the inland trade thing we could do against him; and of his country without being subject to therefore he began to carry his design any duties, and by the extensive use we against our freedom of trade into exehad made of that privilege, therefore, cution, by stopping our peoples goods at from the moment he was set upon the the barriers, and insisting upon their musnud, he had probably resolved to paying the customary duties. Perhaps, put an end to it; but he foresaw, that he began sooner than he would otherwise he could not do this without coming to have done, because lie had an assurance an open breach with us, for which reas of being supported, in case of need, by, fon, he resolved not to attempt it, till the Mogul einperor : this is not unlikea he had provided for his defence. ly, if the fact lately mentioned, and

For this purpose, as soon as the peace not contradicted, at one of our general of his country was by our means esta- courts, be true: It was said, that one blished, he removed the seat of his go- of the commanders of our troops in vernment from Mucksadabad to Mong- 1760, had jointly with Mhir Jaffeir's heer, near 200 miles up the river, that son, signed a paper, by which they mu. our people might not be perpetually tually engaged to concert measures for eye-witnelles to his preparations : here, getting the Shah Zadda assassinated, and he began to'fortify the town with the of which cach had an original counterutmost expedition : he let numbers of part. It this be true, the paper came prohis people to work in making fire locks bably into the possession of Cossim Aly, instead of match-locks, which they had the now Subah, and by shewing, or dealways before made use of; and in pre- livering it to the Shah Zadda, he not paring a field artillery, according to the only reconciled himself to that prince, model of one of our belt cannon, which but made him secretly our sworn enegovernor Vanlittart had made bim a pre- my. It may be true, and I believe, sent of, contrary to the advice of major that our commander had no design to Carnarck: he took as many of our sea- perform such a covenant; and signed poys into his service as he could meet it only to induce Mhir Jaffeir's son to with, and employed them in teaching co-operate vigorously in driving the his people the European military difci. Shah Zadda out of the province of Bas pline for infantry, which experience a. har,' where he then was with his army mnong us, and his own good sense, had But it will be difficult to make a mullel. Mewn him to be of much niore service man believe, that a man would give a in war than cavalry : he also completed promise under his hand in writing, the fortifications of Pátna, on the side which he was at the same time resolved of our factory : and lastly be, on some not to perform; and therefore if the pretence or other, had cut off, or im. Shah Zadda be now firmly feated upon VOL. III,

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the throne, by the name of Shah Al. enhancing the number of purchasers ; lumn, I am much afraid, we shall have and it is an argument why we ought the whole force of the Mogul empire readily to consent to the regulations now to contend with.

proposed, not to rifque hurting the com Be this as it will, it is certain that pany's interests for our own private adbefore the end of 1762, the Subah we vantage." had made began to interrupt our trade, · But as to the heads of regulations in of which such a number of complaints this letter proposed, the council at Cal." came to Calcutta, that governor Van. cutta were so far from being of their fittart, accompanied by Mr. Haitings, opinion, that they immediately fent as thought it necessary to go ap to Mong. answer, unanimously desiring, that they heer, to have a conference with the Sun would not agree to any such terms, bah, in order to obtain redress, and to especially as to that of rendering our settle regulations of trade for the fu- people, and their agents or brokers, türe: It does not appear that these two subject to the country magistrates, with gentlemen so much as asked any redress respect to every dispute they might have for past grievances, or any satisfaction with the country merchants or revenuć for past injuries or losses, but after con- officers. This answer the governor says versing with the Subah upon future re- he never received, and upon not heargulations, they sent a letter, dated De- ing any thing to the contrary from cember 15, 1762, to the council at them, he agreed to write the following Calcutta, containing the heads of the letter to the Subah, as containing the subregulations, which they thought the Su- ftance of the regulations he had agreed bah would agree to, and we ought to to, viz. accept of, in which letter, there is this “ Your gracious perwannah • is arremarkable paragraph:

rived, and has greatly honoured me. In the course of our conferences I am informed of all the particulars of upon the subject, the Nabob observed, your high commands. that if the English Gomasthas were pera It shall be written to the chiefs of mitted to trade in all parts and in all our factories, that they are to give a commodities, custom-free, as many of duftuck for the buying and selling of them now pretend, they must of course fhip-merchandize ; and merchandize draw all the trade into their own hands, that they buy and sell, in every diftri&t and his custom would be of so little va. for traffic in this country, they are to lue to him, that it would be much more do according to custom of other traders for his interest to lay trade entirely and merchants, and not to give the open, and collect no customs from any company's duftuck. They are to take person whatever, upon any kind of adultuck from Backlhbander, or Shah. merchandize : which would draw a bundar, paying in upon the coft of the number of merchants into his country, merchandize 9 per cent, including wharfs and encrease his revenues, by encou. and other receipts of custom ; not thall raging the cultivation and manufacture they use any manner of force or vioof a large quantity of goods for sale lence, extortion or unfair dealing. at the same time that (he added) it It is hoped that your excellency's would effettually cut off the prir.cipal perwannah will be issued out to the subject of dilputes which had disturbed Fowj’dârs and other officers of the go. the good understanding between us, an vernment, that the company's duftuck objedt he had more than any other at is to go along with the purchase and heart. This scheme we discouraged all sale of thip-merchandize, and they are it our power, as it would immediately by no means to stop it, or demand the render the dustuck useless, and preju- finallest custom ; nor Mall they hinder dice our honourabic maltero business, by the purchase and sale of country.com

modities i Lettere

modities; but they are to give duf car importune for foriner collections, tucks for receiving the duties on cost of and beat, bind, and confine the people, the merchandize, agreeable to your ex. which doings are far from being juft. cellency's high command. And the Let your excellency's order be passed, Dawgahs * at the Chokeys † are only that they return back the price of the to take copies of the dustuck, without purchase, and never demand old ac. demanding any thing.

counts. Heretofore it was written to all the The chiefs and servants of the fac chiefs of our factories to forbid them in- tories will be directed, that they are juring the country people and inhabi- not to hinder the brokers of the go. tants of the Pergannahs, I and pro- vernment. tecting the dependants and servants of And if your excellency is not pleased the Sircar, and damaging the affairs of that the money and bullion of Englifa the Sircar. Now repeated directions gentlemen, and their factors, thould sball be sent, that they are to refrain be made into ficcas in the mints of from such proceedings : and further Azimâbâd and Ichang'ernagan, and by considering the officers of the govern. it there will be a loss to the Sircar ; let ment as magiftrates where they are ; the Darugahs § of those places be or $ in case of any troubles or disputes dered not to receive the money and happening, they are to appear before bullion of the English company to be that magistrate, and have them settled made into ficcas. But, upon hearing by his decision."

this, the money-changers will demand Let your excellency's order be sent to as exchange just what they want, and the fowj dars || and officers, that they the company's bulness will be impeded are to determine disputes of our factors by this means. with justice and truth, and are to have It is hoped that a perwannah will no regard to party-concerns. And if be issued out to the Naibs *t of Mulheany one complains against a factor to dabad, Ichang'ernagan, and Azimâ send for him, and settle the affair face bâd, that the exchange on money of to face: and if a factor has a complaint the English company and gentlemen against any one, to consider it well, and thall be taken according to the market fo determine it.

; currency; and, in case of exaction, to It has been written to the chiefs of bring the money.changers to punishment. Iftamabad and Luckypou, that they shall

Directions will be sent to the factors at not make salt-works, nor hinder the Gwallparah, that he is to tranfact bufia merchants and farmers of the salt-works ness of traffic as was custom heretoforej that pay revenues to the government; and he is not to trade with the people but to buy what they want of them at of the hills, (the Bootans, or people of a reasonable rate. The two letters to Affam :) Whatever he was to buy or the chiefs aforesaid being inclosed with sell in that place, he is to do by means this address.

of the officer of the government. Let An order will be sent to the chiefs your excellency's order be sent to the and servants of all our factories, that Darugah, that he is to deal with the they are not to farm or buy lands : and English factors as with other merchants." whatever they may have bought here This letter, which the Subah called tofore they are to resign it.

a written security, procured by him Let your excellency's order be passed with much and earnest importunity, he that the price of the purchase be like sent copies of to his chief officers in wise returned.

every part of his dominions, with an Bat from several places there is come order for them to act exactly in concomplaints, that the officers of the Sir. formance to it. But the first account Cuftom-house officers, † Barriers or turnpikes. I Villages. ! Magiftrates

Collectors.

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