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strained liquor, to which may be added rit, or that of feverfew, each 2 ounces ;
half an ounce of fal gem, and after. fpirits of salt, two drams,
wards from two to four ounces of trea. Lastly, in order to foften the parts,
cle spirit.

separate the noughs, and promote sup-
3. Take of martial ball * two ounces, puration, the following application may
fal ammoniac one ounce; dissolve them be used.
in about eight pints of 1pring water, and Water germander, two handfuls ;
add two pints of rectified spirit of wine. mallows and marshmallows, each a hand-

4. Take of crude alum, and white ful; flower of linseed, three ounces ; vitriol, each iww ounces and two drams; Venice soap and fal oniac, of each lytharge of filver and myrrlı, each an two ounces ; linseed oil, an ounce. Let ounce ; Aleppo galls, two ounces; these ingredients be boiled together, in juniper and bay berries, each an ounce; vinegar and water, to the conlistence of Javin and rue, each two handfuls ; oak a poultice. leaves, a handful and a hall; verde. It may be in general observed with gris, half an ounce; camphor, two regard to fomentations, that such as are drams; calamin, fix drams. After emollient are serviceable when hard dry having mixed and reduced all there in crusts prevent a discharge; those which gredients to powder, let two ounces of abound with acid, when there is a con. the composition be boiled with four pints fiderable degree of putrefaction; and of water, or with two of water and two lastly, those which are spirituous, faline of vinegar.

or strengthening, are most proper when The following embrocations applied swellings are fabby, and the body a. to parts already mortified, wili stop the bounds with aqueous humours. further progress of the mortification ; The diligent use of these fomentati, where it is jult beginning they will ons, will in 12 hours alter the condiprevent it, and will allo help nature tion of gangrened wounds for the bet. to separate the dead parts from the ter; then the lint and powder may be found.

removed, all the detached pieces of mor1. Spirit of wine three ounces ; tified Mesh extracted, and the dreslings myrrh and aloes powdered, of each renewed every 12 hours : at the 3d or half an ounce; Ægyptian ointment, 4th drelings, the wounds will discharge three drams t.

matter of a favourable alpect, and then 2. Vinous decoction of scordium, it will be necessary to give the bark in twelve ounces; vinegar of rue and of ternally. roles, of each four ounces ; spirit of The bark may be given by itself in treacle, three ounces : and one ounce powder, or made into an ele&tuary with of fal ammoniac.

any of the cordiał syrups ; if it purges 3. Lime water, four pints ; treacle in substance, it must be given in the infpirit, or that of feverfew, two pints ; fusion or extract. But if the fever be white wine vinegar, one pint; elixir strong, the heat considerable, and the proprietatis, fix ounces; Ægyptian oint- patient thirsty, be bark will be of no ment, two ounces.

service ; but recourte must be had to 4. Decoction of elder flowers, fix temperance. ounces ; wine, eight ounces; vinegar, If the bark is given, it may be in camphorated spirit of wine, treacle ipi- doses of half a drachm or two scruples,

every • The martial ball is thus made : Take of filings of iron one part; white tartar two parts: Let them be reduced to a fine powder, and put into a matrass with as much French brandy as will swim about an inch above the powder; exhale to dryness, either in the heat of the sun, or in that of a water bath. Pour fresh brandy upon the remainder, and evaporate thein in this manner several times successively, till the mass appears refinous; then form it into balls neariy of the bigness of an ess.

† in using the external vulnerary medicines, in which aloes is an ingredient, it mun be semembered, thai they often prove purgative.

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every hour at first, afterwards every argues thus, with respect to mortificatwo hours, and at length, once in every tions. They are the effect either of three or four hour: : a few drops of some internal morbid cause, or external fpirit of sea salt, or dulcified spirit of injury; if of an internal cause, ampuvitriol, or a few grains of alum or ca. tation can do no good while such cause techu may be added to every dose, and remains, and if that can be removed, a if the patient be very weak, a small glass cure may be effected without amputaof some acid wine. His drink should tion; it of an external accident, and be water and vinegar, weak veal and they continue to spread, there must be chicken broth, and gruels of barley or a fever, and general inflammation, and oatmeal, acidulated with vinegar, or for that reason amputation can only accelemon juice.

lerate the patient's death, while the mor. In this stage, the dressings already tification therefore is gaining ground the described, being supposed to have pro. method above proposed should be pursucured a discharge of matter, the vul. ed: whenthe progress is stopped, we should nerary powder and oil of turpentine consider whether the limb can be saved; must be laid aside ; but the suppuration and nothing but the total rottennels of must fill be promoted, sometimes to the the bone is a proof that it cannot ; for eighth day by dressing with the follow- the periosteum may be cut and torn, ing digeltive ointments. Boil half a without giving pain in a sound state, as pint of oil olive, and an ounce of red Haller has demonstrated. If the bone Saunders together, till the oil requires a is totally rotten, amputation should be deep red colour ; when it is ftrained, performed, not by cutting through the add a pound ot yellow wax, and a quick, but by lopping off the gangrened pound and an half of turpentine ; when useless mass very near it. After provi. the whole is mixed and melted together ding against an hæmorrhage of the larover a gentle fire, a little balsam of ger vessels by a proper ligature, stopPeru may be added, and it may be ping the progress of the gangrene inust quickened with a little essence of myrrh. be then attempted by internal medicines, Suppuration must also be assisted by and suitable dressings; the patient's keeping the parts constantly covered strength should be supported by a pro. with emollient fon.entations, and by a per regimen, and if it increases, a levoiding to cleanse the wound too much, paration of the soft parts that are mor. either by compression or wiping, and tified, will certainly ensue ; after which removing the corrupted parts without it will be easy to law off the little ftump effusion of blood : regard must also be of the dead bone that was left, and the had to the bones; after the most care- wound may be cicatrised by epulotic apful examination, in which dilatation is plications, and such as have been just fometimes neceflary, all the splinters recommended for bones when laid bare. and carious parts, that can be removed 2. With respect to limbs violently without violence, must be extracted, and contused, which some have made a they must then be covered with the bal. practice of cutting off before they tried sam for the bones, of frankincense, maf- any other remedy, M. Bilguer detich, as directed before.

clares expressly against amputation, All these dressings should be finished even if the bones, as well as flesh, are as expeditiously as possible, to avoid bruised and crushed by the fall of a cold ; the room should be warm, and large beam, a mass of stone, or by a if necessary, a few burning coals held cart wheel, a screw, or a press : in these near the part which is dressed.

cases, he says, the patient has a better After these directions, M. Bilguer chance, even for life, setting the limb


* Our own countryman, Mr. Sharp, who has been long an honour to lus profeflion, has irrefragably proved the impropriety of operating on the sound part, while the mortifitation 1 Suining ground.

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out of the question, if it is not, than if light compression of the hands, and a
it is, cut off. Two things are gene- little tiglitening of the bandage. Those
rally dreaded, a mortification and hæ- that do not coalesce in a month should
morrhage : as to the mortification, it be cautiously and tenderly loosened,
what has already been said, is worthy so as to bring thein away. If any are
of any regard, it is not probable: as cracked as high as the articulation,
to the liæmorrhage it has sometimes they should be left to nature.
stopped, even in these very cases, with If the patient is weakened by loss of
out the assistance of a surgeon. The blood, he must be supported by broths,
method of cure, directed by this author, with herbs boil in them, and with
is as follows:

wine and water; he thould also take,
When the lower parts of a shattered every four hours, half a drachm of the
limb adhere by a little flesh or skin, bark, till the pulse is sufficiently raised,
fo as there is no hope of a re-union, and the fuppuration is laudable ;, he
they should be separated intirely : when may then be allowed meat, and his
pieces of bone jut out they must be saw- drink should be water, acidulated with
ed off, whether firm or moveable : all vinegar or vitriol.
the other fmall splinters, either held by When the suppuration is too plenti.
the flesh, or adhering to the bone, that ful, and the wound appears disposed
can be removed without violence, or a to heal, the patient should be purged
fresh effusion of blood, fhould be once or twice with Epsom salt, some ab-
extracted by the hand, or a proper in- sorbent powilers having been previ.
ftrument; the limb should then be slight- oully administered for a few days. He
ly compressed between the hands, and thould drink during the day, a flight
gently Itroked lengthways from above decoction of the bark; before and af-
downwards, so as to restore it as much ter meals, a little strengthening acid
as possible to its natural shape; the fore elixir ; and, in the evening, he should
should then be dressed with a digellive, take a small dole of the bark in sub-
adding a little eflence of myrrh, or 10- starce.
lution of mastich; the whole covered The Atrengthening elixir is thus
with dry lint, and the same bandage made : “ Half an ounce of the extract
applied as in amputations, but not so of wormwood ; of that of gentian, les-
tight as to cause pain, or increaie the ser centaury, green oranges, and buck-
inflammation : the whole should be then bean, o! each a drachm ; rectified spirit
moistened with as much spirit of wine of wine, four ounces, and spirituous
as may penetrate the parts affected, and mint-water, one ounce : let the ex-
care must be taken to extend the limb tracts be dissolved in the spirits, over
in a right line, and lay it loft.

a gentle fire ; ftrain them, then add to Till the suppuration becomes plenti. the Itrained liquor, half an ounce of ful, it hould be dressed only once in dulcified spirit of nitre, and 30 drops twenty tour hours, but afterwards twice of oil of vitriol." a day; and such dressings as touch M. Bilguer then describes a fever, the bone or flesh, should be covered which frequently supervenes in these with lint dipped in solution of mattich, cases, and gives directions how to stop it. balsam of fioraventi, or some other bal. When the bones of a limb are not famic eflence, to prevent the suppura- quite broken through, and the parts tion from becoming too copious; and suspended only by a small portion of at each dressing, all the little livers flesh and skin, but so much shattered which do not re-unite, and which by that the limb may be moved any way, degrees come to be separated without and seems to hang useless, the aperture violence, mould be taken away. made by the wounding body must be

Care thould be taken to promote the dilated, and the flesh separated from the coalition of the larger fragments, by bone, that the Splinters and extraneous


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substances may be extracted ; the drel. tured the bone, the applications Mould sings must be the same as before di- be very mild, and no incisions should rected.

be made ; the two ends of the bone If a bullet has penetrated the cavity should be brought together, and ftof a bone, the bone must be laid bare, cured by compreffes and bandages ; and afterwards pierced with 2 or 3 tre- and the whole dressings stouped with pans, that the extraneous body and thi. discutient and vulnerary fomentations. vers may be extracted.

4. As to wounds of the large bloodIf a bullet has made its way into one vessels, the furgeon may always, by side of a joint, and splintered feveral proper dilatations, come at the wound, bones at a stroke, the same method iuft and stop the bleeding, by ligatures or be followed.

aftringents, or both ; so that in that Care must be taken to fix the limb cale amputation can never be necefin its natural fituation, to keep the Sary: and experience has thewn, that dressings sufficiently tight above and be after the operation for the aneurism, low the wound ; to promote the conso. the member which it might be supposed lidation of the larger pieces of bone, by would have perished for want of wu. keeping them firm in their places, and rihment, has recovered heat, motion, preventing the re-absorption of pus. and furength, even when the trunk of

M. Bilguer's observations confirm the brachial artery has been cut through : those of Horstius, that patients who have This therefore, when wounded, may loft a great portion both of the tibia be tied without fear, and the preservaand fibula, may, nevertheless, after tion of the limb may be provided for by, their care, walk with ease, and halt but aperient Spirituous fornentations, and very little.

'gent!e frictions, which contribute to M. Bilguer observes, that sometimes open and enlarge the fmall vessels. the wounds dry up on a sudden, be 5. As to a caries of the bone, when come corrupted, and exhale an infecti. it is recent and inconsiderable, there ous stench ; the neighbouring parts are can be no pretence to amputate, but the inflamed for some days, and then leave bone must be laid bare as far as the ca. an oedematous tumour, which either ries extends, and fcraped with a scalpel, produces an abscess, with a laudable or perforated in several parts with the discharge, or degenerates into a inalig- fpike of a trepan : when the caries has nant fore, without an abscess, which reached the opposite part of the bone, fometimes swarms with maggots: for the crown of the trepan must be used this untoward appearance of the wound to take out the intire piece : medicines he directs proper remedies.

proper in this case are well known, but 3. In cases of violent contusions, the mineral acids must never be employwhere a great quantity of extravasated ed, not even Hoffman's anodyne mine. fuid under the skin produces the ap. ral liquor ; for all do hurt. When the pearance of a mortified eschar, and caries is removed, the cure is to be tho' the skin itself is not broken, yet compleated by a nourishing, but not the bones under it are dislocated or oily diet. The dressing thould then fractured, the treatment should be consist only of dry lint, taking great care nearly the fame as in a mortification, to exclude the accels of air from without. and the part affected should be con When the . caries is accompanied Atantly bathed with emollient fomenta. with a vitiated state of the blond, the tions, without any stimulating or an external treatment must be tlie same, ftringent ingredient : if the bones are and proper internal remedies must be luxated, they must be reduced, but added : a caries from a venereal cause left without bandages.

may be cured like any other. If the contufion has not produced Amputation is useless while the more a mortified flough, but has yet frac. bid cause remains ; and when it is re

moved, the cure may be effected with

To reduce the amazing number of out amputation : the portion of bone beggars, vagrants and giplies, by intaken away will be fupplied by a cal- ficting heavy punishments upon those Jus, as appears by indubitable testimony. who quit their legal settlements; to

6. The last case is a cancer ; con. confine all the old and infirm of those cerning which this author fays very that are born beggars, and sending the little, except that it should be extir- young and healthy to America, pated before it takes root, or not at all. To limit a time for the final deci.

The whole of this interesting work fion of all law-suits, suppose to one is founded on the author's own a- year or two at farthest, which is furely bundant experience in the military fufficient for all parties to produce their hospitals of Pruffia, during the late evidences of every kind. bloody war; where a much greater To prevent the pernicious practice of proportion of those who were so wound- smuggling, which is so easily done. ed, as, in the general opinion, to jus To enforce the consumption of our tify amputation, recovered, than are

own manufactures, by prohibiting, known to recover of those on whom under severe penalties, the importation that operation is performed.

of such foreign commodities as injure · The work appears to be extremely our trade. well translated, and is earnestly recom To take off fuch taxes as immedi. mended, by the author of this epitome, ately affect the poor manufacturers, in to every practitioner in this kingdom. order to enable them to work as cheap

as our neighbours; for the deàrness of ************** our filks, lace, &c. induces great peo

ple to furnith themfelves with such From the GentLEMAN'S MAGAzine. things from France.

To contrive fome more summary way Heads offered to the Confideration of the to punish petty thefts, and small ofMinistry.

fences ; for the sending such to comHE following particulars are re.

mon goals, teaches them more roguery commended to the serious confi- than they knew before, deration of the present ministry, and

To encourage a Spirit of industry to those that thall succeed them; for and frugality, and to punish Roth and whoever will contribute most to the

drunkenness. redress of national grievances, will be moft approved of by the public.

To take away all pensions, except to indigent persons, or to reward real from the GentleMAN'S MAGAZINE. Services, and merit.

To annihilate alt fine cures in the A Defence of the Majority in the House state, and to make the salaries and pro

of Commons, on the Question relating fit of places hold a proportion to the

to General Warrants. In Answer to dignity of the office, and the trouble

the Defence of the Minority. of executing it.

HE Defence of the Minority is To lop off, or at least to regulate, written with a spirit and eloand fix the fees at public offices. quence which sufficiently distinguishes it

To render private acts of parlia- from the ordinary productions of party ment less expensive.

writers. It contains an appeal to the To raise the credit of the public understandings of mankind ; and subfunds.

mits the conduct of 220 genrlemen to To repeal the marriage act, and the decition of the public. In this light, make matrimony more easy and open every man has a right to enter freely into the common people.

to the discussion of it, and to express



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