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od : The Beauties .0. all the MAGAZINES felettedet 535 duce new fyftems, have been obliged to to general practices and the great prorelinquith their purfuits, and return to ductions which some have lately boasted the old beaten tract which experience of, who are, if I may be pardoned the has confirmed, and to which long expression, a kind of quacks in hur. practice has given an almost indubitable bandry, tend only to prove what every
days experience evinces to be true, that I am aware there are some excepti- in proportion to the labour and expence ons to this general observation; a few that are bestowed upon land, the pro. inen, by a peculiar address, and by duce of it will be provided the differ ftriking out new ways of management ence of soil and manure be added to in husbandry, and by taking advantage the account.
1976.9" of circunstances as they present them When men, however, 2"have once selves, have in the courle of a few posseft them'elves withichimerical noyears amassid fortunes equal to the pur- tions of gain, induced thereto by the chase of the estates' upon which they plausible reasoning of speculative en have been raised; but it thould be pare quirers, who are but too apt to confi. ticularly remarked, on this occasion, der things in the extreme, there is a that this was never the case by pursuing sort of infatuation attending them, even any new fyftem of husbandry, but by in their miscarriages, for I have never varying the old according to the advan. yet known one of these gentlemen tages that offered.
who have failed in what is called the I knew a farmer in Effex, who by new husbandry, who has ever attrirenting only a hundred pounds a year, buted his ill success to any defect or acquired a fortune of' 10,000 l. and error in the principles ; but has aldied a young man ; his method was, to ways thrown the blame on his unlucky acquaint himself with the feedlinen in choice of managers ; not perhaps suffi. London, to contract with them for the ciently considering the difficulty of maproduce of a certain number of acres, naging a large extent of land with that and to deliver that produce to each, çare and circumspection, that nicety cleaned and properly prepared for sale and even dexterity which are absolutely at a certain price ; this lie continued necessary, in the new way, to ensure to do from year to year to the inutual success. fatisfaction and advantage of both par The ingenious Mr. Jethro Tull was ties ; another part of his farm he plant. the first Englishman, perhaps the first ed with herbs for distillation and medic writer, ancient or modern, who has cine, and he supplied the apothecaries attempted with any tolerable degree of with thesė at a very' moderate price ; a success to reduce agriculture to certain third part he plowed in the ordinary and uniform principles; and it muft be way; and the remainder he laid down confessed, that he has done more towith grass." He contrived the instru. wards establishing a rational and
prac. ments molt proper for the cultivation of tical method of husbandry than all the his lands; and he confined himself to writers who have gone before him ; no regalar practice but accommodated neither will it be a reflection upon those his culture to the nature of his foil, and great names abroad Du Hamel, &c. &c. the furt of vegetable it was intended to wlr: have since endeavoured to improve .produce ; by this means he improved upon his theory, that they have not his lands amazingly, and by improving fully and clearly comprehended it.! them enriched' himself: ");":
Jethro Tull, Efq; of Prosperous Farm The boalted crops sometimes produc.. on he borders of Berkshire, where he ed, and the advantages made by an 3 wrote his treatise on "horse-hoeing huscie of land so managed and planted, bandry, was a gentleman of an ancient tho' it may make a striking figure in a family in Oxfordshire, had a competent news.paper, can never be extended in. paternal estate, and a liberal university
education, which he iinproved by ap- ments upon corn and grass to confirm plying himself to the ftudy of the law, disprove his new hypothelis. not as a profession, but to investigate The success of the experiments he the true principles of the conftitution made in his garden encouraged him to of his country, in which he hoped, one extend them into his field, and he now day or other, to make no inconsidera- first began to contrive instruments to ble figure ; after being admitted a bar- facilitate the labour, and to render the rister in the temple, he made what is whole business of husbandry as expedicalled the Grand tour, visited the feve- tious in his new way, as it was, after ral" courts of Europe, and in every long practice, in the old. country through which he passed, was Novelty always excites curiosity; maà diligent observer of the foil, culture, ny gentlemen came from different parts and vegetable productions natural to on the fame of this new method of each; and of the different methods of farming; some of whom were perplowing, sowing, planting and reap- suaded by the weight of Mr. Tull's aring; and the various instruments made guinents to go hand in hand with him use of in various countries for that in the course of his experiments; while purpofe.
others, who thought themselves more Upon his return home he settled' up- wise, and more discerning, took every 'on his eltate in Oxfordhire, married a occasion of ridiculing the practice, and Lady of a genteel family, and being na of representing it as a fanciful project
, turally inclined to an active life, occll that after a great expence would end in pied a farm of his own, and applied nothing but the ruin of the projector. himself to the management of it in the In general, the whole body of tarmers way that he thought most rational and husbandmen pronounced the mana
In observing the vineyard culture conjuror, who by fowing a third part of in the most fruitful parts of France, he his land, could make it produce a discovered, or thought he discovered quantity equal to that of lowing the one general method of cultivating all whole. land to advantage in all countries; he While the project engrossed the conobferved, chat 'where thë vines flourish. versation of the neighbourhcod for maed the best, the vineyards were most ny miles round, Mr. Tull employed regularly planted, and the soil molt himself asliduously in training of fercarefully dressed; that by frequently vants, and in accommodating the inplowing, hoeing, and stirring, the struments proper for his new hulbandry
ground was kept fine and light, the to their limited capacities : and this weeds destroyed, and the soil enriched : work he found much harder to accomthat where this care was taken, the plich than he at first expected, it was clusters were large and full, and the less easy to drive the plougliman out of juice rich and high flavoured ; but his way, than to teach the beasts of the where the vineś where suffered to grow field to perform the work. The Jato promiscuously, and all culture neglected, Lord Ducie Moreton, who followed fave pruning, the clusters were compa Mr. Tull, or rather accompanied him rativelý lean and meagrė, the juice poor in this laborious and vexatious buliness, and flat, and the annual shoots far less has very frequently, if I have been luxuriant than in the vineyards proper. rightly iifornied, to correct the aukly managed. From these observations 'wardness of his ploughmen, or overhe concluded, 'that a regular method of come their obstinacy, stript himself of planting or fowing every kind of vege- his dignity, and put his hand to the table was the way to propagate it to molt plough himseif; and yet with all this advantage, and he began with experi- condescension in his lordtaip, and with
* Here is was that he wrote his book qa Harle-boxing bulbandıy, and where many of his er experiments were gied.
all the vigilance, activity, and ingenu- cessfully, though not rapidly, nor much ity of Mr. Tull, who was a most ex less expensively in the prosecution of cellent mechanick, they were both force his new system. He demonftrated to ed at laft, after a world of money ex all the world the good effects of his pended to very little effect, to relinquith Horle Hoeing Culture; and by raising the project, and to content themselves crops of_wheat without dunging for with farming their lands in the ordina. 13 years together in the fame field, ery way, except some small portions of qual in quantity, and superior in quait, which they reserved for further ex- lity to these of his neighbours in the periments.
ordinary course, he demonstrated the Some time after this, Mr. Tull by in. truth of his own doctrine, that labour tense application, vexatious toil, and and arrangement would supply the too frequently exposing himself to the place of dung and fallow, and would vicissitudes of heat and cold in the open produce more corn at an equal or less fields, contracted a disorder in his expence. But though Mr. Tull was breast, which not being found curable fuccelsiul in demonstrating that this in England, obliged him a second time might be done, he was not so happy in to travel, and to seck a cure in the mild. doing it himself. His expences were en. er climates of France and Italy. Here hanced various ways ; but chiefly by he again attended more minutely to the the stupidity of workmen in constructculture of those countries, and, having ing his instruments. And in the little else to do, he employed himself aukwardness and wickedness of his during three years residence abroad, to servants, who because they did not, or reduce his observations to writing, with would not comprehend the use of them, a view of once more endeavouring to teldoni failed to break fome essential introduce them into practice, if ever he part or other, in order to render them should be so happy as to recover his useless. Thele disadvantages were dif. health, and be able to undergo che fa. cernible only to Mr. Tull himself ;. tigues of a second attempt. From the the advantages attending the new hufa climate of Montpelier, and the waters bandry were now visible to all the of that salutary spring, he found in a world ; and it was now that Mr. Tull few months that relief which all the was prevailed upon by the follicitatipower of physic could not afford him at ons of the neighbouring gentlemen wlio home ; and he returned to appearance were witnesses of its utility, to pubperfectly repaired in his conftitution ; lith his theory, illustrated by a genuine but greatly embarrafled in his fortune. account of the result of it in practice,
Part of his paternal estate in Oxford, which he engaged to do, and faithfulMire he had fold, and before his de- ly performed at no trivial expence. parture had settled his family on his Not led by vanity, nor encouraged tarın at Prosperous already mentioned, by the hope of gain to commerce auwhere he returned with a firm refoluti. tlior, he at first thought only of me. on to perfect his former undertaking, thodizing his thoughts, and clasing having as he thought devised means his observationins to some order for the during his absence to obviate all diffi. use of his friends : but when he was cuities, and to force his new husbandry once engaged, the subject ripened in into practice by the success of ir, in his hands, and, like the vegetables un. spite of all the opposition that should be der his culture, grew more full and per raised by the lower class of husbandmen feet by a nice and orderly arrangement. against it.
A genius, and a man zealous for He revised and rectified all his old his own reputation and the public instruments, and contrived new ones service, cannot handle a favourite proper for the different foils of his new subject superficially. He entered into tarm; and he now went on PC!ly luc. The vegetable properties of plants, their VOL, IlI.
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production and nutrition, with the pre-writers on husbandry, who, at present cition of a philosopher; and he laid disgrace the subject, and to direct the down, the methods by which they were practical farmer, who is really in earnest to be propagated with the knowledge of to improve his farm, to the genuine an old experienced husbandman. The source from whence he may draw that inftruments, wbich, after various trials, true and experienced knowledge that he had found to answer the best, he may be safely relied upon in practice ; caused to be carefully confructed, and if that practice can be luckily introduced. he had them drawn and accurately defcribed by good artists, under his own ************** inspection a they were not filched, like lacer instruments from one invention From the Gentleman's MAGAZINE, under pretence of supplying the defects of another, with a view to acquire the Cautions against the Practice of defas; reputation of a mechanic, but were all ing Pictures by Picture-cleaners. the genuine production of his own in E were informed the other day, vention, tried and altered again and a. by a paragraph in the publick gain till they actually performed with ac- papers, that Carlo Vanloo, painter to curacy and facility the work they were the king of France, was arrived in Engintended to complete. Such are the land on purpose to fee the many capital instruments which Mr. Tull has exhi- paintings of the greatest masters, with bited, and which have been altered and which we are told this kingdom abounds. disjointed, reudered imperfect, and ut. But in the conclusion of the paragraph terly useless. by pretended improvers it is faid, that in doing this he would, both at home and abroad, who perhaps in all likelihood, meet with many diffi. never saw the originals, and who had culties. What these difficulties are we not genius to comprehend the drawings, were not informed, nor can I guess, unmuch less to improve and render them lels the trouble and expence attending more useful,
the seeing these things. These indeed are But to conclude; if with all his la- great, lo that many persons who would bour, knowledge, and expence, Mr. be glad to see them, do not think it Tull, the great father of the new hul- worth their while to pay this double tax, bandry, could never to far succeed in The fawning cringing addresses to those his own practice as to make it the ge- who have it in their power to fhew them, neral culture of his farm, how little together with their gaping expectations jealon is there to expect that future ad- of what you will give them, is very difventurers will be more happy in their agreeable ; and what is itill worse, if endeavours to facilitate its progress. It you do not satisfy them according to were, therefore imprudent in gentle. their liking, it is ten to one but you are men of fortune to listen to the plausible insulted. However, when M. Vanloo reasonings, or sretended experiments of is informed of these scandalous customs common hackney writers, who not hav- of ours, he way remove one difficulty, ing the means of instructing themselves by taking care not to go to these places or the public in the practice of an art with esnpty pockets. But there is anothat requires the utmost application and ther difficulty much more difficult to surgenius to make perfect, content them- mount ? Many of our modern collect. jelves to mangle and new model the la. ors, through their impatience in colbours of others according as the book. lecting, and their eager defire of being feller directs, or their own interest is in thought great judges in painting, have view.
fallen into all the traps and snares of the The intention of this short essay, is picture dealers, who have put into their to prevent gentlemen from attending to hands a parcel of trumpery copies ina he superficial nonsense of the numerous Ite:ad of originals, and those which are
such are so defaced by being rubbed lialf he will send it to Mr! utors, he will unout, and painted over again by fome do all the other has done, and restore despicable wretch of a painter, under it to its original perfection. Then it is the notion of cleaning them, as to ren put into another Quack's lands, whe der them not worth one fartking. Now, plays over the fátie tricks the other had I say, these people will perhaps be very done, so that between both there is not glad to prevent'a man of Mr. Vanloo's one third of the originál painting rejudgment from feeing them, left he maining. Some, no doubt, have eta should discover their foible, and instead caped this fate, but then many of these of admiring their judgment, only laugh are valued more for the name of the at their folly.
painter, than for any'intrinsick merit in However, be this as it will, it is cer- the pictures themselves, Weing badly tain he must meet with many disap- painted, and much inferior to many pointments. All artists know to what our modern paintings."*
.7217 a wretched condition most of our col of fucli pieces as there most of our lections are reduced, by their undergo. modern collections conlft, and hence ing the various operations of a set of arises the disappointment a person of miscreants, called Picture cleaners ; real judgment often meets with in gomen who, for the generality, know no ing to see them ; he finds perhaps two more of painting than a Hottentot, and or three hundred pictures, and does not consequently know not when they are see three worth looking at amongst them doing good or hurt to a picture.
all. Who could ever imagine that colour Some few fine ones we have fill re. men, cabinet-makers, frame-makers, maining amongst us without difputė, brokers, and house painters, could have which have had the good fortune to the assurance to undertake so nice an escape the hands of these men, but most affair as to put to rights a damaged pic- of these are deposited in country. seats ture, a thing that requires the utmost far dittant from town; as for those in. skill of the best painter we have. But and about this metropolis, they are ala when we confider that the judgment of most all demolished, and it is certain, the owners is generally upon a par with if this infatuation of our collectors conthat of the cleaners, it is no longer to tinues a few years longer, we fall not be wondered at, that they should suffer have one picture left in the kingdom themselves to be persuaded to entruft worth notice ; and in all probability things of this consequence in the hands this will be the case, for tliis practice is. of such ignorant pretenders. The gla. arrived to such a length, that no picring appearance a picture makes when' ture bought at an auction, or elsewhere, it firit comes out of the hands of tivese must be sent home before it is sent to men, by the help of their varnishes, the picture-cleaners, and the owner will. gains very much upon the eye of one take as much pride in letting you know who is ignorant of the true excellence who cleaned it, as who painted it. of a painting, and who is apt to think Methinks I hear some of your reada miracle has been wrought upon it, ne ers cry out, “.What then-. are all picver suspecting the picture to be irreco tures utterly spoiled that are undertaken verably rained'; but this tine foon dif. to be cleaned; muf all be ruined that covers, and the owner then sees with are attempted to be mended and repair., regret wliat pains and expence he has ed?" I answer, not when put into the been at to render a fine picture good hands of a man of judgment, and a for nothing.
good painter, who can preserve and reBut the folly does not stop here ; for itore them ; but even such an artist by and by comes another as ignorant as cannot equally benefit all, for some are the first, and tells him it was all owing in so bad a condition, through the ilt to the ignorance of the first operator, if usage they have met with from their
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