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owners by various varnishes and oilings, for the parliament to remedy the evil: one upon another, the dirt at the same that this may be the case is plain; for time lying underneath both that, it is we are told trom Rome and other parts impossible to get all off without damag- of Italy, that their crops are short, and ing the painting ; but, that it may be will not lerve the year round, and condamaged as little as posible, care should fequently we shall be called upon for a be taken to put it into the hands of a fupply:

E230394 very experienced person, not colourmen I am sorry to find every one who ia. or frame-makers, for I should as soon ments the high price of provisions, logive them a commission to make me a sing light of the chief caules and laying fuit of cloaths, as to mend my pictures, it upon a Ignorance and as I am well affured they must know as prejudice unite all in the common cry much of one as the other; and it is against forestallers, &c. and I fear it will chiefly owing to these fort of men that be to little purpose to trace the cause all the mischief has been done that ļ deeper : however, let us remember, that have been complaining of,

to find a wrong cause will put us upon From all that has been said, I believe seeking a wrong cựre. Wheat with us every one will conclude that M. Vanloo (a hundred miles from the capital) is will meet with many difappointments six millings and fix-pence a buthel, and as well as difficulties, and it is well if, has been from five and fix-pence to that after all the trouble and expence he has price for several months paft : now would put himself to, he will not have reason any man in his senses have a quantity to with he had said at home, and em- of wheat in his hands and not bring it ployed his time to a much better pur- to market, if there was no probability pose.

of his having a better price ? one cause then of the high price must be the far. mer's knowing that he has not more

wheat in his barn than what is likely to From the Gentleman's MAGAZINE. sell at a good price the year round: he

certainly finds that he hath not so much Obfervations on the high price of Wheat. as last year, and yet in last year he ne

Was a little concerned to hear in ver had a bad price for it. Let us enI the public papers, that there was

force this opinion by recollecting, what such a number of bills ready to be laid a wet winter and spring the last were; before the parliament, seeing their meet what damage by floods in Lincolnshire ing is to be so late ; for it is to be fear. and the low grounds throughout the ed, the hurry of business may cause some kingdom ; how many thousand acres of to be omitted, that may be of the great- pastyre for our cattle lie now under waeft concern to the nation, and cannot ter ; how much grain was rotted and bave any remedy if the opportunity be spoiled or washed out of the grounds elost this feffion.' of this fort are the very where ; insomuch, that the coun. new regulations talked of in the corn. ty just mentioned produces but about trade, which seem to be highly necef- half the quantity of wheat that it might Sary : for notwithstanding the many ac- have done. The price of corn at this counts we have of a plentiful crop, I am time, is a proof that the exportation of sure, if it be properly enquired into, it last year left our stocks low; and the will be found to be a small crop of above considerations convince us coun wheat ; yet as it is good grain, and try folks that our stock is not large, in well got in, it would certainly carry us comparison to the demand we have of thro' the year at 4. reasonable price, if late had for it. the demand abroad does not lessen the As to our stock of cattle, I do not quantity too much before we are aware wonder, that you Londoners should be of i: ; which may be when it is too latedeceived in that particular ; for it will


require to look back, not only to last is scarcity makes forestallers, and the winter, but to two or three

years be. greatest blow that could be given them yond for the cause. The fummer in was by introducing plenty, as in the im1762 was a very dry one, and the scar portation of Irish butter, beef, &cc. or by city of hay caused such a naughter of preserving plenty, by bringing our laws cattle, that we had good beef for less relating to the exportation of corn unthan two pence a pound. This certain der better regulations. From what has ly thinned the stock; and what kept been laid, I think it must appear that down the rising herd was a dry time the it is a combination of caufes, not of spring following ; which was such a dif men, that keeps corn dear; to enlarge couragement to the rearing of calves, upor all would take up too much of that tho' beef and mutton fold for three your room, but to mention then briefe pence a pound, good veal fold for two ly, they are the shortness of the crop, pence ; which difference could never the riches of the farmers, the practice have happened, if there had not been of raising renes, and lastly, the great an unusual number of calves killed ; let encrease of horses, which in my opini. us add to this the number of sheep on are the greatest foreftallers in the drowned last spring by the floods, in all kingdom. I cannot but lament the exthe low lands throughout the nation travagancy of you Londoners, who keep we shall then see how little reason there horses at a very great expence, to ride is to assert, that “ the oldett man now (not quite so often as) every sunday living, nor history itself cannot point from divine service. From these calda out a period when this country was ses I could thew (by the connection blessed with a more plentiful harvest; they have with each other') that the newith more abundant pasture for our cat ceffaries of life are never like to be lo tle, or cattle for our pasture, than at cheap to the poor labouring manufac-> present."

turer as they have been; and I think I The abundant pasture for our cattle, could point out some regulations in the is a blessing we may be truly thankful corn trade, that might be of service to for; but the good effects of it may not the poor, and yet not too much affect be felt at this juncture ; for if from the the farmer and the landed intereft. In * abovementioned causes, the grazier was the mean time, I assure you, that what forced to buy young cattle at a dear I have said is not under the influence of price, he must bave a good price now; any interested views; for I have no reand if he cannot get it, he will be in. lation in the world that deals in any duced to keep them till after Christmas, sort of provisions. - I have a great fzwhen they will fetch a good price; and mily to provide for, and feel the exorthis, because he hath abundant pasture bitant price of provisions, but cannot for them. --But this withholding will be run away with the current of popular no disadvantage to the public ; because prejudice, being a lover of truth. the more cattle are withheld, the more reasonable will the price be at spring. ***********

These considerations may account for the price of wheat, and provisions in From the Gentleman's MAGAZINE. general, without attributing it wholly to forestallers and that tribe : I do not Extrakt from a Journal written by Mr. mean, by what I say, to infinuate that John Bartram of his Travels into there is no fault in that class of cormo Carolina. rants ; cheese and butter with you in OW I am in this country, it may London, are most certainly the objects not be unentertaining to give a of their avarice; but had these not been their account of the Catabaw Indians, scarce, there would have been no room a valiant nation, now almost extinct. for forestallers to practice upon us. It These Çatabaws for many years main



tained a bloody and revengeful war with the five united Indian nations of c! Observations or Vipersect;a New York, who, according to their A gentleman affured Mr. Bartram, common method of war, attacked them that be thad, vexed a 1 viper ito chat by furprize, killed many, took what degree that he bit' himself, and then they conld prisoners, and then retreat. turned on his back and died and altera ed with the utmost expedition; the Ca- wards, as Mr. Bartram was travelling, tabaws always pursued them so close he saw a black viper in a co by the that they generally obtained a fufficient road side ; he then bethought himself revenge's they fometimes chafed them to try the experiment he had fb tately as far as the river Susquehana, bringing heard, of which he doubted the truth : back many scalps as a token of their vice he got a cleft stick, and drew the viper tory. The following is an instance of into the road, which so irritated him, their resolution and intrepidity : that he hiffed and spread his head and

A party of the Five Nations surpri- neck very fiat, and his body fattila, fed a town on the river Wateree, whilst attempting at the same time to inake the men were out a hunting, and de- off, but he stopped his career, which ftroyed their families; when the men provoked him so much, that in a rage returned and saw what had been done, he opened his mouth to its utmolt ex they were fired with the utmoft re tent, and drew half the length of his venge, and pursued the aggressors di. body thro' it, into his ftomach, and rectly : but the Indians of the Five Na- seemed to bite himself: he immediately tions travelling night and day, and turned on his back, his jaws being wide kindling no fires for several nights, for open, his tongue lolling out, and lying fear of being discovered, got so far the on his neck, and a flm covering his Bart of the Catabaws, that they could eyes; his body was also contrácted, and not come up with them. Having con his belly funk between his ribs ; he lay tinued the pursuit several days, they quite motionless, and was to appearance were at last discouraged from proceed. dead. Mr. Bartram ftood at fome ing further ; but a stout young Cata- distance from him to observe his motibaw, protesting he would not return ons ; in about five or fix minutes he without a fcalp, set off alone, and began to draw in his tongue, by slow found their encampment ; he lay con- degrees he laut his jaws, then the film cealed that night, watching an opportu. removed from over his eyes, which apnity to effect his purpofe, which hap. peared very bright, he first turned his pened early the next morning : for an lead and neck, then his '

whole body, Indian happening to itraggle from the and, foon after, the subtle ferpent seft, he foot and scalped him, and carried crept away. home bis trophy with great applause. Next day he espied another viper,

The' confederate Indians, however, by the way fide, upon which he got a being more numerous, overpowered Stick, and provoked him he did the them at last, so that continual wars other. This viper soou feigned himself and the small pox, from a numerous dead, and Mr. Bartram ftool-a" confination, reduced them to 70 fighting derable time looking at him ; at length men and their families, who were o. he revived again, and endeavoured to bliged to leave their country, and set- creep away, but was prevented. tle among the English for protection, A person afterwards overtook him, and having a tract of land allotted them, relatett a story he had heard well aflertupon which they have built a little town. ed, that our fpittle injected into the This small remnant has intirely lof the mouth of a lorpent, was mortal poison. martial irit and activity of their an This he determined to try the fiift op: cestors, and funk into floth and indo-portunity. Some time after he found jence,

a viper, which he proroked to open its



mouth, and keeping it in that posture, ledge, cannot, especially at present, do he spit on the end of a Kick, and drop without this affittance. At what time ped the spittle into its mouth, it pre. did the reign alone in the world? Was sently turned on its back, and seemed it not in the fresuness of fpeing embelto all intents quite dead ; but the food libing nature, which had newly budded so long as to fee it revive and recover. : forth! She thens governed alimen as Lillevs 19 aCA 10.6 one family, and even then laboured

molt at enlarging their conceptionsy and til 10! 10:1;

increafing the springs of their forlatt InFrom the UNIVERSAL MACAZINE. nocent and useful employment was then Thoughts on Lav, by Stanislaus, King live by chance their occupations were

a source of pleasure. Mankind did not of Poland.

not, as the greater part of oui's, withKnow not, dear Cleanthes, why out motive and without object; they

the ancient philofopbers, the primi- were not enabarrafled by the lass:of the tive Christians, and the Manicheans treasure of tiine, nor the weight of their particularly, have gone so far wide of existence. The earth and their hands the question in striving to discover the were their only riches. . They had no principle of good and evil. They would knowledge of the fatal art.of multiplyperhaps have fucceeded better by feek- ing their wants ; fuperfluities were not ing for it in our reason, which most com- yet become neceffary. Justice was ramonly is the source of both. That light, ther, in them, an instinct than virtue. which is given to direct us, is often o Content with practiling moral truths, verspread by fuch thick clouds, that it they neither studied to distinguish nor becomes ftill more dangerous than un define them. A good action found its serviceable to us. We do not then fee glory in itself; they only fought after where we walk, and we run blindly in. happiness in the tranquillity of a pure to the evil which we were unable to conscience, and in a mutual confidence, foresee or know. Should reason appear supported by candor and sincerity. again in her fplendor, we run after But, fince arbitrary principles of hogood, the fight of which must charm nour and wisdom have fucceeded to the the fight. Thus, from reason alone, Simplicity, the moderation, and the plain inore or less enlightened, proceeds the virtue of our forefathers; since paflions innocence or irregularity, the good or have perverted manners, debased fouls, bad conduct of men.

and brought effeminacy, dissimulation, Without those unhappy alternatives, ostentatious fhew, frivolous pursuits, more or less frequent in every man, it with all sorts of errors and follies, into would have been sufficient, undoubied. request ; since interest has withdrawa lý, to make us love and practise o!!r all attachment to the public good, and duty ; but, reason being every moment circumícribed, as it were, every man subject to be extinguished, and often within himself; fince interest also has without hopes of brightening out again, gained the afcendant over justice, and there was a necessity that divine and hu. ambition over virtue ; since the love of man laws, as (wo luminaries inaking luxury has given birth to an insatiable but one and she same body of effulo avidity, and the point of honour is begence, should come to enlighten her, come an idol requiring bloody facrifices ; and, by this means, keep us from re- since politics have banished integrity ; sembling those twin brothers of the fa- since few make a secret of their pleable, sometimes inhabitants of the hea sures, and even erest a 'trophy of their vens, and sometimes citizens of Tenarus. debaucheries, the law of nature being

Ic is undoubtedly a melancholy re no longer sufficient, there was a necelHection, that reason, which from age fiy toy stronger curbs to more impetu. to age has lo much extended her knowo ous and untractable rempers.


It is entirely to the increase of vice even willing to be ignorant of her selfs that we owe the establishment of laws. reflects on what the is, and is pleased in Would to God that we could now attri- enjoying herself, without any other debute, to their force and wisdom, the sign than exciting herself more to the abolition of the disorders, which have practice of her duties. This delicious made them to be enacted! but the contentment is not an illusion of selfmeans men's malice bas imagined, for love unknown to virtue. All that the eluding the laws, increase, in propor- thinks is as true, as jult, and as up. tion to the restraint they impose : Al right as herself, ready, as an impetuous torrent, paf The most scrupulous justice, and the fions have broke down those dykes, and most exact in observing the laws, may be very soon, as before, they will over. mistaken ; it may sometimes condemn whelm the whole face of the earth: innocence, or be so blinded as to absolve And who will be able to stop short the crimes; but the decisions of consciinundation ?

ence are always infallible, tho' guided Nothing is more certain, my dear only by our own lights. Wittrout exCleanthes, than what you say of con- amination, without enquiry, without science. It is a law equally incorrupti- information, the sees at once all that ble and fevere, which it is not poffible to need be blamed or approved." break through or weaken. It gives us

From this law, profoundly graved by a quick sepse of the evil we do, and its the finger of God himself on all hearts, reproaches are more terrible to us than may be derived all those which point the evil itself; it lays open continually out the extent of the obedience and fito us the faults that are known only to delity we owe to those whom Providence ourselves; it terrifies the wicked, and, has allotted to us for regulating our if it cannot make them wiser, it makes manners and conduct. them more wretched. In short, it is a The object of those laws is to form judge the more implacable when its citizens capable of making a state enjoy counsels are despised; the more intelli- happiness and tranquillity. It is cergent, as knowing the inmost recesses of tain they retain more force in the hand our hearts; and the more fure, as never of one only, than when the observance pronouncing fentence but on incontest- of them is confided to a whole nation, able proofs, and equally evident to itself which might place in the number of its and to ourselves.

privileges that of not obeying them ; If laws had been made for rewarding wiience a fatal corruption and dangegood actions as well as punifhing crimes, rous anarchy must be the consequence. undoubtedly the number of the virtu- We may be happy in a monarchy ; eveous would be more increased by the in- ry thing then yields to the laws ;. but in vitation of a promised advantage, than a republican govetnment all pretend to the number of the wicked lessened by the command, and obedience being fet arigour of the punishments designed for side or suspended, none can enjoy tianthem ; and this is exactly, if we attend quillity, one of the principal, conftitu. to it, the case before the tribunal of ents of the happiness of life. ' conscience. Tbe wicked are there pu Climate has a considerable influence nished by the bitter reproaches even of over the genius, character, and custoins the most hidden crimes; the good re: of a people. From the difference of ceive there the reward of their most fe- their sentiments and prejudices, we may cret virtues, not only by the exemption account for that of the governñents we of all remorse, but by pleasing tettimo. know of in the world. Fear recains nies which envy cannot destroy ; by an forne under a despotic authority; 0. interior charm, more easily felt than de- thers, naturally more resolute, and less seribed ; by an unforeseen return of a tiinid, jealous of the liberty they have good soul on herfelf, which, when she is received from nature, dread an ablo-'


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