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likewise surprised to see he had outlived recting his discourse to the Portugueze, the ftorin, which, according to their ac. swore he would never quit the caraval,uncount, had lasted fifteen days without til he should have taken a hundred Portu. intermission; and as they, faid, there gueze, and destroyed the whole island. was in the neighbourhood an hermitage Mean while he returned to the port he dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the ad. had left, but next day the wind increa. miral and crew resolved to perforin fing, and his riding being unsafe, he their vow by walking thither barefoot, loft his anchors, and was obliged to especially as the people and governor ex

stand out to sea towards the illand of prelied such affection, and belonged to St. Michael, though not without being a prince in amity with their Caitillian exposed to great danger, having but majesties.

three fearnen left, the rest being boys, He therefore sent the caraval's boat Indians and landmen, who understood afnore, with one hair of the company, nothing of lea-affairs. Next day, the to fulfil this penance, with orders to weather being mild, he endeavoured to return inmediately, that the rest might recover the island of St. Mary, which Succeed thein in the same fort of devouon; he reached on Thursday the 21st, in but, they had no sooner undressed them the afternoon; and soon after his arriselves and began their procession, than

val, the boat came off with five men they were attacked and made prisoners and a notary, who upon proper security by the governor, and a number of peo. went on board, and defired to know, in ple who had lain in ambush for that the governor's name, from whence the purpose. Columbus having waited in ship came, and whether or not the ad. vain, from day-break till noon, for the miral had the king of Spain's commisli. return of the boat, began to suspect on. Being satisfied in these particulars, foul play, and as he could not, where they went alhore, and released the Spahe lay, discover the hermitage, he sail

niards, who had been informed that ed round a point from whence he could the king of Portugal had sent orders to see it, and perceived a good many Por all his governors, to secure, if possible, tuguese on horseback alight and enter the person of the admiral ; and that, as the boat, with intent, as he supposed,

this scheme did not succeed, they had to attack the caraval. He therefore or dismissed the prisoners whom they had dered his men to be upon their guard,

taken. and was not without hope that the coin. Columbus having recovered all his mander would come on board, in which men, departed from the island of Saint case he would have detained him as an Mary on Sunday the 24th of February, hostage : but as the Portuguese would being in great want of wood and ballast, not advance beyond a certain distance, though the wind was favourable. On the admiral deinanded their reason for the 3d of March they were exposed to committing such an outrage upon his

another tempest, attended with lightning men, who had gone ahore upon the and thunder, during which their fails faith of a safe conduct, and gave him were split, and they vowed another to understand the king of Portugal pilgrimage to our lady de Cinta at Guela would certainly be offended at such be va: they now ran under their bare poles haviour to the subjects of their Catho. through a terrible sea, and had well lic majesties, with whom he was in al. nigh been lost on the rock of Lisbon, liance. To this remonstrance the Por which they accidentally discovered at tugueze captain answered, that what midnight : this they weathered with they had done was by the express order great difficulty; and next day being of the king; so that Columbus ima obliged to come to an anchor in the rigining there was a breach between the ver Tagus, the admiral sent away an two crowns, called all his people to bear express to their Catholic majelties with witness to what they had heard, and di. the news of his arrival; and another





to the king of Portugal, asking leave ************** to anchor before the city, as he did not think himself safe in his present situation, From the UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE, (To be continued in our next.] Inquiry into the surprising Effects of in

fenfible Corpuscles. HE research of imperceptible

elements presents to the natural From the COURT MAGAZINE.

lift a multiplicity of subjects which are The Reformed Rake.

highly deserving of his admiration and

aitention. Every thing is performed AM the son of a wealthy baronet by them in nature. It is vapours that

in the county of L-, and at the form meteors ; it is insensible corpuscles age of fixteen was sent from the care of that are instrumental in producing the a private tutor in the country to finith most perfect mechanism of nature ; and my education at Westminster. I had indeed we find them performing the dif. hardly escaped from the watchful eyes ferent functions of levers, pullies, wheels, of my father and master in the coun- wedges, screws, springs į and all this try, but, exulting in my new acquired in a very powerful and effectual man. liberty, I began to roam in search of

A little water is fufficient for rai. pleasures (as I then thought them) fing the greatest weights. If a weight which London afords in greater num of fix hundred pounds is fastened to a ber and variety than any other place in beam by a well tended rope, and this the universe. I had not been a year at rope is sprinkled with water, it will be Westminster before I was known to all seen that these humid corpuscles, by inthe brothel.keepers about the Garden, finuating themselves into the rope, will and was familiar with most of the girls either break it, or raile the weight of upon the town.

In a few weeks, in six hundred pounds from off the ground. deed, after my connection with there

When Sixtus Quintus bad ordered the people, I found an equal defect in my great obelisk of the Vatican to be erectpocket and my health ; and after five ed, Fontana, the famous architect, not years spent among the lowest and vilett having foreseen that the weight of a of mankind, I found my conftitution mass, of a million, fix thousand, and so much impaired, that I was obliged to forty eight pounds, would lengthen the decline my connections from mere ina cables, must have failed in his enterbility to pursue them. Now it was that prise, were it not for an unknown voice I turned my thoughts towards the ma that cried out, Wet the cables.' Which trimonial state ; and having paid my having been quickly done, they became addresses to a young lady of a consider.

thorter, and bore up the prodigious obeable family and fortune, I was thought lish on its bale. Sturmius proposed raiby her relations to be a suitable match fing a millitone by only blowing underit. for her ; I communicated the affair to

Insensible corpuscles, considered in amy father, received his permission, and nother light, are also attended with very in a few weeks was united to one of the surprising effects.

A grain of musk, molt amiable women upon earth. But, formed in the bladder of a species of alas ! I am unworthy of her; and goat, without scarce lofing any thing of though, since my marriage, I have ne

its substance, exhales, for several years ver injured her in thought, word, or

together, an odour capable of weakendeed, yet I had before incapacitated my- ing at a certain distance, stopping, stuself from making her a good husband, pitying, and rendering immoveable very and I lire a melancholy proof of the Itrong serpents. fallity of the common proverb, that A sword-blade, that is well tempered A reformed rake makes the best bufband. and polithed, is a very folid, compact,


and close body; yet the corpuscles, de- into diftant countries and for a long tached from the blood of an animal, time ; that the wines, for example, open a passage for themselves through transported into England from the Caits pores, make a lodgient therein, and naries, France, and Spain, suffer some remain there for a very considerable agitation and fermentation, when the time. Nothing but fire can make those vine is in bloom ; it is, notwithstandparticles of blood evaporate. For, if ing, scarce credible that corpuscles come the sword is held over burning coals, a from the Canaries, France and Spain, humidity, resembling thetain the breath to seek each very distinctly their hogmakes on a looking glass, is seen to come head of wine, as Sir Kenelm Digby out on the opposite side of the blade. seems to persuade us they do. This This experiment teaches surgeons to seems strange, yet is much more fupknow the depth of a wound without portable than those instincts, or those naprobing it, this ebullition being only tural amours, which fome attribute to found on the part of the Sword that en- bodies to explain whatever they fancy. tered the body.

This phenomenon, however, should The force of corpuscles appears evi- not appear very embarrassing to a nadent in the effects of gunpowder. When turalist. In the time of the vine's be: it catches fire, the infentible corpuscles, ginning to be in bloom, there is a cera extremely agitated, communicate their tain effervescence iu the air, which motion to the acid salts of the fulphur, causes, at the same time, the fermentathe volatile, long, and stiff parts of the tion of the wine in the vessel, and the falt-petre, and the gross bodies of the fermentation of the sap in the filtres of charcoal. This matter of sulphur, salt. the vine. This effervescence of the air petre, charcoal, and air, disengaged, is the more probable, being then very separated, and drawn asunder, by the sensible to ourselves, by its mild and rapid agitation of the subtile corpus. tepid state. It is the same physical cles, is carried off with the same rapidi. cause, which occasions salted wild boar's ty as the corpuscles themselves, and flesh to change its taste and colour, in overthrows whatever opposesits violence. the rutting time of those animals. The fubtile corpuscles, that pafied freely If we admitted Sir Kenelni Digby's through the bodies of the powder, not explanation, we might allo feriously finding the passages sufficiently open for believe what is reiated in the Memoirs the gross parts they carried along with of Trevoux (December 1730] by way them, break and throw at a conlidera. of pleasantry, that a man, with an exble distance whatever opposes their pro. cellent microicope, perceived how the digious velocity, in making an etiort fire separated ail the parts of the iuei by the weakest place, and least capable on which it acied, a:id darted them aof resistance. Thus it is that the waters, gainit a fillet of veal roasting on a spit, which flow under a bridge, do not en- inaking incitions into all the parts, whereof damage it on account of the inailnets and some were conveited into gravy, anilofuidity of their parts : but the bridge is thersturned into a delicate

vapour, which in danger of being thrown down, if filled the kitchen, and pleafa.tsy twichthose waters carry along with them ed the olfactory nerves.

Going out of beams, pieces of ice, and other folid town, says this perfon, we saw in the bodies, which, by not finding a free fields a hare that was hunting; he skippassage, are driven against the bridge, ped along wiihin ten paces of 113, and, with as much motion and force as the looking at him with the microscope, lie waters have. In general the force of seemed to nie as a firebrand leaving it. agents is increased by the resistance that ter it a thick smoke. In a party ai tenmakes more parts and brings act-at once. nis, I felt an inclination for one of the

If it be true that the state of the vine players, and an averfion for the viber; has an influence over wines transported and the microscope the wed me that the VOL. III.




corpuscles, transpired by him for whom here and there, they are still suspended, I had conceived an inclination, hooked till they are released from their impriand linked with those that I transpired fonment by the genial disposition of the myselt ; which was quite the reverse in fun, or by the natural warmth, humiregard to the other : the author of this dity and rarefaction of the air. article, in the Memoirs of Trevoux, It is not to be doubted, but that the adds from Horace,

rain drops out of the clouds, because Spectatum admiffi risum teneatis amici?

we do not find it rain, but where clouds

are to be seen; and by how much the Friends ! could ye see all this, and keep fairerthe weather is the seldomer it rains. from 'laugliing?

Rain is a very frequent and useful me

teor, descending from above in form of *********** drops of water ; and it seems to differ

from dew only in this, that dew falls at From the UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE.

some particular times, and in very smalt

drops, so as to be seen when it is down, As the Season has for some Time paft been but is scarce perceptible while falling i uncommonly moist and whet, the fols

. whereas rain is grosser, and falls at any lowing Disertation on Rain may be

time. agreeable to a good many of our Readers.

Rain is apparently a precipitated AIN is generally accounted to be cloud, as clouds are nothing but vapours

a crude vapour of the earth, but raised from moisture, waters, &c. and more especially of the sea, drawn up vapours are demonstratively nothing else from thence by the attractive power of but little bubbles, or vesiculæ, detachthe fun, or carried towards the sun by ed from the waters by the power of the impulsion, and wafted by the winds into solar or subterraneous heat, or both. the aerial region, by which sublimation These vesiculæ, being specifically lightand rarefaction, and the virtual quali- er than the atmosphere, are buoyed up ties of the sun and air, it is formed into thereby till they arrive at a region where clouds.

the air is a just balance with them; and The crudities are dispelled, and these here they float, till by some new agent clouds are suspended, and hang in the they are converted into clouds, and air; and, though it may be thought thence into either rain, snow, hail, mist, impossible that they should be so suspend- or the like. But the agent in this fored in the air, by reason of their great mation of clouds, &c. is a little contro'weight and pressure, yet it will not ap- verted : the generality will have it to be pear fo on confideration.

the cold, which, constantly occupying When these vapous are thus drawn the superior regions of the air, chills up to any considerable height by the and condenses the veficulæ at their arstrength of the air which is underneath rival from a warmer quarter, congrethem, and which still grows greater and gates, and occafions several of them to greater, and, by its motion, undulat- coalesce into little masses; by this means, ing this and that way, they rise gradu- their quantity of matter increasing in a ally through the air.

greater proportion than their surface, This is demonstrable by paper kices, they become an over-load to the lighter which, after they are raised to about 60 air, and descend into rain. feet high, rise easier', and with greater The coldness of the air may cause the Twiftness; and the higher, till the bet- particles of the clouds to lose their moter and stronger they fiy.

tions, and become less able to resist the These vapours, being thus arrived gravity of the incumbent air, and coninto the middle region of the air, are lequently to yield to its pressure and fall foon' aggregated and condensed into to the ground. The wind may collect bodies and clouds. And, though blown the vapours in such abundance, as first

to form very thick clouds, and then to condense or disipate them, they form a squeeze those clouds together, till the heavy, thick, dark sky, which lasts watery particles make drops too big to sometimes several days or weeks. hang in the air. But the grand cause, Hence we may account for many of according to M. Rohault, is still behind; the phenomena of the weather, as why he conceives it to be the heat of the air, a cold is always a wet summer, and a which, after continuing for some time warm a dry one, because the principle near the earth, is, at length, carried of precipitation is had in the one case, up on high by a wind, and there, thaw- and wanting in the other : why we have ing the frozen villi, or flocks of the half commonlymolt rain about the equinoxes, frozen vesiculæ, reduces them into drops, because the vapours arise more plentiwhich, coalescing, descend, and have fully than ordinary in the spring, as the their dissolution perfected in their pro- earth becomes loosened from the brumal gress through the lower and warmer constipations, and because, as the sun itages of the atmosphere.

recedes from us in autumn, the cold inM. Le Clerc and others ascribe this creasing the vapours that had lingered descent of the clouds rather to an alte. above during the summer heats, are now ration of the atmosphere than of the ve- dispatched down : why a settled, thick, ficulæ, and suppose it to proceed from a close sky seldom ever rains, till it has been diminution of the spring or elaltic force first cleared, because the equally contusof the air. This elasticity, which de- ed vapours must first be condensed and pends chiefly or wholly upon the dry congregated into separate clouds to lay terrene exhalations being weakened, the the foundation of rain, by which means atmosphere sinks under its burden, and the rest of the face of the heaven is left the clouds fall upon the common prin. open, and pervious to the rays of the ciple of precipitation. Now the little sun, &c. vesiculæ, by any, or all of these means, M. Le Clerc observes, that all winds being once upon the descent, will perlift do not produce rains, but only such as therein, notwithstanding the increase of collect a great quantity of vapours. resistance they every moment meet with Thus, in Holland, west winds are rainy in their progress through still denser because they come from the ocean, and parts of the atmosphere. For, as they all blow up the vapours ; east winds blow tend towards the same point, the center clear, because they come over valt tracts of the earth, the farther they fall, the of land ; north winds are rainy, because more coalitions will they make ; and they come from the sea, but not so rainy the more coalitions, the more matter as the west, because the cold north does will there be under the fame surface, the not yield such a quantity of vapours as surface not only increasing as the squares, the kinder climate of the Britannic but the folidity as the cubes ; and the ocean ; south winds bring rain too, for more matter under the same surface, that they, consisting of vapours raised the less friction or resistance there will by the heat of the sun in a hot quarter, be to the same matter. Thus, if the and 10, being elevated above others in cold, wind, &c. happen to act early the air, seem to lie upon our clouds, enough to precipitate the vesiculæ, before and press them down towards the earth. they arrive at any considerable height, Again; rain may be produced after the coalitions being few in so short a de. this manner : if the vapours rise in so scent, the drops will be proportionably great abundance, as to reach and mingle small, and thus is formed what we call with the clouds above them, then they dew. If the vapours prove inore copi- cause rain in very large drops; and this oys, and rise a little higher, we have a may happen in till, sultry weather, for mift or fog. A little higher still, and then the clouds which are over our heads, they produce a small rain. If they nei. have no sensible motion, and, in the mean der meet with cold nor wind enough to time, the heat fills the air with vapours,


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