Imágenes de páginas

adequate. Many shut-ins are not in school and not likely to be found. A census is needed that a thoroughgoing plan of clinics and vocational training service may be devised.

The present New Orleans equipment is perhaps as typical and as peculiar as that of most cities when one examines all the elements of a children's program. We found not only a genuine spirit of cooperation in the study but a desire to know, which promises adaptation to needs, flexibility to make changes, and a receptivity to new ideas that will bring results. No single plan can fit every community. The plan must grow out of the indigenous social life of the city, but may be guided by those who understand the fundamentals of good children's work and successful methods in other places.


Rowland Haynes, Director, Welfare Federation of Cleveland

In was your chairman's modesty in shaping the program which kept him from choosing Chicago as the city to be used as an illustration of recreation. We all recognize that Chicago has developed recreation much farther. However, Cleveland may be suggestive as a city more nearly ordinary.

First I want you to understand the difference between the task of Mr. Lies and that which I have. My job is not to criticize, not to say what is good or bad in Cleveland, but simply to try to draw an understandable picture of what is being done here. In order to do that, I have had placed in your hands this little outline.

In the first chart we have tried to enumerate all the social work being done in Cleveland, not merely that being done by private philanthropic organizations, but that done by tax funds and commercial organizations. This is not an organization chart which shows relationships; it is simply a table which enumerates the types of work. In the second chart we have simply tried to show the relationships between those organizations which are administering recreation in this city. The data for the last table and last chart are from Mr. Clapp's Study of the Volume and Cost of Social Work under the auspices of the American Association for Community Organization. The third table shows for Cleveland only the average number per day using philanthropic agencies in Cleveland in each of four types of work: dependency, delinquency, health, and character building. In order to get a comparison in Cleveland between different types of work and a comparison between Cleveland and the average of nineteen other cities, Chart IV is used. This shows the amount of money spent and its source. The measure is not very satisfactory, but we took the only basis on which we had

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

material available. The significance of each of these tables and charts seems to me to be as follows:

Chart I shows that the largest amount of welfare work in Cleveland, as in most cities, is done by tax-supported bodies. This is significant because when you are trying to get an appropriation from tax bodies, or any other bodies, it is what they are doing as a whole that affects what you will get. The whole picture is significant, for what is being done as a whole affects the amount available and needed for any given field.

Chart II simply segregates the recreation activities in Cleveland, dropping any reference to dependency, delinquency, or health. It is significant since it indicates that we have no centralized recreation commission, as in some cities, and no predominant development by either park or school board. We get a loose coordination of plans and work through the Recreation Council, which has in it not even the germ of any compulsory power. It is an organ of understanding to develop and promote, but not to enforce, a comprehensive plan.

Chart III uses a common unit of measure, the average number served in a day. It is a poor basis of comparison, because in a hospital or children's institution the day's service is twenty-four hours long, while on a playground it may cover only a couple of hours, but it is the best unit we can get which will be common to all four types of work. In the dependency group seven-eighths of the work is done by private agencies, because in Cleveland we have no public outdoor relief. In the delinquency group approximately seven-eighths of the service is likewise given by the private agencies. The proportion of the service in the health field which is provided by private agencies is smallest of all, being about seven-eighths of the entire work done. In the character building division about three-fourths of the work is being done by private agencies.

Chart IV compares Cleveland with eighteen other cities in the support of the various fields of philanthropic service. In the health field Cleveland is better than the average in providing funds, both from taxes and from endowments and contributions. In the dependency group the amount of support from taxes in Cleveland is about half the average, while the amount from endowment and contributions is considerably larger. In recreation the amount spent from tax support in Cleveland for character building activities is less than half that spent in the average of these nineteen cities, whereas the amount spent from endowment and contributions is more than the average of the other cities. Lumping the amount available from both sources, Cleveland ranks about with the average.

This outline has shown briefly both the form of organization and the performance in Cleveland. Now the questions come: How has our form of organization affected our performance? Have other factors than organization been more influential on performance? Those are the questions which fall to my successor on this program.



I. Provided from tax funds

I. By the state

A. Charitable institutional care for

a) Insane

b) Feebleminded

c) Epileptics

d) Blind

e) Deaf

f) Tubercular

g) Deformed and crippled children

B. Correctional institutions (If properly administered, rightly a part of welfare work) a) Industrial schools for boys and girls

b) Reformatories and penal institutions for adult convicts

C. Licenses institutions and boarding homes for dependent children

D. Inspects and investigates management of boarding homes for dependent children, also all public, private, benevolent, and correctional institutions of the state and county, and municipal jails, workhouses, and infirmaries'

2. By the county

A. District board of health

B. Soldiers' and sailors' relief

C. Blind relief

D. Juvenile court

a) Probation and detention homes

b) Mothers' pensions

E. Probate court (Adoption of children)

F. Poor relief (Small amount for those whose legal residence has not been established)

G. Dependent children (Pays board through state welfare department)

3. By the city government

A. State-city employment

B. Department of Welfare

a) City hospital

(1) In-patient service

(2) Out-patient service, professional

(3) Out-patient service, social

(4) Child hygiene

(5) Communicable diseases

(6) Public health nursing

b) City infirmary for aged poor
City farm

d) Tuberculosis sanitarium

e) Girls' home

f) Boys' home

g) Workhouse for minor offenses

The Ohio Institute, a privately supported agency, studies programs, administration, and finance of state departments and institutions

C. Municipal Court

a) Probation work

D. Police Department

a) Policewomen

E. Department of Parks

CHART I-Continued

a) Public baths and beaches

b) Parks and playgrounds

F. Dance hall inspection

4. By the Board of Education (Only departments performing service similar to that of welfare agencies enumerated, not mentioning the great work of the schools, the education of children)

A. Special classes

a) Blind and restoration of sight

b) Speech defects

c) Deaf and hard of hearing

d) Mental defectives

e) Tubercular pupils

B. Vocational guidance

C. Recreational activities (Playgrounds and gymnasium centers; community centers)
D. Health education and safety instruction

E. Dental inspection

F. Medical inspection and corrective methods

a) School nurses

5. By the Library Board (Beside usual library work, following activities have special relation to welfare work)

A. Books for the blind

B. Books for foreign language groups

C. Books for hospitals, industrial plants, etc.

6. By the Metropolitan Park Board (An independent taxing district developing an outer belt of parks and forest preserves)

II. Provided from philanthropy

1. Supported by the community fund

A. Family welfare agencies

a) Relief giving

b) Homes for aged and invalids

c) Day nurseries

B. Care of dependent children

C. Hospitals

D. Health agencies other than hospitals

a) Promotion agencies like the Anti-Tuberculosis League, Mouth Hygiene Associa


b) Serving agencies for

(1) Blind

(2) Crippled

(3) Visiting nurses

E. Recreation agencies

a) General (Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls)

b) Neighborhood (settlements)

c) Camps

CHART I-Continued

F. Protective agencies, e.g., Women's Protective Association, homes for unmarried mothers

G. Central planning agencies (Federation of Jewish Charities, Welfare Federation, various functional councils)

H. Miscellaneous

a) Municipal Research Bureau

b) Association for Criminal Justice

2. Not supported by the community fund

A. American Legion and similar organizations

B. Institutional churches

C. Animal Protective League

D. Citizens' League, etc.

III. Self-supporting or cooperative agencies (Income from those who receive benefits but no profits)

A. American Legion and similar organizations

B. Fraternal orders

C. Benefit societies of foreign-born groups (Immense amount of social work being done by foreign-born groups. By social work we mean relief and family welfare work on insurance basis, as well as recreation)

IV. Commercial agencies (Income from those receiving benefits and yielding profits to owners, activities carried on by the foreign societies)

A. Proprietary hospitals

B. Theaters and movie houses, dance halls, bowling alleys, billiard halls

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]
« AnteriorContinuar »