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lucrative work. This regulation has worked especial hardship on the Russian refugees in France, of whom there are at least 100,000, and possibly three or four times that number.

One thing is very clear: no one country can, by its laws or policy, put a stop to emigration. If the flow is dammed in one direction it will sooner or later break through elsewhere. Very general interest is developing in the subject of emigration, and it is receiving careful study by many governments and by many organizations.

Clara Babst Minick, Executive Secretary, Americanization Board, Toledo

There are two provisions in the Constitution of the United States that relate to naturalization. In Article I, Section 8, "the power is vested in Congress to establish a uniform rule of Naturalization." Also Article IX, Section 1, provides that all persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States.

To be naturalized means that a man has not only the privileges and duties of citizenship, but should know the ideals and customs which come down to us as a heritage from the patriotic men whose vision conceived this great nation.

We have been too generous with naturalization, and it is right that the requirements are becoming more and more rigid. In the years preceding 1906 many abuses arose from promiscuous granting of citizenship. Wholesale naturalization frauds under the old order were the direct cause for the assumption of full control of naturalization by the federal government. On June 29, 1906, a Bureau of Naturalization was established under the Department of Labor. There are eleven naturalization districts in the United States. Over 100 years had passed before naturalization was placed where it belonged. This did not introduce change of policy, but did change qualifications. Since that date the standard has been gradually rising until today men and women to whom citizenship is granted may rightly feel that it is given because of their own merit.

There are three ways or distinct methods of acquiring citizenship, all of which come under the term naturalization: first, by collective naturalization of residents of territory acquired by the United States or admitted to statehood; second, the deriving of citizenship through another's naturalization, instanced by the fact that since September 22, 1922, the wife does not become a citizen through the husband, minor children of the father alone receiving naturalization in this way; third, the admission of an individual by his own personal application for citizenship.

We shall consider the third way only. In the United States the process has always been a judicial one, differing from the method in European countries, where it is in the hands of an administrative officer. Naturalization grants citi

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zenship to all white persons and those of African race, barring Chinese and the yellow race. The day is practically past when anyone has the right to say that men are forced in herds like sheep through naturalization and to the polls. Much might be said about the changing standards in the process of naturalization. Briefly, they have been: first, to drive out the ward politicians; second, an attempt has been made to unify court rulings, but this has not yet been accomplished; third, the uplifting of standards, both morally and mentally, for the admission to citizenship.

In Toledo we observe naturalization hearings by having patriotic programs at which the new citizen is recognized. The Daughters of the American Revolution and the Woman's Relief Corps of the Grand Army of the Republic assist the Americanization Board in presenting an impressive program in the United States District Court. We need a court which can devote its whole time to naturalization. We need to get away from the attitude that the naturalization petitioner is a criminal up for judgment. We need to respect his desire to become an American citizen.

As social workers we have to deal with hundreds of cases, taking days, weeks, months—yes, and years-to accomplish the desired results. We are doing work, as a district naturalization examiner expressed it, that the courts are not doing, but are not intended to do. We are the friend to advise and assist our prospective citizens. We form a third point in the triangle of making new citizens, along with the Department of Naturalization and the Board of Education.

We are all glad that the government insists upon night citizenship classes where men and women may obtain information on the fundamental facts of American history, and these are provided in most places by the Board of Education. In other places, as in Cleveland, citizenship classes are taken care of by a bureau. In Toledo, at the Toledo Americanization Board, persons working nights may go to a class conducted in the daytime where, by use of charts, pictures, and maps, seemingly dull historical facts are made full of human interest. The idea is sold very generally to the foreign born and we need only say now, "Go to a citizenship class if you want to become a citizen." It is much better than the old method of teaching questions and answers parrotlike, and to give three cheers for the red, white, and blue. The prospective citizen now learns about the fundamentals of our government in a way that may be digested and assimilated, and he thus takes a step toward being a practical citizen.

Naturalization should be conferred only upon the deserving. "Better citizens," not necessarily "more citizens," should be our slogan. We must not become one-sided. There is no longer an easy road to citizenship, and the naturalization of a deserving alien is a distinct step toward assimilation and Americanization. From the time the federal bureau was established, in 1906, through the fiscal year, 2,400,500 certificates of naturalization have been issued. Citizenship was granted to 133,881 men and 18,576 women during the past fiscal year, totaling 152,457 new citizens and almost equaling the number of aliens admissi

ble to the United States through the quota; 277,218 declarations of intention were issued, and 162,258 petitions for naturalization were filed.

The literary test for voters would reduce the number of ballots cast among the native as well as foreign born, and would be a good thing. We need citizenship classes of American voters along with those for the prospective foreignborn voters. We still need Americanization work, for a man is either alien or American in spirit, regardless of his naturalization. He needs good American friends.

A recent ruling required that an alien arriving in the United States on or after June 3, 1921, must send preliminary facts-declaration of intention form— to the naturalization office in his district in order to obtain a certificate of arrival before receiving his declaration. If this is found, he is notified to appear in court on a certain date to obtain his declaration of intention. This was a blanket order, and although much resented, is being obeyed in most places.

Applicants for first papers in Cleveland have been relieved from the necessity of establishing legal entry into the United States before being permitted to file declarations, unless it was positively known that the applicant entered illegally. Judge McMahon held that such requirement was in direct conflict with the naturalization law itself. He further stated in his decision that an alien who applies for a declaration of intention is presumed to be legally admitted into the country and may demand such a declaration as a matter of right. A question is rightly raised if such a demand may be rightfully made. According to the naturalization law an alien male or female over eighteen years of age may file a declaration of intention. There is a bill pending now to supplement the naturalization law and require that a certificate of arrival be required before declaration is given.

A ruling that the declaration must be signed in both the original and assumed name (not legalized) has been held in one of our cases, the petition being dismissed and a new declaration required. However, at present there seems to be no objection to one signature on the declaration, even though not signed by the petitioner himself, but both names must be signed on the petition for filing to make it valid. There is no ruling that requires a declarant to sign his name in order to obtain his first paper.

According to the present naturalization law a declaration is invalid after seven years. However, we were fortunate two years ago in having citizenship granted to a son on his deceased father's declaration, which was over seven years old. This was taken to the department in Washington for decision. The law is so worded now that this is practically impossible. A total of 225,291 declarations were issued to men in the United States during the fiscal year ending 1925, and 51,927 were issued to women.

Release of a certificate of arrival.—An alien desired to travel to his native land this summer, but was unable to get a passport because his declaration of intention had been sent in with application for certificates of arrival. Under

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such circumstances a declaration of intention is oftentimes released by the naturalization department.

There are varied rulings for refiling, if a case has been dismissed for draft exemption. We have two rulings in Toledo courts: one, in the United States District Court, whereby a man may refile when his declaration is five years old, the petition form being duly filled and sent to the district naturalization office for notice to appear. In the Common Pleas Court, if a case was dismissed before January 1, 1925, the applicant must take a new declaration and wait two years. If dismissed after January 1, 1925, the petitioner may refile when the old declaration is five years old. I recently wrote our judges asking that draft be not held against a man if his record has been otherwise clean, and received a reply from our United States District Court to the effect that he is in favor of two amendments to naturalization laws: one, to raise the term of residence materially; another, to provide for cancellation of naturalization automatically in connection of crime involving imprisonment within a reasonable period after certificate is granted. He is not ready to abandon dismissal for draft altogether. Many courts are no longer dismissing because of draft evasion, and the naturalization department seems to be getting away from it.

There are many reasons why petitions are dismissed, among them improper renouncing of allegiance. Allegiance must be renounced from the ruler to whom the country in which the petitioner was born now belongs. For instance, a former Hungarian may now be Roumanian, Jugoslav, etc., in which instance he must renounce allegiance to whatever country is his last. Dismissal for evasion of the Volstead act is common. Men's petitions are dismissed because they cannot read and write the English language. This is happening every day. Is there enough in the law to hold this against a man? Whether there is or not, except in unusual circumstances it seems only fair that he be required to read and write English to a certain extent.

The fact that many persons have been victims of clerks' mistakes in being permitted to declare their intention during a period of thirty days preceding any election has worked unnecessary hardships. Such declarations are now valid, thanks to a bill just passed. Incompetent witnesses-witnesses who have criminal records; professional witnesses, where known-are not accepted, and the petition is dismissed. We are advising men to obtain good witnesses with almost as much earnestness as we advise school. Inability to take depositions in the state and the inability to get witnesses from distant points is another cause for dismissal. This we hope will soon be taken care of by legislation which is pending.

A recent bill is of interest to all aliens who are honorably discharged veterans of the world-war. Citizenship will be granted to them under certain conditions less stringent than the ordinary procedure, and non-quota status will be given to such aliens whose wives and minor children are now abroad and wish to return to the United States, providing they are eligible to citizenship. The


law plainly states strict compliance with requirements as to residence, proof of moral character for the entire five years, actual personal knowledge of the applicant by witnesses, and the last arrival, if out of the country six months.

In many instances men's petitions are continued or dismissed because the wife is not here. At first this seemed most unfair, but we have had cases where men have lived here for years and have never attempted to bring their wives and family. Again, men have made every effort, and we feel it our duty to get the facts and present them to the authorities for their benefit, and it is appreciated. Three reasons may be given: first, not enough time has elapsed to per mit all to come to the United States; second, the indifference upon the part of the husband or wife or both, after years of separation, of making a home in the United States; third, because of our constantly changing laws and requirements, men are uninformed as to procedure and often have no way of finding out or having the work done for them. This last is the work of the social worker in naturalization and immigration. Humanity dictates that we shall facilitate the uniting of families.

The independent citizenship law for women gives an additional interest to naturalization. In several instances women whose husbands are citizens are unable to give any facts to establish their own entry into the United States, and therefore are barred from citizenship. Many women have dual nationalities, and others are women without a country. We need legislation to rectify these weak spots in our naturalization law. We need more uniformity between the naturalization and immigration laws. We need a more kindly attitude of the courts toward the petitioners for citizenship, and less of the attitude of their being criminals at the bar.

Children.-Naturalization of children is interesting, and falls in five groups: first, children born in the United States having full citizenship rights; second children who were foreign born, whose birth occurred after the father was naturalized, are given citizenship rights providing they return to the United States before they are 21; third, foreign-born children under twenty-one living in the United States when their father becomes a citizen; fourth, foreign-born children of a naturalized father coming to the United States before twenty-one; fifth, children of American parents who never come to the United States. Children born abroad before the father is a citizen must come to the United States before eighteen for non-quota, and between eighteen and twenty-one for preference quota, becoming citizens upon entrance to the United States before twenty-one. Names of children under twenty-one years of age must appear on the father's citizenship paper in order to obtain their citizenship. Here is a conflict between the naturalization and immigration laws.

Many countries have two or three kinds of naturalization, but principally naturalization with practical rights and naturalization without political rights. Nunc pro tunc examinations were discontinued in February, 1925, and the

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