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ruling now is that unless there was a promise of nunc pro tunc before that date, an applicant is not entitled to one now. The question might arise as to whether it is right, under the present naturalization law, to allow a nunc pro tunc, and if so, whether it should not be given by the Department of Immigration according to act of June 20, 1908.

There are 100,000 aliens in the United States who cannot prove that they are legally here, and yet are lawfully here owing to the limitations of the law. Between 1906 and 1911 the machinery of law worked very poorly. Many coming from Canada cannot produce evidence the government requires. It has been suggested that in the proposed naturalization law they be permitted to pay head tax and wait three years, when they might take first papers toward citizenship, which would mean a delay of another five years. A minimum time of thirteen years would elapse before they could be citizens.

Nationality. Very few countries have a treaty of naturalization with the United States whereby a former subject of a foreign country naturalized in the United States is treated as a citizen of the United States upon his return for a visit to his native land. There is need of international treaties providing for naturalization laws which will prevent present conditions of both dual allegiance and statelessness arising from conflicting status in various nations.

Women. Foreign-born women are taking advantage, or disadvantage, of the law very slowly, and many American women are resentful until it is explained to them. Declarations of intention were made by 51,927 women during the past year, 22,526 filed petitions, and 18,576 were naturalized. The exami nation in English seems to be the greatest barrier. Every city and town needs neighborhood classes in the afternoon and evening for the foreign-born women. This is our big weak spot in Americanization and naturalization.

One thing we regret in the present naturalization law is that we are constantly making only half-American families in the naturalization of the husband and children, leaving the wife and mother out. She must be reached in a way which will mean more than making her a voter, for which she often cares very little. She needs American citizenship to help hold the respect of her children, who are quick to sense her status without using judgment as to the cause of it. This lack of respect leads to many serious problems.

Many interesting questions may be asked concerning the administration of the naturalization law. Should a law be passed permitting children adopted by American parents to take their nationality?

A teacher in the Toledo public schools for twenty years was born in Switzerland and adopted by American parents when a child. She voted because she always considered herself an American citizen, and only learned the truth when she applied for a passport to travel abroad. After much difficulty she obtained a traveling permit. After her return she was permitted to file, according to Secs. 3-36, Act of June, 1910-"Aliens who erroneously believed themselves citizens"

--and in three months was a real American citizen, and, as she expressed it, "I am now what I never knew I wasn't." She had indeed been a good citizen for years, if not an American one.

The Act of 1907 provides in explicit terms that an American woman marry、 ing an alien loses her American citizenship. Before 1907 there was no statute in the United States which directly covered the citizenship of the native-born woman who married an alien, although there had been for years a statute that an alien woman who married an American citizen thereby acquired citizenship in this country. The law is that an American woman, married prior to 1907, whose husband died, or from whom she was divorced before he became a citizen, has the right to presume that she is an American citizen, upon termination of marital status, by continuation of residence in the United States. This does not apply to a wife living with her husband.

The United States Naturalization Examiners, who have conducted hearings in Toledo, have been fair in their judgments and decisions. They must be impartial, for they are endeavoring to ascertain facts in cases to help determine who are likely to be good citizens. It is, of course, more or less a gamble. They are trying to protect the United States from acquiring the wrong kind of citizens. Through them we have had the standard of citizenship raised very decidedly. They need our cooperation. The human tendency is always to form hasty conclusions from too limited number of facts.

Equality should be the first principle in our American citizenship, and it is decidedly a problem for social workers interested in naturalization to see that this equality be exercised in the interpretation and administration of our laws, and especially that worthy aliens be given a fair chance under the naturalization laws. We need to follow new decisions closely and to be constant visitors at naturalization proceedings.

We need to assist in laying the foundation for a broader interest in citizenship if we would serve the best interests of our country.

COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND COOPERATION
IN AMERICANIZATION

Mary O'Donnell Turner, Executive Secretary, Americanization
Committee, Detroit

Americanization is a community affair. It is not something which the government or a group of individuals may do for the foreign born. It is what the foreign born do for themselves when organized social agencies offer the opportunity and point the way.

Americanization is a word which has an unpleasant sound in the ears of some persons. They say it suggests "Germanization" as it was spoken of in the

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days of Bismarck, and "Russianization" as it was talked of by the Czar Nicholas. There are some who seem to think that Americanization is a word like these. No one who speaks of Americanization intends that anyone here shall serve a German kaiser or an American one, or an American or Russian czar. Some men begin their own Americanization even before they leave Europe. Others begin it in this country. A man who decides to go to night school to learn English is working on his own Americanization. This country looks upon its new citizens far differently from the way in which the Czar looked upon his Polish subjects. He was an autocrat, and his strength was in the weakness of his people. The strength of a republic is in the strength of the people. Therefore it is the American desire that every citizen shall be as strong, as able, as prosperous as possible. This allows the man of Polish descent to become an American citizen through his own efforts, but it does not stamp out his Polish inheritance nor his Polish individuality. He does not become a subject of the president of the United States, but a fellow-citizen. The process of Russianization wipes out all individuality; the process of Americanization preserves all individual character.

There are, however, ways and methods of Americanization which will harm the cause. Americanization is in some respect an art, requiring great skill of its workers. In the past we have spent too much time seeking a technical definition for Americanization or a complete change of terminology, without much success. The word Americanization is a good word. It can only offend those who read into its meaning that which has never been intended. Workers in Americanization must possess a goodly measure of respect, tolerance, and sympathy for the foreign born. Some there are who would Americanize by law, who would force the knowledge and use of the English language and naturalization. Americans cannot be made that way. Americanization above all else is a reciprocal adjustment. The newcomer is having his experiences enlarged, his standard of living altered, but he is just as surely modifying our point of view, our industrial organization, our economic values.

For an Americanization experiment Detroit presented a most interesting laboratory. The tremendous expansion of the city due to the rapid growth of industry and the incursion after incursion of immigrants in search of jobs and homes and fortunes created a natural need for such an experiment. The people who in the last quarter of a century have changed Detroit from a quiet town to a renowned industrial center are chiefly immigrants and their children. A colored map of the city showing the population as distributed by races and nationalities visualizes the story. The splash of color indicating the presence of the Slavs is the largest on the map. The same industries that had made Detroit great in size threatened to destroy its Americanism, and when business became demoralized by the outbreak of the war abroad the industries seemed unable to maintain the level of prosperity which they had introduced. The autumn of 1914 found the city suffering from an acute attack of indigestion. It had bitten

off more immigration than it could chew. Factories slowed up, and thousands lost their jobs. Melancholy mobs of the jobless prowled the streets, and then the business men of the city organized help for these men, the large majority of whom were unable to speak English.

The Americanization Committee of Detroit, as it is now known, came into being. It was made up of fifty men, representing industry, the professions, social workers, civic, educational, and racial leaders. To aid, were the broadminded officials in charge of public education. A tie-up with the educational authorities was at once made. When the interest of the large employers of labor was aroused in the language barrier which existed, the efforts of the educators bore fruit. All industries employing more than one hundred were enrolled. The response was marked. Every known means of communicating with employees was used. The printed publicity appeared in foreign languages. Some of the industries made public night school attendance compulsory; others offered wage increases for the learning of English; a number started their own factory classes.

The city was bedecked with handbills and posters. Every social agency having any approach to the foreign born assisted vigorously. The entire city embarked on a gigantic campaign of publicity for the benefit of its adopted children from Europe and Asia. Perhaps never was the city so united for a common end. At the conclusion of the first campaign twenty-nine evening schools were opened, a larger appropriation for night schools was obtained, and the opening night saw about 9,000 enrolled, with 2,000 turned away, for whom there were no facilities. The years that have passed since 1914 have found efforts toward education and assimilation of the foreign born steadily increasing. Out of the years of actual experience methods have been changed in accordance with changing views, but the end in view has not been abandoned.

The melting-pot version has never been significant in the history of Detroit's Americanization movement. That type assumes that the making of an American is only the changing of a few externals. Men can mingle and unite in this country because they are not melted. America is a mechanism which can use a Pole's love of music and the drama, an Italian's love of color, a Greek's love of art, a German's thoroughness, a Frenchman's brilliancy. But it takes these qualities and places them in the mechanism. They are not melted. They are brought into cooperation, not into a shapeless unified mass.

Today the agencies working with the foreign born conduct carefully outlined programs to bring into helpful relationships the aliens as well as the Americans of many generations; to protect these aliens from injustice and fraud; to stimulate the acquisition and mastery of the English language; to develop the alien's understanding of American government and institutions; to interpret everyday standards of living to them; and to promote social participation.

On June 20, 1922, the Detroit Council on Immigrant Education was organized, and some twenty agencies doing noteworthy work among the foreign born

were brought together. The agencies represented are the International Institute of the Y.W.C.A., the Board of Health, the Recreation Department of the City of Detroit, the settlement group, the Federation of Women's Clubs, the League of Women Voters, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Visiting Housekeepers' Association, the Parent-Teachers Association, the United Jewish Charities, the Americanization Committee, the Polish Activities League, the League of Catholic Women, Protestant and Catholic church organizations, the boards of education of Detroit and three adjoining municipalities, Veterans of Foreign Wars, etc. The purposes of this council of agencies was to centralize activities, weed out undesirable practices and flag waving, the direction of newcomers in this field, the elimination of duplication, and the development of more intensive and varied group work. Out of this organization, the byword of which has been cooperation, have come basic ideas, attitudes, and methods.

While in the field of teaching English to the foreign born Detroit records the greatest progress, the last few years also record achievements in health education for the foreign born, recreational opportunities, home visiting, and the creation of social contacts for alien men and women. The agencies having to do with the creation of social contacts for isolated immigrant women are making valuable contributions to the problem in the sheer joy they are bringing these individuals. They have attacked with marked success the very real problem of giving immigrant women an opportunity to participate in organized and special activities and to express whatever social talents they may have. The best in the individual is being brought out, be it music, art, or handicraft. For the handicraft produced, markets have been provided, thus creating the means of earning money at home. The cottage industries of the Daughters of the American Revolution is one of the most interesting methods of marketing the exquisite handicraft of Detroit's gifted foreign women.

In the special field of giving authentic information to the foreign born through nationality workers Detroit is well organized, and has been since 1918. The alien free information bureaus, established and maintained under the direction of the Americanization Committee, functioned last year to the extent of giving 24,848 services. Principally, this information had to do with the reuniting of families, naturalization and immigration laws, compensation and wage claims, employment, domestic relations, foreign exchange and various money matters, fraudulent practices, and other problems of common concern to the foreign born.

In any community scheme the industries are an important factor. The part the schools must play is already well known. The use of school buildings must constitute an important part, for it must be remembered that the school gymnasiums and swimming pools may become quite as important factors in Americanization as the classrooms. Beside the agencies herein commented upon, complete community programs will not be developed without the assistance of racial

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