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gram of a city, county, or a state better to fit the need. Clearly, it cannot coordinate and plan without full knowledge of existing needs and careful forecasting of possible future needs. Therefore the federation must be an investigating and studying agency. Having the facts, the federation begins to coordinate the work of its agencies and to plan a concerted attack on one or more social evils. This involves skill in the use of all the modern social work tools at its disposal. I like to think of the federation as the dominant note or theme in a symphony. At the outset we hear also the plaintive oboe-like strain of social maladjustment. At various intervals the dominant federation theme calls to itself the joyous romping flutelike melody of child caring agencies; at others, the mellow horn note of aged relief; recreation and character building comes in like the rapid and substantial clarinet passages; the brasses and the percussion instruments typify our great protective societies; family relief and service are heard throughout like the violins; and finally, the plaintive oboe note of need fades away in a triumphant finale of our social service symphony. Can we not, through educational publicity, help the public to realize and understand some such feeling toward the federation? You say that my figure of the orchestra is unfortunately chosen, that the man in the street does not understand symphony music. My answer is that today in Cleveland added thousands know its beauty through concerts of a popular nature given this winter by our Cleveland orchestra. Are we to admit that a public educated to symphony music cannot be educated to social work if it is presented in similar popular style?

I have said that the federation, to fulfil its function as a central coordinating and planning agency, must know the facts of social needs and the possible ways of meeting those needs. It is the authority on social work in a community. Now please bear in mind this fund of knowledge that the federation has while you journey with me to a great school-a great school that teaches nothing! Its faculty is highly trained and alert. It has wonderful laboratories where it conducts hundreds of experiments and makes great discoveries. But it has no students. No pupils witness the laboratory demonstrations; none hear the discussions of the learned masters, nor take part in the clinics. The school is back in the woods and no one knows about it. It has no students because it has not interested them in coming.

Now of course our federations are not as bad as that. But remembering the knowledge we hold of social problems on the one hand and our vast populations on the other, haven't we attracted comparatively few students to our school? And haven't our federations and our federated agencies an obligation, over and above service to clients, to be real schools of social work for the public? Assuming that it is good for the public to know the why and how of social work, who is better qualified to give it to them than our federations? Yet we all know that the value of many a survey or study covering months of difficult work and research has been greatly impaired, if not wholly lost, because there has been no arousing of the public to the significance of the findings.

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Well, what is the matter with our system? What can we do to improve the situation? I am not sure, but I think I have an idea. I shall assume that we have sufficient and capable publicity persons on the job. That, of course, is the first requisite (though not always complied with in some cities). But, assuming that our staff is all right, I believe that we are not using the brains of our publicity departments in a way that will get the most educational good out of them. These brains are being used too largely, I fear, for grinding out daily stories on teas and unimportant board meetings and the promotion of folk festivals.

In the midst of this daily routine a formidable looking fifty-page report on an important survey comes to the desk of the publicity person. It would require a day's study even to find out what it contains. The publicity person hasn't a day to study it, because he has to make dead lines on a miscellaneous assortment of minor news items submitted to him from a half dozen or more sources. "Why," he wonders, "didn't Miss Jones tell me she was going to make this study, so I could have followed it through with her and be prepared now to give her the right kind of publicity?" The report lies on his desk for several days. Maybe he reads it at home or on the car to and from work. Eventually he writes a story. Or, as frequently happens, he finds that Miss Jones has sent a copy to a friend she has on one of the papers, and a story appears. Then the editor of the competing newspaper calls up the publicity person and wants to know why he was scooped!

The point I am trying to make is that while there is a commendable awakening on the part of our agencies to the importance of publicity in generalthat is, they are developing a "nose for news"-their nose is not yet discriminating enough. Too often the publicity man is being asked to perform impossible magic with the city editor in making a top head story out of something that should be a paid classified ad. And meanwhile he is having withheld from him the full information he needs of the really significant things the agency is doing. The result is a running fire of small items of questionable value, carried by the papers generally as a gift, and only occasionally stories of real educational merit, and these inadequately presented because neither the publicity person nor the newspaper understood the subjects well enough to make the most out of them.

Therefore our first problem, as I see it, is an internal one-and, I might add, an eternal one-of educating our own agencies on one hand and our own publicity departments on the other. The federation must somehow get over to its agencies the truth that educational publicity is something more than keeping your name before the public; something more than a matter of pride in columninches of newspaper space; something more than a clipping that a proud executive can show her president.

In most of our publicity we are still in the stage of reminder advertising; we have done little with the more powerful forms known to advertising men as the informative, the directive, the divertive, and the creative. I think we must change our notions of the job of the publicity department of the federation. We

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must judge its output less for quantity and more for quality. We must cease to burden it with the necessity of grinding out daily stories on trivial events, and must allow it time for real research. The publicity man should be called in at the inception of a survey or other important project of the federation or of an agency. He should watch its progress, digesting as he goes and planning ways of popular presentation. When the project is ready for publicity the publicity man should know nearly as much about it as the person who directed it, with the added knowledge of how to present it adequately to the public. Especially he will utilize those mediums of publicity characterized by a thoughtful state of mind of the reader or listener. Hence he will rely heavily on articles in certain classes of magazines and journals; on the speakers' bureau; on exhibits; and on the great untouched field of direct advertising. By the same token, he will rely less on the newspapers and not at all on the radio. If we are to conduct a school, let us pick students who are most eager to learn. Then let us give our student public, first, last, and all the time, the kind of education it is eager for.

How many executives can give a clear understandable statement of what a particular agency is set up to do; of the extent to which it is doing it; of its place in the great scheme of community life; can justify its existence by painting a picture of community loss if the agency did not exist; can point to definite changes in social conditions and indicate definitely their effect on the work of the agency? How many can make the man in the street see any relation between a social work agency and his own selfish interests-his family, his health, his business, his tax dollar, his pride in his city?

Until we can weave an intelligent conception of social work into the warp and woof of the individual's thinking, to supplant his present conception of dollars spent, wonderment at where they go, and support because his friend Bill Jones supports it, we are not educating anybody. Until we do that we are asking our public to accept social work without understanding, like the student who painfully memorizes a piece of poetry without being made to see the beauty of it. We are continuing to be great schools that teach the public nothing.

THE PROPER FORM OF ORGANIZATION FOR
FEDERATION PUBLICITY

Elwood Street, Director, Community Council

and Community Fund of St. Louis

My purpose is to describe a plan for organization of publicity effort for a federation which will produce reasonably satisfactory results in the average federation city. I have in mind not merely the larger cities, to which the plan certainly will apply, but also those of 100,000 population or less. This plan applies to both internal and external aspects of organization. It is, in truth, an

imaginary plan, composite in its nature, not now completely existent in any one city, but in my estimation—and I think you will agree in yours-desirable of consummation. It has been tried partly in one city, St. Louis. That city, in the year after this plan was partially tried, secured a 14 per cent increase in its contributions to the community fund. Toward that increase the adoption of this plan may have been an aid.

No doubt can be held that the financial federation needs year-round publicity. If I may be permitted to borrow a commercial term, we must keep our product "sold." You may remember that some years ago a prominent soap manufacturer neglected to advertise his product, and the soap sales dropped tremendously. Social service, like soap, must keep itself continually before the public. The federation which represents social service must emit a continuous and effective stream of publicity on its own work and that of its member agencies. It cannot be said truly that the work of the agencies will sell itself sufficiently without any supplementary publicity effort. Unfortunately, the work of social agencies commends itself to those who are most in need of help and least able to give. If clients report to their friends the value of these services, such self-advertising means little difference in the amount contributed toward payment for these services. If I may paraphrase the remarks of one of the friends of the wellknown and late lamented Julius Caesar, the good of social work is oft interred in steel record cabinets with the dry bones of case histories; while the infrequent evil which the social worker does lives long after the case has been closed, in the gossip of those who seek rationalized excuse for refusal to give to organized social service. We all have seen the evils of inadequate and ineffective federation publicity in the shape of social agencies misunderstood, inadequately understood, widely criticized, and sufficiently financed. Many of us, too, have seen the advantages to be gained by good publicity, which results in agencies possessed of cooperative working relationships with the whole community, held in good repute by all citizens, adequately financed, and able to make definite progress in their projects for social legislation. There can be no doubt of the value of effective year-round publicity for federations and their member agencies; and no doubt, either, of the obligation of the federation, as a holder of public trust, to report adequately, to those of whose funds it is trustee, the results which are attained by the expenditure of the money they have given.

In spite of this recognition of the value and necessity of publicity, federations face real problems of public understanding. They find in their communities lack of knowledge of social work, lack of knowledge of the federation, criticism of various agencies which are included in the federation, and criticism of the expenditures for salaries and other so-called "overhead expenses." Often, moreover, we may find competition for public attention between the agencies which are members of the federation, and much wasted publicity effort. Surely, where such a problem exists a solution may well be sought.

Yet, even if such a problem exists, the question may be asked, "Why organ

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ize to meet it?" Social agencies are prone to say to the federation, "We thought you were going to do all the publicity for us. Why should we assume any responsibility? The federation, suddenly conscious of an apparent dereliction from duty, forthwith hires a publicity man, who often is concerned chiefly in the amount of salary he receives and the regularity of his pay check, and who tries to get stories into the newspapers through a bountiful distribution of cigars charged to the federation, rather than by preparation of publicity material of real merit and understanding. Then again, the federation itself may well say that it is too much bother to try to organize for publicity; that direct action is best; and that a publicity man who knows his job can handle the situation. It seems to me that these proposals do not answer adequately the question as to why a federation should organize its publicity efforts. From the very nature of the federation, which, to my mind, is cooperative, it seems that publicity, as well as the other activities of the federation, should be on a cooperative and organized basis. We have joint finance of social work; why not have joint interpretation of social work? Moreover, the problem of understanding of social work is so great, and the difficulties of securing community acceptance of the federation are so severe, that the average federation needs all the organized power it can get to handle its publicity endeavors. Further, the problem of interpretation of social work is intensified in one respect if the federation is financial as well as social. The financial federation has to be interpreted as a way of giving, in addition to the need for interpreting the member agencies as ways of spending the money which is given. Through organization the interpretive efforts of all member agencies and of the federation itself can be made to count for the utmost in attacking these problems of interpretation. Little question can exist, surely, of the importance of organization to secure continuous and effective publicity for the federation.

He who would organize publicity for a federation usually finds ample material with which to begin his orderly processes. Generally the member agencies of a federation have publicity activities of varying effectiveness. Some of the agencies are likely to have full-time or part-time employes to do publicity work. Some of these employes are excellent and highly skilled, while others are painfully ineffective. Often the participating agencies have publicity committees, sometimes of skilled publicists who do admirable work on a volunteer basis, and sometimes of gracious and well-intentioned ladies who artfully try to persuade city editors to use publicity which deserves only to go into the editorial waste basket. In addition, the federation itself may have some member of its staff who gives full or part time to the interpretation of federation activity and of the work of its member agencies. From this raw material a quite proper form of organization for a federation may be built.

Let us proceed with the premise that we have a model federation and are attempting to provide a model form of publicity organization for it. We shall give our first attention to effective internal organization. We will have a public

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