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to be spoken after ; but Christ as a Son over and the type, having fulfilled its design, was his own house; whose house are we, if we lost in the thing typified; and those which, hold fast the confidence, and the rejoicing of being temporary and transitory, ceased with hope firm unto the end."*

the occasion of them. Of the first sort are Moses died and was buried. Jesus died the precepts of the decalogue, br the ten and “was buried, and rose again.” Moses re- commandments; which, under every consticeived the law; Christ gave it. Moses and tution that affects such a being as man, must Elias attend the Saviour on mount Tabor, as be immutable and everlasting. Of them it his ministering servants; Jesus receives their is that Christ said, “Think not that I am attendance and homage, as their Lord. come to destroy the law or the prophets: I

Having spoken of the resemblance be- am not come to destroy but to fulfil. For tween the authors of the two dispensations, verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth we proceed, as was proposed, to speak in the pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass same view of the two dispensations them- from the law, till all be fulfilled."* Of the selves.

second class are the laws of the daily sacriAnd first, They rest on one and the same tice, the great annual feasts, the levitical authority, are dictated by the same unerring priesthood, and the like. They pointed out wisdom, and are directed to the same great Christ the Lord, they led to him, they were and glorious end. Indeed, one of the great lost in him. And in the third rank we place proofs that both are of God is the conformity the law of circumcision, the political econoof both to the nature and condition of man. my of the Jewish nation, all that related to The precepts of the law are not novel con- the possession of Canaan, and which ceased stitutions, which had no existence till the of course with the dissolution of their godays of Moses: neither are the consolations vernment, and the loss of their national imof the gospel new discoveries of grace, un portance. These observations being attend. heard of till the four thousandth year of the ed to and kept in mind, will prevent the world. Sinai thundered and lightened in confusion arising from the ambiguous acAdam's conscience the moment he tasted the ceptation of the word “law," as expressing forbidden tree, and drove him to seek refuge the Old Testament dispensation. “ from the presence of the Lord God amidst The law, then, and the gospel, the two the trees of the garden.” The terrors of the tables of stone delivered to Moses, and the law raged in Cain's guilty breast, long before "grace and truth which came by Jesus there was any record written on brass or Christ," coincide, secondly, in this, that they stone. And the promises of pardon and sal- both point out with equal clearness and force vation are coeval with the conviction of the the necessity of a Savioar. · Every word profirst offender, and the denunciation of his nounced by the voice of God from Sinai, 'is punishment. The tongue which pronounced in truth a sentence of condemnation. While on man the doom of death, proclaims the glad it enjoins future obedience, it fixes past tidings of life and recovery.

guilt. While it says, “Thou shalt not make I know that the law is of God, for I have unto thee any graven image, or the likeness that within me which acknowledges and ap- of any thing that is in heaven above, or in proves its rectitude and excellency; and the earth beneath,” it accuses of idolatry. even when it condemns me, I am constrain- While it recommends the observance of the ed to call it "holy, just, and good.” I know sabbath, it charges home the violation of it; that the gospel is of God, for I feel that with- and so of the rest of the precepts of the in me which welcomes its approach, discerns decalogue. its suitableness, rejoices in its fulness, rests The law, therefore, carried the gospel in upon its truth.

It is of God, for it de- its bosom, as the new changed moon exhibits scends to the level of my guilt and misery, a great body of obscurity, embraced by a corresponds with my hopes, suits my neces- small semicircle of light; but which is to be sities.

irradiated by degrees, till the whole becomes Our blessed Lord took an early opportunity one great globe of light and glory; and of explaining himself on this subject. An Moses performs the part of “ a schoolmaster absurd idea prevailed, that the kingdom of to bring us to Christ.” the Messiah was to be a total subversion of To hear of a constitution by which I might the Mosaic dispensation. An absurdity into have lived, after my life is forfeited, is only which some Christians have inadvertent- to embitter my misery. It is like hearing ly, given, for want of making a plain and of a cordial after a man has swallowed poinecessary distinction, between those particu- son. Now it could never be the design of lars of the law which are in their own na- the gracious Lawgiver to insult buman miseture eternal and unchangeable, like the na- ry, by holding out a system which could ture of that God who is its author; and those, avail the guilty nothing. While, then, the which being typical and prophetical, ceased divine justice lays down the law in all its. of course when the predicted event arrived, strictness, purity, and extent, saying, “I am * Heb. iii. 1, &c.

* Matt. v. 17, 18.

the Lord who will by no means clear the tance from God. The one, by enumerating guilty;"” “Cursed is every one who continu- and declaring our offences; the other, by eth not in all things which are written in enumerating and declaring the tender merthe book of the law to do them;"* the good cies of our God. The law treats us as ness which condescends to give a law at all, alienated friends, whom it is needful to conthe wisdom which explains it, the patience vince, to reprove, and humble. The gospel that forbears to punish its transgression, considers us as friends restored, no “ longer all plainly and distinctly proclaim the ne- strangers and foreigners, but fellow-citizens cessity and the existence of an atonement, with the saints, and of the household of and lead to “the bringing in of a better God;" " once darkness, but now light in the hope.”

Lord :

: once afar off, but made nigh by the Thirdly, The spirit of both dispensations blood of Christ.”. The law shows us how is a spirit of love. God enforces upon Is- far we have deviated from the path of duty rael obedience to the law from Sinai, by the and happiness; the gospel conducts us back consideration of his being the Lord, which through our wanderings, unravels the in“ brought them up out of the land of Egypt, tricacies and errors of our dark steps, and out of the house of bondage:" " who has replaces us in our father's house. Moses borne them on eagle's wings, and brought informs us that we are wrong, “ like sheep them to himself.” And "love" on the part going astray:” Jesus is “the way, the truth, of man “is the fulfilling of the law.” “Thou and the life," and takes us under the care of shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy “the shepherd and bishop of souls.” Moses heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy points out the dreadful depth into which we mind. This is the first and great command have fallen, the dreadful distance from heament. And the second is like unto it, Thou ven to hell; Christ' reveals the glorious height shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On to which we are raised, the glorious distance these two commandments hang all the law from hell to heaven. Moses tells me what and the prophets.”+ The gospel, in like I ought to be and to do; Christ makes me manner, has its source in love, the love of such as he would have me to be. “And you God: and its great aim and end is to produce hath he quickened who were dead in treslove to God. “God so loved the world, that passes and sins, wherein in time past ye he gave his only begotten Son, that whoso- walked, according to the course of this ever believeth in him should not perish, but world, according to the prince of the power have everlasting life.”[ “And we love him of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the because he first loved us." "The love of children of disobedience: among whom also Christ constraineth us, because we thus we all had our conversation in times past, judge, that if one died for all, then were all in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires dead: and that he died for all, that they of the flesh, and of the mind; and were by which live should not henceforth live unto nature the children of wrath, even as others. themselves, but unto him which died for them, But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great and rose again." And, “By this shall all love wherewith he loved us, even when we men know that ye are my disciples, if ye were dead in sins, hath quickened us together have love one to another."l| “He that says with Christ; (by grace ye are saved) and he loves God, and hateth his brother, is a hath raised us up together, and made us liar. For he that loveth not his brother sit together in heavenly places in Christ whom he hath seen, how can he love God Jesus.'"* whom he hath not seen ?" And, when both But the law was delivered to the world in shall have produced their full effect, “per- a very different manner from the publication fect love shall cast out fear,” the voice of God of the gospel; in fire that burned, in tempest shall be unaccompanied with thunder and that roared, in a cloud that darkened, in lightning, cloud and tempest. The storm is words that threatened. It awed men into in the mind of the guilty creature. The distance; it inspired terror. · But the gospel wrath of fire is not in God, but in fallen man; comes in light that consumes not, in glory in“ the carnal mind, which is enmity against that dazzles not, in language that threatens God; for it is not subject to the law of God, not. The law says, “ Take heed to yourneither indeed can be."** When that is selves, that ye go not up into the mount, or extinguished, all is at peace. The aim and touch the border of it: whosoever touches labour of the gospel is not to reconcile God the mount shall surely be put to death. to man: but to reconcile men to God: for There shall not a hand touch it, but he shall "God is love; and he that dwelleth in love, surely be stoned, or shot through; whether dwelleth in God and God in him."ht it be beast or man, it shall not live; when

Fourthly, Both the legal and evangelical the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come dispensations equally discover to us our dis- up to the mount. And the Lord said unto

Matt. xxii. 37, &e. Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they $ 2 Cor. v.

break through unto the Lord to gaze, and John xiii. 35. ft 2 Johın iv. 16.

* Eph. ii. 1, &c.

* Gal. iii. 10. 1 John iii. 16.

15. 1 1 John iv. 20.

** Rom. viii. 35

66

many of them perish."* The gospel says, , if the alarm of judgment to come, shake the "Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the foundation of the everlasting hills; if Sinai ends of the earth." “Come unto me, all ye tremble, and the rocks melt before the Lord, that labour and are heavy laden, and I will coming as a Protector and a Friend, what give you rest."+ " He that cometh to me, I must the sessions be, the great day of doom, will in no wise cast out.”I. But to the im- the awful hour of execution when the judge penitent and unbelieving, the gospel speaks shall come “in flaming fire, taking venthe same terror which the law did from Si- geance on them that know not God, and nai; nay, it wears a still more frowning as- that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus pect. Indignation and wrath, tribulation Christ.”* “ When the heavens being on fire and anguish upon every soul of man that shall be dissolved, and the elements shall doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the melt with fervent heat.”+ “Consider this, Gentile.”f “How shall we escape if we ye that forget God, lest he tear you in pieces, neglect so great salvation; which at the first and there be none to deliver." began to be spoken by the Lord, and was “ Now of the things which we have spoconfirmed unto us by them that heard him.”ll ken, this is the sum: We have such an High “He that despised Moses's law died without Priest, who is set on the right hand of the mercy, under two or three witnesses; of throne of the majesty in the heavens; a mihow much sorer punishment, suppose ye, nister of the sanctuary and of the true tabershall he be thought worthy, who hath trod- nacle, which the Lord had pitched and not den under foot the Son of God, and hath man. For every high priest is ordained to counted the blood of the covenant, where- offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore it is of with he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and necessity that this Man have somewhat to hath done despite to the Spirit of grace.”Toffer. But now hath he obtained a more exAnd on the other hand, to them that believe, cellent ministry; by how much also he is the law speaks in the mildest, gentlest lan- the Mediator of a better covenant, which guage of the gospel; for “there is therefore was established upon better promises. For now no condemnation to them which are in this is the covenant that I will make with Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, the house of Israel after those days saith the but after the spirit."** " And the Lord Lord; I will put my laws in their minds, and passed by before him, and proclaimed, The write them in their hearts; I will be to them Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, a God, and they shall be to me a people. long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and For I will be merciful to their unrighteoustruth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving ness, and their sins, and their iniquities I iniquity, and transgression, and sin.”++ ** And will remember no more. In that he saith, showing mercy unto thousands of them that A new covenant, he hath made the first old. love me, and keep my commandments."It Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is I know not whether the whole Bible contains ready to vanish away."$ And all “ this is an expression of goodness more singular and of God, who hath made us able ministers of striking than these words which issued from the New Testament, not of the letter, but of the mountain that burned with fire. Our the Spirit: for the letter killeth, but the Spirit fears are alarmed at the mention of the great giveth life. But if the ministration of death, and dreadful name—“The Lord God, a jea- written and engraven on stones, was glorious, lous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers so that the children of Israel could not steadupon the children.” But justice has its li- fastly behold the face of Moses for the glory mits. It may be stretched out to the third of his countenance, which glory was to be or fourth generation of offenders. Yet the done away; how shall not the ministration " Lord will not strive continually, neither of the Spirit be rather glorious ? For if the will he keep his anger forever.” But grace ministration of condemnation be glory, much knows no bounds. When mercy is to be more doth the ministration of righteousness extended, it looks forward and forward, from exceed in glory. For even that which was a third and a fourth, to thousands of genera- made glorious had no glory in this respect, tions of them that love God. In what pro- by reason of the glory that excelleth. For mise of the New Testament is the love of if that which was done away was glorious, God preached more sweetly than in this pre- much more that which remaineth is glocept of the Old ?

rious."'ll Both dispensations then have their mild We are assembled this night, my brethren, ness, and both their terror. Their mildness the subjects of the law; the students of the from the grace of the Creator; their terror gospel ; the expectants of Christ's second apfrom the guilt of the creature. And if the pearance, “See then that ye resist not him proclamation of the law were thus dreadful; that speaketh from heaven." Ye are happily

set free from the law of ceremonies; happily I John vi. 37. $ Rom. ii. 8, 9. subjected to the law of morality; and “ not

Psal. L. 22 | Exod. xx. 6.

Heb. viit. 1, &c. | 2 Cor. iii. O, &c.

* Exod. xix. 12, &c.

† Matt. xi. 28.

| Heb. ii. 3.
** Rom. viii. 1.

1 Heb. x. 28, 29.
#1 Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7.

* 2 Theeg. i. 8.

1 2 Peter iii. 12.

without law unto Christ." “ Stand fast you shall add your voices to the celestial therefore in that liberty wherewith Christ choir, in singing " the Song of Moses and hath made you free.” Enjoy and improve the Lamb;" when you shall see the face of what you have; affect not more than a wise God without dying, and hear his voice withprovidence permits. Look forward to that out quaking for fear. “Now unto him that day when you shall join an innumerable loved us, and washed us from our sins in his company of angels, yourselves like the an- own blood, and hath made us kings and gels of God in heaven; when you shall asso- priests unto God and his Father; to him be ciate with the spirits of just men made glory and dominion forever and ever. perfect, yourselves perfect as they are; when Amen."

INTRODUCTORY LECTURE.

LECTURE LV.

Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner : but be thou partaker

of the afflictions of the gospel, according to the power of God; who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began; but is now made manifest by the appearing of our Šaviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel.--2 Timothy i. &10.

ness.

EVERY dispensation of the Divine Provi- , who worketh all things after the counsel of dence seems to be the basis and the prepara- his own will.” One great object was kept tion of a farther display of wisdom and good- in view before the world began, is still kept

The last discovered purpose of the in view through the whole extent of its duraEternal Mind, is the continuation, the exten- tion, and is to be pursued through the endless sion, and the improvement of that which ages of eternity. Do you need, Christian, to immediately preceded it; and the glory be told what it is? The salvation of the hitherto displayed in the ways and works of world by Christ Jesus. It is a little thing to God, however excellent, is hastening to lose say, that Abraham saw his day afar off: that itself in “a far more exceeding and eternal of him Moses wrote, Isaiah prophesied, David weight of glory” yet to be revealed. Periods sung, and Paul preached. “These things of immeasurable, incomprehensible duration the angels desire to look into.” On this had flowed, before this fair and majestic frame exalted theme the everlasting counsels of of nature was called into existence. For we peace revolved; to mature them, the powers read of a purpose of grace formed and given of heaven and earth were shaken; and to " before the world began,” and of a kingdom bring them to their consummation, a new prepared from the foundation of the world;" creation shall expand infinite space, and a of an election made, and of "eternal life succession of ages that are never, never to promised, of God who cannot lie, before the expire. Placed at whatever point in this foundation of the world.” Who can tell what immense sphere, our eyes are still attracted systems have preceded that which now exists? to the glorious Centre, from which all light, We know from scripture that one more glo- and life, and joy, issue; and in whose light rious is to succeed it. According to his every inferior orb revolves and shines. promise, we look for new heavens and a new The epistle of the great apostle of the

rth, wherein dwelleth righteousness."*_ Gentiles from which I have taken the subject And who can tell what future systems may of this Discourse, is addressed to Timothy, arise in endless progression ? As well might whom he styles his “ dearly beloved son in the fluttering insect, which was born in the the gospel,” and who had been ordained first morning and perishes at night, presume to bishop of the church of the Ephesians. Paul dive into the ages beyond the flood, or with himself was at that time a prisoner at Rome, bold, -adventurous wing attempt to soar into and totally uncertain respecting the issue of the heaven of heavens, and declare the won- a cause which affected his life, before the ders of the world of spirits.

imperial court.- What mercy, what justice But though system may succeed system, was to be expected from such a prince as though dispensations change, one thing is Nero--the monster who could fire his counimmutable, the gracious purpose of Him try, shed the blood of his virtuous preceptor,

and destroy his own mother? But we behold

* 2 Peter iij. 13.

." But

in the prisoner a spirit much exalted above the conduct of the leader and commander of the fear of a tyrant, a mind prepared for the Israel, or of the Champion of Christianity, worst that could befal him, and expressing we are equally led by "one" and the same anxiety, not about personal safety, but about “Spirit” in “one hope,” to “one Lord, one the success of the gospel, and the steadfast- faith, one God and Father of all, who is above ness of a beloved disciple. He solemnly all, and through all, and in all.”* charges that disciple not to suffer himself to We shall endeavour to connect our past be one moment shaken in the faith, by the and following Course of Lectures, by the persecution to which the cause of Christ had view here presented to us by the apostle, of exposed himself, or the ills which he might the plan of Providence in the redemption of still be called to endure for the testimony of the world; and the execution of it, “ by the Jesus: and, to enforce his charge, he sug- appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ."gests a view of the gospel which eclipses all And you will be pleased to observe, created glory, “stills the enemy and the

I. It is God's own purpose.

The contriavenger," plucks from death his sting, and vance, the discovery, the progress, the acrobs the grave of its boasted victory. He complishment, all, all is from heaven. In represents Timothy and himself as engaged what relates to this world, in what contriin a cause, which the great God himself, butes to the sustentation and comfort of a before all worlds, regarded as of superior transient life, human sagacity, ingenuity, and importance, and made peculiarly his own; industry may challenge a little praise. Men which “at sundry times and in divers man- soon invented and improved the necessary, ners” he disclosed, and which at length, " by useful, and ornamental arts. They soon the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ

, learned to build cities, to work in brass and he made manifest" to all men. Paul glories iron, to handle the harp and organ.' in the idea of being a worker together with their dexterity, address, perseverance, and God in this generous design; in his appoint- success in the pursuit of perishable interests, ment to the office of “a preacher, and an form an humiliating contrast with their apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles,” in awkwardness, indolence, inattention, and inthe great mystery of godliness; in displaying capacity in their higher, their spiritual, and and dispensing to a guilty, perishing world, everlasting concerns. Wise in trifles, or to the unsearchable riches of Christ—who had do evil, how to do good they find not. The “abolished death, and brought life and im- experiment was permitted to be fully made. mortality to light through the gospel." It was proved how far the powers of nature

In tracing the history of the patriarchs could go. Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Rome, who lived both before and since the flood, improved one upon another; and what was from Adam to Abraham, and from Abraham the result? _.“ The world by wisdom knew to Moses, we have endeavoured to point out not God.” They became vain in their imathis unity of design, this steadiness of co-ope- ginations, and their foolish heart was darkration, this progress of discovery. By what- ened. " Professing themselves to be wise, ever name the typical person is designated, they became fools; and changed the glory patriarch, prophet, high priest, under the Old of the uncorruptible God into an image made Testament dispensation; whatever be the like to corruptible man, and to birds, and designation of the ministering servant under fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.”+ the New, apostle, evangelist, pastor, or elder, To increase our wonder and mortification, the office and the end of the institution is when God's purpose of mercy was declared, one and the same—to declare the Son of God, when his method of salvation was revealed, the Saviour of men, “for the perfecting of men were “slow of heart to believe.” They the saints, for the edifying of the body of " resisted the Holy Spirit;" Christ“ came Christ, till all come in the unity of the faith, to his own and his own received him not." and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto The disciples themselves understood not, bea perfect man, unto the measure of the lieved not "what the prophets had spoken." stature of the fulness of Christ."*

No wonder then that the doctrine of the Borne down the current of divine revela- cross was “ to the Jews a stumbling-block, tion, we have arrived with Israel at the and to the Greeks, foolishness." Here then mountain that burned with fire, and at awful is a purpose, which not only is not of man's distance, with trembling eyes beheld its sum- forming, but which man uniformly and viomit involved in clouds, clothed in terror; lently opposed. In other cases, we behold and with wonder and joy, contemplated the the wisdom of God blending itself with hucloud dispersing, the thunder ceasing, the man counsels, directing, subduing them to terror done away, and Mount Sinai trans- its determination, and the great God graciformed into Mount Zion. Whatever farther ously condescending to divide his glory with progress we make, in whatever direction we the creature. But if there be a design more proceed, we shall find this exceeding high peculiarly his, from which he claims undimountain still in view; and, whether under vided praise, which was not, which could • Eph. iv. 13.

* Eph. iv. 5, 6. | Rom. i. 22, 23.

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