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Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

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ll Or, eastward to Assyria.

25.

thou shalt die.

The river of Eden.

CHAP. II.

The tree of knowledge forbidden. of the garden, and the tree of know 14 And the name of the third river ledge of good and evil.

is Hiddekel : that is it which goeth 10 And a river went out of Eden || toward the east of Assyria. And to water the garden; and from thence the fourth river is Euphrates. it was parted, and became into four 15 And the LORD God took || the 1 0r, Adam. heads.

man, and put him into the garden of d Ecclus, 24. 11 The name of the first is a Pison: Eden to dress it and to keep it.

that is it which compasseth the whole 16 And the LORD God command-
land of Havilah, where there is gold; ed the man, saying, Of every tree of

12 And the gold of that land is the garden + thou mayest freely eat : Mebeating
good : there is bdellium and the 17 But of the tree of the know- eat.
onyx-stone.

ledge of good and evil, thou shalt 13 And the name of the second not eat of it: for in the day that

river is Gihon: the same is it that thou eatest thereof + thou shalt surely Heb, dying + Heb. Cush. compasseth the whole land of + Ethio-die. pia.

18 I And the LORD God said, It all his enjoyments ;) and of that life which he was to which the Euphrates, after its conjunction with the hope for in another world, if he proved obedient. Bp. Tigris, is again divided. Bp Patrick, Dr. Wells. Patrick. By means of this sacrament, had Adam gone Ethiopia.] Not the country so called in Africa, happily through his probation, and persevered in but another in Asia, adjoining to the easterly mouth of obedience unto the end, he would have been admitted the Euphrates; called in Hebrew, as in the margin of in the kingdom of heaven to that state of eternal life our translation, Cush; by the Greeks and Latins Suwith God, for which he was always designed, and of siana ; and now called by the Persians Chusistan, that which Paradise was the earthly resemblance. Bp. is, the province of Chus. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells. Horne.

14. Hiddekel:] The Tigris. The word, which is tree of knowledge of good and evil.] A tree, rendered toward the east, should be rendered simply which would make those that should eat of it sensible toward or before. For it has that signification, as well of good and evil. Bp. Wilson. It was so called, as as the other; and so expresses better the course of the being the appointed test of the obedience or disobe- river, which does not run toward the east of the prodience of our first parents ; procuring “good” or yince, properly called, of old, Assyria ; but does run happiness in the former case ; and “evil” or misery in before it, in respect to the place where Moses wrote. the latter. Dr. Hales.

Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells. 10. And a rider went out of Eden &c.] It should Euphrates.] In Hebrew Perath or Phrath. The seem that Paradise lay on the confluent stream of the course of it was so well known, that Moses gives no rivers Euphrates and Tigris, but principally on the description of it. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells. eastern bank; which divided into two branches above 17. thou shalt not eat of it:] It was fit to lay upon the garden, and two more below it. From the descrip- Adam this small restraint, to make him sensible, that tion of these rivers by the ancient historians and geo- though he had dominion over all things, yet he was not graphers, Major Rennell collects, that in ancient times their Lord, but a servant of the Most High, who rethey kept distinct courses to the sea, until the time of quired this abstinence in token

of his subjection, and to Alexander; although at no great distance of time after- prove his obedience to Him. But still some ask, Why wards they became united, and joined the sea in a should his obedience be tried in such an instance as collective stream. The Cyrus also and Araxes kept this ? not considering that a trial of it could scarce have distinct courses in ancient times. This, however, does been made in any of the moral precepts, which there not invalidate a primeval junction of these rivers, before was no opportunity of violating. For what should the deluge, which certainly produced a prodigious tempt him to idolatry, or to take God's name in vain, alteration in the face of the primitive globe. Besides, or to murder his wife? How was it possible to commit the changes in the beds of other great rivers, such as adultery, when there was nobody but he and she in the the Nile, the Ganges, and Barampooter, even in modern world? How could he steal, or what room was there times, are known to be very great. Dr. Hales. then for coveting, when God had put him in possession

11.- Pison :] The westerly branch, by which the of all things ? It had been in vain to forbid that, Euphrates empties itself into the Persian gulph. Both which could not be done : and it had been virtue to this river and the Gihon have long lost their names ; abstain, not from that, to which there was no temptathe Greek and Roman writers calling them, after their tion, but from that, which invited them to transgress. I parting, by the names which they had before they met, speak of them in the plural number, because it must be Euphrates and Tigris. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells. remembered that this prohibition was given, not to

-compasseth the whole land of Harilah,] That is, Adam only, but to Eve also, Chap. iii. 1, 2. Bp. Patrick. washes, with a winding stream, all one side of the land thou shalt surely die.] This does not signify, as of Havilah; or of the eastern tract of Arabia Felix. Bp. appears by the event, that he should instantly die, but Patrick, Dr. Wells.

that he should become mortal ; lose the immortality with 12. And the gold of that land &c.] Arabia was famed which he was invested, Chap. iii. 19. Diseases, sickfor its gold, both as to its fineness and its quality ; as nesses, and pains, the forerunners of death, are included also for its aromatic gums and pearls, whichever of in this threatening. Bp. Patrick. these is intended by “bdellium :" and for its precious The threatening implies a promise, that if he did not stones, whatever was the particular species signified by eat of the fruit, he should not die, but live. This was the the word rendered “ onyx-stone." Bp. Patrick, Dr. first covenant which God made with man. Bp. BeveWells.

ridge. 13. - Gihon :) The easterly channel of the two, into 18. And the Lord God said,] Or had said, before the

Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

4004.

e Ecclus. 36.
24.
+ Heb, as
before him.

man.

The making of woman,

GENESIS

and the institution of marriage. is not good that the man should be slept: and he took one of his ribs, alone ; I will make e him an help + and closed up the flesh instead theremeet for him.

of; 19 And out of the ground the 22 And the rib, which the LORD Lord God formed every beast of God had taken from man, † made he | Heb. the field, and every fowl of the air ; a woman, and brought her unto the

builded. || Or, the and brought them unto || Adam, to man.

see what he would call them: and 23 And Adam said, This is now
whatsoever Adam called every liv- bone of my bones, and flesh of my
ing creature, that was the name flesh : she shall be called Woman,
thereof.

because she was taken out of Man. f 1 Cor. 11. 8.
20 And Adam + gave names to all 24 6 Therefore shall a man leave & Matt. 19, 5.
cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and his father and his mother, and shall 1 Cor. 6. 16.
to every beast of the field; but for cleave unto his wife: and they shall Eph. 6. 31.
Adam there was not found an help be one flesh.
meet for him.

25 And they were both naked, 21 And the LORD God caused a the man and his wife, and were not deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he ashamed.

+ Heb. called.

delivery of this commandment, which was given to both. this He also effectually recommended marriage to all Bp. Patrick.

mankind, as founded in nature : and as the reunion of It is not good] Not so comfortable an estate, man and woman. that the man should live alone. I will make him an No mention is here made of God's breathing a soul helper, of his own nature, meet for him. Bp. Hall, into her as into him: for Moses only explains what is

19. Adam The Hebrew word, hitherto rendered peculiar to Eve: the rest is supposed in the words, “I Man, or the Man, is here rendered as a proper name. will make an help meet for him;" which the Latin VulDr. Wells. It is commonly thought that this name, given gate rightly translates, "like unto him.” It was liketo the first man, signifies as much as red earth. But it wise said before, that both man and woman were made is far more probable, that it imports elegant or beautiful. " in the likeness of God.” Bp. Patrick. Bp. Patrick.

22. And the rib-made he a woman,] Which was 20. And Adam gave names &c.] The ancient and as easy for the Divine power to do, as to make the man modern professors of Atheistical philosophy represent himself out of the earth. Bp. Patrick. the faculty of articulate speech, or language, as the mere and brought her unto the man.] Presented and instinctive expression of the wants and desires of a herd gave her to him to be his wife. God Himself made the of associated savages, gradually invented for mutual espousals (if I may so speak) between them, and joined convenience of communication, and established by mu- them together in marriage. Bp. Patrick. tual consent. But our great Lexicographer justly re 23. This is now bone of my bones, &c.] Now inmarks, that "language must have come by inspiration : deed have I found, what I could not see before among a thousand, nay a million of children, could not invent all God's creatures, a fit helper for me; even another a language: while the organs are pliable, there is not self. Bp. Hall. understanding enough to form a language; and by the she shull be called Woman,] Partake of my time that there is understanding enough, the organs name, as she doth of my nature. For he called her are grown stiff. We know, that after a certain age, we Isha, as he was called Ish. Bp. Patrick. cannot learn a language." Boswell's Life of Dr. Johnson. 24. Therefore shall a man leave &c.] Dwell with his This is confirmed by experience. Alexander Selkirk, wife, rather than with his father and his mother, and be when cast away on the desert island of Juan Fernandez, joined to her in the closest and most inseparable affecalmost lost the use of his native tongue, after some years | tion, as if they were but one person, and had but one residence. The young savage, called Peter, caught in soul and one body; an obligation arising from the sinthe woods of Hanover, several years ago, though soon gular union of the flesh of our first parents, one of whom tamed and reconciled to society, never could be taught was taken out of the other. Bp. Patrick. to speak. And lately, the young savage of Aveyron, in -wife:] Not wives. All this must be from exFrance, though put under the care of the celebrated press revelation ; for otherwise Adam knew not what a Sicard, master of the deaf and dumb school, has never father or a mother was, nor that the affections of chilyet been observed to utter an articulate sound, not even dren and parents were great : and yet that the ties of to express his most urgent wants.

husband and wife would be greater. But it appears It is remarkable, that Adam was endued with the from our Saviour's words, Matt. xix. 4, that this revefaculty of speech in his solitary state, and gave names lation was from God; that it is founded upon the law to the animal tribes before the formation of Eve: Dr. of nature, for one man to have one woman only; for Hales.

God knew, and none else could know, the evil conse21. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep &c.] Adam quences of unlimited mixture, and that the number of was thus less sensible of bodily pain; at the same time males and females should be so nearly equal, that that there was represented to his mind, both what was many of them would be deprived of the comforts of done to him, and the mystery of it, as appears by ver. marriage, if it were otherwise than as God ordained. 23, 24. Bp. Patrick.

Bp. Wilson. and he took one of his ribs,] God did not form 25. — were not ashamed.] Because they were innoEve out of the ground; as He had done Adam; but out cent, and had done nothing as yet to be ashamed of. of Adam's side, that He might create the greater love Bp. Kidder. between him and her, as parts of the same whole. By If we consider seriously what God is; how great,

1

Before CHRIST

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Before CHRIST

4004.

The serpent
CHAP. III.

deceiveth Eve. CHAP. III.

2 And the woman said unto the
1 The serpent deceireth Eve. 6 Man's shame serpent, We may eat of the fruit of

ful fall. 9 God arraigneth them. 14 The the trees of the garden :
serpent is cursed. 15 The promised seed.

3 But of the fruit of the tree which
16 The punishment of mankind. 21 Their is in the midst of the garden, God
first clothing. 22 Their casting out of hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, nei-
paradise.

ther shall ye touch it, lest ye die. . OW the serpent was more sub 4 a And the serpent said unto the a 2 Cor. 11.3.

til than any beast of the field woman, Ye shall not surely die:

which the Lord God had made. And 5 For God doth know that in the + Heb. Yea, he said unto the woman, + Yea, hath day ye eat thereof, then your eyes

God said, Ye shall not eat of every shall be opened, and ye shall be as
tree of the garden ?

gods, knowing good and evil.

NOW

1 Tim. 2. 14.

because, &c.

almighty, and wise He appears to be by the creation of perfect resemblance of his craft and wiliness. Bp. this heaven and this earth; and how beneficent and Kidder. gracious He is to man: if further we consider what man Yea, hath God said, &c.] The best interpreters was in his original state, how dignified and distinguished understand this to have been spoken interrogatively, above all other visible creatures : we cannot now, in this Hath God indeed said ? or, Dost thou think God meant our present forlorn condition, make any doubt of the absolutely by saying, &c. ? Pyle. reasonableness and justice of confessing and repenting The devil in these words seems to question the kindof those sins, whereby we have degraded our nature, ness of God, in that He did not permit to man the eatand offended so great, so gracious a Being, our Maker, ing of every tree in the garden. Bp. Kidder. our Benefactor, and our God. And to make us tho 2. — We may cat of the fruit &c.] She seems to roughly sensible why we ought to repent, was the main have understood him, as if he thought God had forbid design of the inspired writer, in describing to us the them to eat of any fruit in the garden. And indeed the original and happiness of mankind, and the great riches foregoing question is ambiguous. Bp. Patrick. of the Divine Goodness. That very “shame," which 4. — Ye shall not surely die :) As before he called in in a state of innocence we were strangers to, but which question God's kindness to man, so does he here deny we now inherit by a natural descent, ought to excite our God's veracity or truth: and deserves the character, repentance and self-abhorrence. Wogan.

which our Saviour gives him, of “a liar," John viii. 44.

Bp. Kidder. From this first lie that was told in the Chap. III. We have here an account of the state of world by the devil himself, he seems to be more parman, both before and after his fall : that he was created ticularly called by our Saviour, “The Father” of lies. in the image of God, and placed in Paradise, in a state Dr. Wells. of trial, in order to a greater happiness and an immortal Unbelief is not only a great sin of itself, but one life, if he should keep the covenant which God made great cause of all other sins. It may be truly called the with him and his posterity,

Mother of sin, as the devil is the Father: for it was This covenant, through the temptation of the devil, that, which by his instigation brought forth sin at first he broke; and was therefore turned out of Paradise, into the world, and it is that which still maintains and became subject to sin, and to the punishment of sin, keeps it. When the old serpent assaulted our first which is misery, afflictions, and death after all: and parents, the first attack he made was upon their faith; this was the occasion of that universal corruption, which and when that was once shaken, he soon overcame them. we see in the world. But then this transgression gave Bp. Beveridge. occasion to God to manifest, together with his justice 5. For God doth .know &c.] The first accuser that and holiness in the punishment of sin, another of his ever was in the world was a false accuser; and that glorious perfections, his infinite goodness and mercy. was the devil. He was “a liar from the beginning ;"

For seeing man in this deplorable condition, He had and the first false report he raised, was of the Most compassion on him, and forthwith made him this pro- High: unjustly accusing God Himself unto our mother mise of life and comfort, “ That the Seed of the woman,' Eve, in a few words, of no fewer than three great crimes one who was not to have a man for his father, “should at once, Falsehood, Tyranny, and Envy. He was then bruise the head of that serpent,” the devil, which had a slanderous accuser of his Maker : and he hath conbeguiled her. Bp. Wilson.

tinued ever since a malicious accuser of his brethren. Ver. 1. the serpent] That this was the devil's act, Bp. Sanderson. in the serpent, we have the authority of Christ himself, your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods,] who says, “ He was a murderer from the beginning,' The eyes of your understanding, which are now halfJohn viii. 44; plainly in allusion to this seduction of shut, shall be fully opened, and ye shall be full of our first parents, and the mortality thereby induced. divine knowledge, like your Maker. Bp. Hall. Or, like The same appears also from the Apostle, who calls the angels of God, who are frequently called “gods” devil or Satan, “ the great dragon, that old serpent, in Scripture. Bp. Patrick. which deceiveth the whole world.” Rev. xii. 9; xx. 2, Be our ends and aims what they will, unless we arm 10. And the author of the Book of Wisdom, ch. i. ourselves with strong resolutions beforehand, not to do ver. 24, who was well acquainted with the doctrines of any thing we know to be unlawful upon any terms, seem the Jewish Church, tells us, “Through envy of the it otherwise never so expedient; and then afterwards devil came death into the world.” Bp. Beveridge, Dr. use all our best prayers and endeavours by God's grace Kennicott.

to hold our resolutions, we are gone. Satan is cunning, more subtil] And therefore a fitter instrument and we are but weak, and he will be too hard for us, it for the devil, who made use of him; and also a more. he do but find us at all staggering in our resolutions to

Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

4004.

| Heb. rind.

+ Heb.a desire.

Man's shameful fall.
GENESIS.

God arraigneth
6 And when the woman saw that| LORD God walking in the garden in
the tree was good for food, and that the + cool of the day: and Adam and
it was † pleasant to the eyes, and a his wife hid themselves from the

pretree to be desired to make one wise, sence of the Lord God amongst the b Ecclus. 25. she took of the fruit thereof, band trees of the garden. 1 Tim. 2. 14. did eat, and gave also unto her hus 9 And the Lord God called unto

band with her; and he did eat. Adam, and said unto him, Where art

7 And the eyes of them both were thou ?
opened, and they knew that they 10 And he said, I heard thy voice
were naked ; and they sewed fig- in the garden, and I was afraid, be-

leaves together, and made themselves cause I was naked; and I hid myself. || Or, things || aprons.

11 And he said, Who told thee that 8 And they heard the voice of the thou wast naked ? Hast thou eaten of

to gird about.

do nothing but what is lawful ; or lending an ear to vile as now we are ; but that some common father to any persuasions, for the doing of any thing that is un us all had drunken some strange and devilish poison, lawful. By this very means he overcame our first mo- wherewith the whole race is infected. This poison, ther Eve; and prevailed with her to taste of the for- saith the Scripture, was the breach of God's commandbidden fruit, though it were unlawful, by persuading ment in Paradise, by eating of the forbidden fruit. Jos. her that it was expedient. This one is a sure ground Mede. for us to build upon; to a good Christian that desireth and they sewed fig-leaves together,] They twisted to make conscience of his ways, nothing can be truly ex- the branches of the fig-tree about them for coverings : pedient, that he knows to be unlawful. Bp. Sanderson. as the true translation is. The fig-tree leaves in eastern

- knowing good and evil.] An Hebrew phrase, countries are so broad, that a few will cover the body signifying as much as to know every thing, a very of a man. Pyle. enlarged knowledge, as in 2 Sam. xiv. 17 and 20. And 8. And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in on the contrary, to know or speak neither good nor evil, the yarden] The sound of the Majestick Presence, or the is to know or speak nothing at all, Deut. i. 39; Gen. glory of the Lord, approaching nearer and nearer to the xxxi. 29. Pyle.

place where they were. For the "walking" is to be 6. And when the woman saw &c.] She could con- referred to the voice, and not to the Lord. Bp. Patrick. clude that it was good for food, only by the serpent's hid themselves] Their very reason was so coreating of it before her eyes, and by seeing that he did rupted, as to think they could hide themselves, as wild not thereupon die, as God had threatened : so she gave beasts run into a wood when they see a man. Bp. him credit and distrusted God's word. Bp. Wilson. Wilson.

did eat,] Her sin was great and various ; being 9. the Lord God called unto Adam,] Emphatically guilty of ambition, incredulity, ingratitude, curiosity, called, Jehovah Elohim, God the Lord. By which, in inordinate desire, open rebellion against God, and the the language of Philo, according to the opinion of all the drawing aside of her husband, and the involving of him ancient Fathers, is to be understood God the Father, in sin, and their posterity in misery also. Bp. Kidder. speaking by Christ, the Logos, the Word, or Son of

- and gave also unto her husband with her ] Be- God: the Messenger and Representative of the Father, sides the aggravations common to both our parents, “the brightness of his glory, and the express image of Eve adds one more to her weight, in that she was not his person ;" who appeared in, and spake from, the content to sin herself alone, but she allured, and drew Shechinah, or cloud of glory; the same cloud of light, her husband also into the like horrible transgression with its heavenly host of angels, from whence He comwith her: whereby she was not only guilty of her own muned with Adam, with Noah, with Abraham, and the personal sin, but of her husband's also. And this Patriarchs; and communicated his will to, and conadded so much to her former sins, that St. Paul speaks ducted, the Israelitish nation. For of God the Father of her, as if she had been the only transgressor; “ Adam it is expressly said, " No man hath seen Him at any was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was time,” John i. 18; vi. 46. “Neither heard his voice in the transgression.” 1 Tim. ii. 14. So great and at any time, nor seen his shape,” John v. 37. Pyle. horrible a thing it is in the eye of God, to be the cause - Where art thou ?] Such questions do not argue or mover of another's sin. Jos. Mede.

ignorance in Him that asks them ; but are intended to 72 And the eyes of them both were opened,] They had awaken the guilty to a confession of their crimes. As no sooner transgressed than they began to reflect upon appears from chap. iv. 9, “ Where is Abel thy brother?” the guilt, and feel the fatal consequences of so doing. Of whom, when Cain stubbornly refused to give an Their understandings were indeed “opened,” not in the account, the Lord said immediately, (to shew that He sense the tempter had promised; but in a manner that needed not to be informed,) " the voice of thy brother's discovered to them their own folly, degeneracy, and blood crieth unto me from the ground.” Bp. Patrick. shame. Pyle.

10. because I was naked ;] They became sensible and they knew that they were naked;] Who knows that they were divested of their inward purity; they also not the story of Adam's fall? Who hath not heard of blushed at their bodily nakedness, of which before they the sin of Eve our mother? If there were no Scripture, were not ashamed. This shame was part of their punyet the unexampled irregularity of our whole nature, ishment; and it is entailed upon their posterity, as a which all the time of our life runs counter to all order standing memorial of the sins that occasioned it, being and right reason; the woeful misery of our condition, an impression from God upon their spirits ; for no other being a scene of sorrow without any rest or content account can be given of its being so universal as it is. ment; this might breed some general suspicion, that Bps. Patrick and Wilson. from the beginning it was not so: that He, who made 11. And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked ?] us lords of his creatures, made us not so worthless and l Adam appears to have avoided a confession of the cause,

Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

4004.

Adam and Eve.

CHAP. III.

The serpent is cursed. the tree, whereof I commanded thee 14 And the LORD God said unto that thou shouldest not eat?

the serpent, Because thou hast done
12 And the man said, The woman this, thou art cursed above all cattle,
whom thou gavest to be with me, she and above every beast of the field;
gave me of the tree, and I did eat. upon thy belly shalt thou go, and

13 And the Lord God said unto dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy
the woman, What is this that thou life:
hast done? and the woman said, The 15 And I will put enmity between
serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. thee and the woman, and between thy

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by acknowledging only the effect : he owned no more man to covetousness, he calls it thrift; and the same than that he hid himself, because he was naked.” is the case with other vices. This is what the Scripture But God, who knew that this discovery, or sense of his saith, “Satan is transformed into an angel of light,” nakedness, could only arise from his transgression, in- 2 Cor. xi. 14. Jos. Mede. terrogates him again thus : “Who told thee that thou me,] The devil assaults us where he finds us wast naked ?" No one could shew thee this : this must weakest, as here, in this first sin, he attempts the woman, be thy own discovery, and is a strong presumption of the weaker vessel. “The serpent beguiled me:” for he thy loss of innocence. Dr. Kennicott.

knows this is the readiest way to overcome. Jos. Mede. 12. The woman whom thou gavest to be with me,] Let the fatal example of the fall of Eve be a warning He throws the blame upon his wife, which however he to others, how they listen to sophistry in opposition to did not intend should rest there, but recoil back upon divine truths. For though the tempter, since that time, his Creator. “I have eaten,” says he, “but the woman has no more made use of serpents, in such a way, yet gave me of the tree :" even the woman, “whom thou he has other instruments proper to work with, and often gavest to be with me,” or to be my constant companion. does the same thing by the tongues or pens of serpentThus we are apt to excuse and palliate our faults; by like men. Dr. Waterland. laying that load upon others, with which we ought to 14. And the Lord God said unto the serpent, Because charge ourselves. Dr. Kennicott, Bp. Patrick. From thou hast done this, &c.] Namely, because he had bethe beginning man hath always been apt to lay the blame guiled the man and woman, which God hath made, and of his faults where it can least lie, upon goodness and caused them to transgress his great commandment. He perfection itself. The very first sin that ever man was therefore that is the cause and occasion of another's sin guilty of, he endeavoured to throw upon God. And his is as hateful to God as the doer, and is liable to as great posterity are still apt to excuse themselves the same way. or rather a greater punishment. Nay, the serpent's Abp. Tillotson.

doom is first read to him, as if he were the arch13. And the Lord God said unto the woman, &c.] He offender: for which same reason the woman's sentence from whom no secrets are hid, He that formed the heart comes next, because she had been a sin-inaker, and was of man, and knows all the works we do, He that search- guilty, not only of her own personal sin, but of her huseth and trieth the heart and reins, even He will first ex- band's also. The same might be confirmed from the amine the fact, will first hear what miserable man can quality of their several judgments; in that the serpent say for himself, before his sentence shall pass upon him : alone is doomed to be “cursed,” and no such sentence not out of ignorance of what was done; for how should is pronounced either upon the man or upon the woman. the omniscient God be ignorant? but out of his won- Jos. Mede, Bp. Patrick. derful clemency and unspeakable moderation towards thou art cursed &c.] What follows has a referman : I say, towards man; for to him alone He shews ence to the serpent, the instrument; and to Satan, who this favour : for as for the serpent, we see He vouch- made use of that creature. As an argument of the desafes not to ask him one question, nor to wait for what testableness of the sin, and a constant memorial of it, he could say for himself, but presently without exami- the abused beast is “cursed.” Compare Exod. xxi. 28, nation proceeds to judgment against him. Jos. Mede. 32; Levit. xx. 15, 16; and Gen. ix. 5,

What is this that thou hast done?] Who would The curse upon the serpent consisted, 1, in bringing not think this rather the speech of a familiar and con- down his stature, which was probably in great measure doling friend, than of so great a Judge, so greatly of- erect before this time: “upon thy belly shalt thou go ;" fended? Here is no word of asperity, but of lenity: no or, “ upon thy breast," as some versions have it: 2dly, menacing, no upbraiding terms; but only, “What is in the meanness of his provision, “and dust shalt thou this that thou hast done?” Jos. Mede.

eat,” inasmuch as creeping upon the ground, it cannot - and the woman said, The serpent beguiled me,] but lick up much dust together with its food : 3dly, in My weakness was deceived by the cunning of the devil. that “enmity," which hereafter ensued between this Thus she also threw the blame upon another. But God, creature and mankind : for the wisest naturalists among no doubt, convinced them both of the greatness of their the heathens (proper witnesses in the present case) have guilt, and the miserable condition into which they were agreed, that there is a mortal enmity between the human fallen by their transgression, before He ended this dis- and the serpentine species. Bps. Patrick and Kidder, course with them. This shews the infinite mercy of Dr. Kennicolt. the Creator of all, who would not abandon them, but 15. I will put enmity &c.] This last particular more sought after them to "save" them, when they had peculiarly refers to the devil or Satan, who made use of “ lost" themselves. Bp. Patrick.

the serpent as an instrument, and is called a serpent, beguiled] This first act of the devil is that Rev. xii. 9; xx. 2. “Thy seed;" that is, The apostate wherein we may behold, as in a glass,” the art he still spirits, and all those that in wickedness resemble their useth to tempt us to sin, and bring us to utter destruc- father, the devil, John vi. 70; viii. 44; Acts xiii. 10. tion. His practice is uniformly to“ beguile.” He pre- “Her seed;" that is, the Messiah or Christ, (who is pesents all things fair to our face, and suffers not evil to culiarly the seed of the woman, Isa. vü. 14; Gal. iii. 16; appear before us in its own deformed shape ; for then iv. 4;) and his members, Eph. vi. 11, 12, Rev. xii. 13. every man would fly from it. When he would tempt a “ It shall bruise thy head;" that is, the seed of the

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