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Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

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b 2 Cor. 4. 6.

4 Heb. between the

The creation of

GENESIS.

heaven and the earth, face of the deep. And the Spirit waters, and let it divide the waters of God moved upon the face of the from the waters. waters.

7 And God made the firmament, 3 And God said, Let there be and divided the waters which were light: and there was light.

under the firmament from the waters 4 And God saw the light, that it which were above the firmament: and light and be- was good: and God divided + the it was so. light from the darkness.

8 And God called the a firmament d Jer. 51. 15. + Heb. and 5 And God called the light Day, Heaven. And the evening and the was, and’ine and the darkness he called Night. morning were the second day. morning was, + And the evening and the morning 9 T Ånd God said, . Let the waters e Ps. 33. 7. were the first day.

under the heaven be gathered to- Job 38. 8. 6 1 And God said, “Let there be gether unto one place, and let the a + firmament in the midst of the dry land appear: and it was so.

tween the darkness.

c Ps. 136. 5.
Jer. 10. 12.
& 51. 15.
+ Heb.
expansion.

to make the Creator of all the founder of his laws, be 3. And God said,] Wherever in the history of the gins with Him. As if he had told the Hebrew nation, creation we read these words, He said, the meaning that He, who gave them the law contained in these must be understood to be, He willed. Bp. Patrick. For books, was the King and Lawgiver of the whole world, this is the admirable power of God, that with Him to which was, like a great city, governed by Him : whom will is to effect, to determine is to perform. Bp. Pearson. therefore he would have them regard, as the Enactor, - Let there be light :] Not of the sun or stars, not only of their laws, but of those also which all nature which were not yet created; but a common brightness obeys. Bp. Patrick.

only, to distinguish the time, and to remedy the former Moses, though divinely inspired, does not go about confused darkness. Bp. Hall. to prove that there is a God: he justly supposes, that 4. And God ew the light, that it was good :] He apwhoever considers the works of creation must be con- proved it, as agreeable to his design and accommodated vinced, that a Being of infinite perfections, wisdom, and to the use of the world. Bp. Kidder. power, whom we call God, was the Creator of all things. - and God divided the light from the darkness.] Bp. Wilson.

Appointed that they should constantly succeed one an1. God created] The Hebrew word Elohim, which other. Bp. Patrick. is here, and generally throughout the Old Testament, 5. And the evening and the morning were the first rendered “God,” is a plural substantive, and yet is here day.] By the evening is here denoted one whole course and elsewhere joined to a singular verb. By which sort of darkness; and by the morning, the next following of expression it is very reasonably supposed, that the whole course of light. The evening is mentioned before inspired writer designed to intimate the Trinity of Per- the morning, probably because the darkness was before sons in the Unity of the Godhead : namely, as the plural the light, according to the history of the creation. Dr. noun denotes the plurality of persons, so the singular Wells. Hence the natural day of the Jews began in the verb joined to it denotes the unity of the Godhead. Dr. evening. Levit. xxiii. 32. bp. Kidder. Wells. See note on ver. 26.

Instead of making all things at once, it is probable the heaven and the earth.] Or the world : in the that God was pleased to divide his work into six days, scripture-phrase “the heaven and earth” are used to partly to give us occasion for considering his works express what is otherwise called the world or universe. with more attention and seriousness; and partly to lay Bp. Kidder.

the foundation for the weekly sabbath. Stackhouse. The ancient Hebrews seem to have had no word in 6. And God said, Let there be a firmament &c.] Then use among them, which singly of itself signified the God willed that there should be a large, clear, airy disworld; and therefore they used in conjunction the tance, betwixt those upper waters, which are gathered "heaven and earth,” as the grand extremities, within into clouds, and these below. Bp. Hall. which all things are contained. Bp. Pearson.

The Greek version has given us a word, which has 2. And the earth was without form and void ;] A con- produced in our translation the corresponding word firfused indigested heap, without any order or shape. mament. But this term by no means furnishes us with Having no beasts, nor trees, nor herbs, nor any thing the true idea of the original word, which is derived from else, with which we now see it adorned. Bp. Patrick. a verb signifying, to spread abroad, expand, enlarge,

and darkness was upon the face of the deep:] No- make thin, &c. The proper rendering then is, the exthing was to be seen for want of light; which lay buried, pansion : as it is said in other parts of Scripture, “Who as all things else did in that great abyss, or vast con- stretchest out the heavens like a curtain !” “That stretchfused heap of matter, before mentioned. Bp. Patrick. eth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out

the Spirit of God] The third Person in the as a tent to dwell in,” Psal. civ. 2; Isaiah xl. 22. Bp. blessed Trinity. Dr. Wells.

Horne. the Spirit of God moved &c.] That is, the Di 7.- divided the waters &c.] Under the firmament ; vine Spirit, by moving on the waters, operated toward namely, in the seas and rivers, &c. Above the firmathe order and ornament of what was confused before. ment; namely, in the clouds, which are said therefore Bp. Kidder.

to cover the heaven, (Ps. cxlvii. 8; compare Prov. viii. The word we here translate moved, signifies literally 28,) that is, the air or lower heaven. Compare 2 Sam. brooded upon the waters, as a hen doth upon her eggs. xxi. 10. Bp. Kidder. Bp. Patrick

9. — Let the waters &c.] This work of God, whereby The word seems used to express that act of the Holy the waters were sent down into their proper channels, Spirit, by which He imparted motion, activity, and life and the earth made dry, and fitted for the habitation of to the particles of matter, lying yet in a mixed and such creatures as were afterwards created, is observed shapeless heap. Dr. Wells.

by Strabo, a Greek geographer, as an aet of Divine Pro

Before CHRIST

4004.

4004.

g Jer. 31. 35.

grass.

47.

ing.
+ Heb. soul,

the sun, moon, and stars, CHAP. I.

and of beasts. 10 And God called the dry land | firmament of the heaven to give herst Earth; and the gathering together light upon the earth, of the waters called he Seas : and 18 And to 8 rule over the day and God saw that it was good.

over the night, and to divide the 11 And God said, Let the earth light from the darkness: and God Heb. tender bring forth + grass, the herb yielding saw that it was good.

seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit 19 And the evening and the
after his kind, whose seed is in itself, morning were the fourth day.
upon the earth : and it was so.

20 And God said, b'Let the 1,2 Esdras 6.
12 And the earth brought forth waters bring forth abundantly the
grass, and herb yielding seed after || moving creature that hath + life, !| Or, creep-
his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, and fowl that may fly above the
whose seed was in itself, after his earth in the + open firmament of hea- + Heb. fuce
kind: and God saw that it was good. ven.

13 And the evening and the morn 21 And God created great whales, ing were the third day.

and every living creature that mov14 9 And God said, Let there be eth, which the waters brought forth f Deut. 4, 19. f lights in the firmament of the hea- abundantly, after their kind, and

ven to divide + the day from the every winged fowl after his kind : tunee netwee day night; and let them be for signs, and and God saw that it was good.

for seasons, and for days, and years: 22 And God blessed them, saying,

15 And let them be for lights in ' Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill i Chap. 8. 17. the firmament of the heaven to give the waters in the seas, and let fowl light upon the earth: and it was so. multiply in the earth.

16 And God made two great 23 And the evening and the mornHebe for me lights ; the greater light † to rule the ing were the fifth day,

day, and the lesser light to rule the 24 ( And God said, Let the earth
night: he made the stars also. bring forth the living creature after

17 And God set them in the his kind, cattle, and creeping thing,

of the firmament of heaven.

Ps. 136. 7. + Heb, be

the night.

the rule of the day, &c.

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vidence. Because,” says he, “the water covered the of every thing, whereby it always keeps itself within earth, and man is not a creature that can live in the such bounds, and acts according to such rules, as God water, God made many cavities and receptacles in the hath set it, and by that means shews forth the glory of earth for the water ; and raised the earth above it, that his wisdom and power. Bp. Beveridge. it might be fit for man's habitation.” Bp. Patrick. 15. And let them be for lights &c.] Let them there

11. whose seed is in itself,] The meaning is, that continue to give constant light and warmth to the earth the plant should include in itself its proper seed, by and its inhabitants, which is their principal use. Bps. means of which it should be afterwards propagated from Hall and Patrick. one generation to another. Dr. Wells.

16. two great lights ;] That is, which appear to us 14. Let there be lights], Or luminous bodies, by greater than all the rest ; namely, the sun and moon. which light is communicated. The light produced at With regard to the inhabitants of the earth, the moon, first was now distributed into several luminaries, dis- though certainly an opaque or dark body, and less than tant from the earth, " in the firmament of heaven;" or most of the planets, may be not improperly called a in those upper regions, where the sun and the planets great light : since, on account of its nearness, it comare placed. Bp. Patrick.

municates more light, and is of more use and benefit to to divide &c.] Partly to make a perpetual and us, than all the other planets put together. Dr. Wells, constant division between day and night; and partly to Bp. Palrick, Stackhouse. be certain and natural signs for man's direction, in his to rule the day, &c.] As the sun is said “to rule course of judgment and practice, for sowing, planting, the day,” because he then only appears in the firmament; sailing, and such other common affairs; and partly, to so the moon and stars are said to "rule the night,” bemake a distinction of seasons, summer, winter, spring, cause they then appear with splendour, and give a supply autumn, years, months, weeks, days, hours. Bp. Hall

. of light, which the sun does not then immediately afford. As also to direct mankind afterwards in their solemn Dr. Wells, Bp. Kidder. festivals. Bp. Kidder.

17. And God set them &c.] By repeating this so We must distinguish betwixt God's saying, Let such often, Moses intended to fix in the people's mind this a thing be, and let such a thing do, so or so. By the notion; that though the heavenly bodies be very glorious, first He produced the thing out of nothing : by the yet they are but creatures made by God, and set or apother He gave laws to it, then in being. As, when He pointed by his order, to give us light. And therefore said, “ Let there be light,” by that word, the light, which He alone is to be worshipped, not they. Bp. Patrick. was not before, began to be: but when He said, “ Let This supposition is the more probable, because the most there be lights in the firmament, to divide the day from early idolatry is reasonably judged to have been that of the night, &c.He thereby gave laws to the light He worshipping the host of heaven, or the celestial lights. had before made, where He would have it be, and what Dr. Wells. He would have it do. This is what we call the law of 21. — whales,] Or great fishes of all sorts. Dr. nature : that law, which God hath put into the nature Wells.

Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

4004.

The creation
GENESIS.

of man,
and beast of the earth after his kind :and let them have dominion over the
and it was so.

fish of the sea, and over the fowl of 25 And God made the beast of the the air, and over the cattle, and over earth after his kind, and cattle after all the earth, and over every creeping their kind, and every thing that thing that creepeth upon the earth.

creepeth upon the earth after his 27 So God created man in his own * Chap. 5.1. kind: and God saw that it was good. image, in the image of God created

26 9 And God said, k Let us make he him ; 'male and female created he 1 Matt. 19. 4. man in our image, after our likeness: them.

& 9. 6.
1 Cor. 11. 7.
Ephes. 4. 24.
Col. 3. 10.

Wisd. 2, 23.

26. And God said, Let us make man] God not only no figure of speech that will allow any single person reserved man for the last of his works, but, as it were, to say, 'one of us,' when he speaks only of himself. advises and consults about his production; not to sig- It is a phrase that can have no meaning, unless there nify any deliberation within Himself, or any difficulty be more persons than one concerned.” in the work : but to represent to us the dignity of man, What then should hinder us from accepting the third and that he was made with admirable wisdom and great solution, given by the best expositors ancient and modern, prudence. It is to be observed also, that God does not and drawn from this consideration, that in the unity of say, “Let the earth bring forth man,' as He said before the Divine Essence there is a plurality of Persons, coof other animals; and that for the same reason : namely, equal and co-eternal, who might say, with truth and to represent man as a far more noble work, than any propriety, “Let us make man,” and Man is become other upon earth. Bp. Patrick.

as ONE OF us?" Of such a personality revelation inLet us] The ancient Christians looked upon forms us : it is that upon which the economy of man's this as a plain intimation of a plurality of persons in redemption is founded; his creation, as well as that of the Godhead. Epiphanius says, “ This is the language the world, is, in different passages, attributed to the of God to his Word and only begotten, as all the faith- Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit; what more ful believe ;” and again, “ Adam was formed by the natural therefore than that, at his production, this form hand of the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost." of speech should be used by the Divine Persons ? What Bp. Patrick

more rational than to suppose, that a doctrine, so imIt is the language of St. Barnabas, one of the apos- portant to the human race, was communicated from the tolical Fathers, “And for this cause the Lord was content beginning, that men might know whom they worshipped, to suffer for our souls, although He be the Lord of the and how they ought to worship? What other good and whole earth ; to whom God said, before the beginning sufficient reason can be given, why the name of God, in of the world, Let us make man, &c.” Abp. Wake. use among believers from the first, should likewise be

St. Chrysostom concludes some observations on the in the plural number, connected with verbs and pronouns same passage in the following eloquent terms: “Who in the singular? It is true, we Christians, with the New was He, to whom God said, Let us make man? Who Testament in our hands, may not want these arguments else but He, the Angel, of the Great Council, the Won- to prove the doctrine: but why should we overlook, or derful Counsellor, the Mighty One, the Prince of Peace, slight, such very valuable evidence of its having been the Father of the future age, the only-begotten Son revealed and received in the Church of God, from the of God, the equal to his father in essence, by whom foundation of the world ? It is a satisfaction, it is a all things were made ? To Him it was said, Let us comfort, to reflect, that in this momentous article of our make man.

faith we have patriarchs and prophets for our fathers; “Let us make man." Us.—He speaks to one who that they lived, and that they died in the belief of it; has the power of creating. John i. 1, 2, 3. Bp. that the God of Adam, of Noah, and of Abraham is Wilson.

likewise our God; and that when we adore Him in three The phraseology, in which this resolution is couched, Persons, and give "glory to the Father, to the Son, and is remarkable. “Let us make man :" but the Old Tes to the Holy Ghost," we do, “as it was" done “in the tament furnishes more instances of a similar kind : beginning, is now, and ever shall be.Bp. Horne.

Behold, the man is become as one of us ;" “ Let us in our image, after our likeness :] Approaching go down, and there confound their language;" “Whom to the Divine likeness in understanding, freedom of shall I send, and who will go for us?These plural choice, spirituality, immortality, &c. in righteousness, forms, thus used by the Deity, demand our attention. and true holiness likewise, as may be gathered from the Gen. iii. 22; xi. 7; Isaiah vi. 8.

Apostle, Eph. iv. 24. Bp. Patrick. Of man's distinThree solutions of the questions have been offered. guishing excellencies we are taught to entertain the The first is that given by the Jews, who tell us, that in most exalted sentiments, when we are told, that he was these forms God speaks of Himself and his angels. made“ in the image and likeness of God.” For what But may we not ask upon this occasion, “ Who hath more can be said of a creature, than that he is made known the mind of the Lord, or who hath been his after the similitude of his Creator. Bp. Horne. counsellor?” With which of the angels did He at any We should learn to be cautious, lest we charge God time vouchsafe to share his works and his attributes? foolishly, by ascribing that to Him or the nature He has Could they have been his coadjutors in the work of given us, which is owing wholly to an abuse of it. Men creation, which He so often claims to Himself

, declaring may speak of the degeneracy and corruption of the He will not give the glory of it to another?

world, according to the experience they have had of it; A second account of the matter is, that the King of but human nature, considered as the Divine workmanheaven adopts the style employed by the kings of the ship, should methinks be treated as sacred : for in the earth. But doth it seem at all reasonable to imagine, image of God made He man. Bp. Butler. that God should borrow his way of speaking from a 27. -- him ;] God thought fit to make one man to king, before man was created upon the earth ? Besides, be the head and parent of the whole race of mankind, as it hath been judiciously observed," though a king that men might not boast and vaunt of their extraction and governour may say us and we, there is certainly and original, (as the Jews have observed,) and that they

Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

4004.

o Ecclus, 39,

eth,

and appointment CHAP. I, II.

of food. 28 And God blessed them, and given every green herb for meat: and God said unto them, m Be fruitful, it was so.

and multiply, and replenish the earth, 31 And • God saw every thing that m Chap. 9. I.

and subdue it: and have dominion he had made, and, behold, it was very 16.
over the fish of the sea, and over the good. And the evening and the

fowl of the air, and over every living morning were the sixth day.
+ Heb. creep- thing that + moveth upon the earth.
29 And God said, Behold, I have

CHAP. II. + Heb. seed- given you every herb + bearing seed, ing seed.

1 The first sabbath. 4 The manner of the which is upon the face of all the

creation. 8 The planting of the garden of earth, and every tree, in the which is Eden, 10 and the river thereof. 17 The n Chap. 9. 3. the fruit of a tree yielding seed; " to tree of knowledge only forbidden. 19, 20

you
it shall be for meat.

The naming of the creatures. 21 The mak

ing of woman, and instilution of marriage.
30 And to every beast of the earth,
and to every fowl of the air, and to HUS the heavens and the earth

every thing that creepeth upon the were finished, and all the host living soul. earth, wherein there is + life, I have of them.

T Were finished, and all the host

+ Heb. a

might think themselves under an obligation to love and The narrative contained in this chapter redounds assist each other, as proceeding from the same original greatly to the honour and glory of God: for the work and common parent. Acts xvii. 26. Bp. Kidder. of creation is an illustrious display of the Divine Wis

male and female] That is, one male, and one dom, Power, and Goodness. When the Holy Psalmist female; and the female from the male. Polygamy and had enumerated the great mercies of God to his creadivorce were not from the beginning. Compare Matt. tures in various instances, Ps. civ. he exclaimed, ver. xix. 3, 4. Bp. Kidder.

24, “O Lord, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom He made woman the same day He made man, as He hast Thou made them all: the earth is full of thy did both sexes of all other living creatures ; also He riches.” Every thing indeed is wisely contrived and made woman, as well as man, " in the image of God;" adapted to the ends for which it was designed. 2dly, forming the male of the matter of the earth, and the The works of Creation demonstrate the all-sufficient female afterwards of the male, of which a more particu- Power of God, who made heaven and earth by his lar account is reserved for the following chapter. Bps. word, and “all the hosts of them by the breath of his Patrick and Hall, Dr. Wells.

mouth :" nay, who can produce a world with no more 28. And God blessed them,] That is, besides the ex- labour than by barely willing it to be. Lastly, the cellent endowments which He bestowed on them, He Divine Gooimess is highly magnified in the works of gave them power to multiply and increase their kind. Creation. There was a time, when there was nothing See Psalm cxxviii. 3, 4. Bp. Kidder. This power He but God: but there was no time, when He was not inhad before bestowed upon other creatures : He adds to finitely happy; therefore He was infinitely happy in it here two other things, “ replenish the earth, and sub- | Himself, and wanted not his creatures to add any thing due it.” He gives them the whole earth for their pos- to Him. But his good pleasure and free grace disposed session, with a power to “subdue” it; that is, to make Him to create them, and impart a share of his own it fit for their habitation, by bringing under, or driving happiness to them. Some of them He hath placed in away wild beasts. For, secondly, He gives them the heaven ; and “ the earth hath he given to the children “ dominion” over all other creatures, whether in the of men :” which would have been a secondary heaven water, air, or earth. Bp. Patrick.

to us, had we not brought death into it by sin. Never- have dominion] The divine writers have in theless this death shall prove the beginning of eternal formed us, that God at the beginning gave mankind life to all those, who serve God in the faith of his Son dominion (that is, an impressed awe and authority) over Jesus Christ, who hath “opened the kingdom of heaven every living thing that moveth upon the earth, as a de- to all believers." Reading. fence and security against the beasts of prey, which The Mosaical account of the Creation of the World is would otherwise have destroyed them. Dr. Bentley. distinguished for its simplicity and perspicuity, above all

By the dominion God gave him over the creatures, the accounts of the Romans, Greeks, Phenicians, EgyptAdam, though naked and defenceless, had full security ians, and Chinese ; which still, however, tend to confirm that they could not hurt him; and he had a convincing and verify it in the leading circumstances. Dr. Hales. proof of this by their obedience, when they were brought before him. Bp. Wilson.

Chap. II. Moses, having given a short account of the 29. Behold, I have given you &c.] Here He assigns orderly production of all things, from the meanest to the thern their food; and makes no mention at all of beasts, noblest, explains more largely in this chapter some but only of plants and fruits of the earth. The allow- things, which, in the foregoing, were delivered briefly, ance was expressly enlarged after the flood, when He because he would not interrupt the connexion of his gave them every living thing for meat, as well as the discourse about the works of the six days Particularly herbs, Chap. ix. 3. Bps. Patrick and Kidder.

he relates how Eve was made; and also further illus31. very good.] Exactly fitted to the ends and trates the production of Adam, &c. Bp. Patrick. uses, for which He designed it; and contributing, as

Ver. 1. — all the host of them.] That is, of each of much as it could, to the manifestation of his glory. them. The word "host" is plainly used to signify every Bp. Beveridge. The least or worst of creatures in their thing that is in heaven or in earth; or, as we say, in the original is not any way derogatory to the Creator. whole world, which in Hebrew is always expressed by Whatsoever is evil, is not so by the Creator's action, but these two words, “heaven and earth.” Bp. Beveridge. by the creature's defection. Bp. Pearson.

The several creatures are called “host” or army, be

Before CHRIST

4004.

Before CHRIST

4004.

a Exod. 20.

1 Or, a mist

up from, &c.

Deut. 5. 14.
Hebr. 4. 4.

The first sabbath.

GENESIS

The garden of Eden. 2 - And on the seventh day God | rain upon the earth, and there was ended his work which he had made; not a man to till the ground.

and he rested on the seventh day 6 But || there went up a mist from 11. & 31. 17. from all his work which he had made. the earth, and watered the whole face which went

3 And God blessed the seventh of the ground.
day, and sanctified it: because that 7 And the Lord God formed man
in it he had rested from all his work tof the b dust of the ground, and theb dust
which God + created and made. breathed into his nostrils the breath b 1 Cor. 15.

4. 9 These are the generations of of life; and man became a living
the heavens and of the earth when soul.
they were created, in the day that 8 And the Lord God planted a
the Lord God made the earth and garden eastward in Eden; and there
the heavens,

he put the man whom he had formed.
5 And every plant of the field be 9 And out of the ground made the
fore it was in the earth, and every Lord God to grow every tree that is
herb of the field before it grew: for pleasant to the sight, and good for
the Lord God had not caused it to food; the tree of life also in the midst

+ Heb. created to make.

47.
c1 Cor. 15.
45.

cause of their vast variety and excellent order. Bp. - breathed into his nostrils the breath of life ;] Patrick.

This being said of no other creature, leads us to con2. And on the seventh day God ended his work] Or ceive, not only that the soul of man is a distinct thing, rather, had ended, (as it may be translated,) for He did of a different original from his body; but that a more not work on the seventh day. Bp. Patrick. The verse excellent spirit was put into him by God (as appears by may be rendered, agreeably to the translation of the its operations) than into other animals. For though the Seventy, “On the sixth day God ended his work which simple phrase of inspiring him with “ the breath of life" He had made : and He rested on the seventh day from would not prove this, yet Moses speaking in the plural all his work which He had made.” Dr. Wells. An number, that “God breathed into him the breath or emblem of the rest that we shall have, when we have spirit of lives," it plainly denotes that spirit, which done our work faithfully, and left none undone. Bp. makes man not only breathe and move, but think also, Patrick.

reason and discourse. Bp. Patrick. 3. blessed] That is, ordered it to be observed, as 8. And the Lord God planted a garden] Or had a day for praising Him, and for obtaining his blessings : planted, probably on the third day: “ eastward,” that and no doubt it was so observed by all good men from is, eastward of Judea, or of the desert of the Amorites, Adam to Moses. Bp. Wilson.

where Moses wrote these books, in a country, long after - sanctified] That is, set it apart, that it might pre- called “Eden” from its pleasantness and fruitfulness. serve to all ages the memory of the Creation and the Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells. Creator; man being by an express law obliged to com When we think of Paradise, we think of it as the memorate them fifty-two times a year. And as the seat of delight. The name Eden authorizes us so to neglect of this law brought in idolatry and infidelity, so do. It signifies PLEASURE; and the idea of pleasure is the breach of it has ever since been punished most re- inseparable from that of a garden, where man still markably, by a judicial hardness of heart, forgetfulness seeks after lost happiness; and where, perhaps, a good of God, and exemplary judgments; as numberless man finds the nearest resemblance of it, which this offenders have confessed. Bp. Wilson.

world affords. “What is requisite," exclaims a great 4. These are the generations &c.] This is a faithful and original genius, (Dr. Young) “to make a wise and account of the generation, or original, of the world. Bp. happy man, but reflection and peace ? And both are Patrick

the natural growth of a garden. A garden to the vir- in the day] Or, at the time, “that the LORD tuous is a Paradise still extant; a Paradise unlost.” Bp. God made the earth and the heavens.” From hence- Horne. forward the Supreme Being is called “Lord,” having and there he put the man &c.] We cannot conbeen hitherto called only “God.” The Hebrew doctors ceive such a creature, as man, to be put into a more observe, that Jehovah Elohim (LORD God), joined happy state than this. The ground naturally, without together, is the full and perfect name of God; and any labour or trouble, brought forth every thing that therefore fitly reserved till this place, when the works was necessary and convenient, and also every thing that of God were perfected. Bp. Patrick.

was pleasant and delightful. So that there was nothing 7.— of the dust of the ground,] Not dry but moist dust, for man to do, but to dress and to keep the garden for or clay ; such as is used by potters: as the Greek and He- his diversion, and to satisfy himself with all the variety brew words are thought most properly to signify. Upon which it afforded. Dr. John Clarke. this original of man's body the ancient Fathers make 9. — the tree of life] So called, because he, that ate of many pious reflections, but none better or shorter than it, would have lived for ever, either by virtue of that this, that it is intended to teach us, that when we are tree, or by the appointment of God; as the sacraments, inclined to be lifted up, because we are made after are means of grace. Bp. Wilson. This garden being a God's image, the thoughts of the dirt, out of which we type of heaven, perhaps God intended by this tree to are taken, may humble and lay us low. Bp. Patrick. represent that immortal life, which He meant to bestow

In this instance, as in another since, God seemeth to upon man with Himself, Rev. xxii. 2. In other trees have chosen the base things of the world, to confound there was a nourishment for man; but in this also a things honourable and mighty, when of the dust of the sacrament. For it was a symbol both of that life, which ground He composed a frame, superior, in rank and dig- God had already bestowed upon man; (who was hereby nity, to the heavens and all their hosts. Bp. Horne. put in mind that God was the author of his being, and

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