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uke 29. Isai. 13. 19.
Sodom and Gomorrah
are destroyed. flee unto, and it is a little one: oh, 24 Then e the Lord rained
upon let me escape thither, is it not a Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimlittle one ?) and my soul shall live. stone and fire from the LORD out of
21 And he said unto him, See, I heaven; + Heb. thy
have accepted + thee concerning this 25 And he overthrew those cities, Jer. 50. 40. face.
thing also, that I will not overthrow and all the plain, and all the inhabit- Andes 4. 11.
grew upon the ground.
27 9 And Abraham gat up early in + Heb. gone
23 q The sun was † risen upon the the morning to the place where he forth.
earth when Lot entered into Zoar. stood before the LORD:
neither let thine affections stay upon the earth ; escape it was afterwards overflowed by the waters of the to the holy mountain, lest thou be consumed with the Jordan, which diffused itself there, and formed “the world. Bp. Horne.
Dead sea,” or “ Lake of Sodom," called also “the Lake 22. — I cannot do any thing &c.] Having made thee Asphaltites,” because of the asphaltus or bitumen with this promise, I must defer the vengeance till thou art which it abounded; and “the Salt sea,” because the safe there. Bp. Patrick.
Hebrews call nitre and bitumen salt. The Prophets Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.] speak often of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Signifying "little:” for the name of it was Bela before, and say that these places shall be desert, dried up, and chap. xiv. 2. Bp. Wilson.
uninhabited; covered with briers and brambles; a land In times of publick calamity, there is often some little of salt and sulphur, where there can be neither planting Zoar provided for them that love God, where they are nor sowing. Josephus says, that round about the Lake wonderfully preserved from the judgments that fall on of Sodom, and about the cities heretofore destroyed by their country and their kindred. The Roman armies, fire from heaven, the land is all burnt up, and there are which surrounded Jerusalem, to execute on it the ven- still to be seen the dismal effects of this terrible burngeance predicted, drew off in an unaccountable manner, ing, and the remains of those unfortunate cities. Heaas if their design had been to give the Christians con- then writers give accounts much to the same effect : tained within its walls an opportunity of withdrawing to especially Tacitus, who says that these cities were burnt a little adjoining city called Pella, which proved a Zoar by the stroke of thunderbolts from heaven ; and that to them: from whence they beheld the Roman eagles fly vestiges of that destruction remained, the earth itself again to devour their destined prey. And what is the being in appearance burnt up, and having lost its proChurch upon earth, but a Zoar, little city, (is it not a lifick power : and the air being infected with the same little one ?) spared at the intercession of its Lord ? Here noisome qualities. Modern travellers speak in like the penitent, not yet strong enough to escape to the manner of the saltness of the water ; of the unwholeheavenly mountain, findeth rest and refreshment, and someness of the air ; of the bitumen, gathered on the is strengthened to pursue his journey. Hither let him neighbouring mountains, and covering the stones on escape, and his soul shall live. Bp. Horne.
the side of the lake; and of a sort of black sulphureous 24. Then the Lord rained from the Lord] In the stones, abounding on the shores of the lake and on the account of the overthrow of Sodom, there is a distinc-neighbouring hills, which being held in the flame of a tion of persons in the Godhead: "Then the Lord rained candle soon burn, and yield a smoke of an intolerable upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire stench. Calmet, Bps. Patrick and Pococke, Maundrell. from the LORD out of heaven." The former was the 26. But his wife looked back &c.] There are in Lot's visible LORD, "the image," or representative, “ of the story two very notable memorials of God's judgment, invisible," whom "no man hath seen at any time, nor The Lake of Sodom, and Lot's wife's pillar. The one, can see; nor ever saw his shape, nor heard his voice;" the punishment of resolute sin; the other, of faint as we learn from the former ; who only could expound virtue. For the Sodomites are an example of impenito mortals the nature and the will of the Father : for tent wilful sinners : and Lot's wife, of unpersevering "no man knoweth the Father, save the Son, and he to and relapsing righteous persons. So that there are two whomsoever the Son will reveal him." Compare Col. sorts of men, to whom these particulars are fitted. To i. 15; John i. 18; v. 37; 1 Tim. vi. 16; Matt. xi. 27. those in a state of sin, the Lake of Sodom: to those in That the visible LORD was the Son of God, was the doc- a state of grace, Lot's wife's pillar. To the first, in a trine of the primitive Church : Tertullian says, “ It is state of sin, Moses proposeth “ the vine of Sodom," and the Son, who has executed judgment from the begin- the grapes of Gomorrah, which, if you but touch them, ning: overthrowing the proud tower of Babel, and con- turn to ashes. To the others, in a state of grace, Christ founding men's languages; punishing the whole world proposeth the pillar of salt: “Remember Lot's wife.” by the violence of waters ; raining upon Sodom and Go- To the one Jeremiah crieth, that when they have morrah fire and brimstone, the Lord From The Lord.” “fallen,” they should“ arise again :" to the others St. Dr. Hales.
Paul saith, “Let him that thinketh he standeth, take upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah] And the neigh-heed lest he fall:" Deut. xxxii. 32; Luke xvii. 32; Jer. bouring cities, Admah and Zeboim; as appears from viii. 4; 1 Cor. x. 12. Bp. Andrewes. Deut. xxix. 23. Bp. Patrick.
a pillar of salt.] It is probable that some of the - brimstone and fire] The plain where these cities dreadful shower, which destroyed the cities of the plain, stood, which had been pleasant and fruitful, like an overtook her : and falling upon her, wrapped her body earthly Paradise, was first inflamed by lightning, which in a sheet of nitro-sulphureous matter; which congealed set fire to the bitumen, with which it was replete; and into a crust as hard as stone, and made her appear like
34 And it came to pass on the LAND Abraham journeyed from about 1898. Lot dwelleth in a cave.
GENESIS. The origin of Moab and Ammon
go thou in, and lie with him, that we
down, nor when she arose.
31 And the firstborn said unto the this day.
of Ammon unto this day.
1 Abraham sojourneth at Gerar, 2 denieth his
wife, and loseth her. 3 Abimelech is re-
thence toward the south country, a pillar of salt, her body being, as it were, candied with 33. And they made their father drink wine] We must it. Josephus says, that the pillar was remaining in his be convinced of the frailty of nature, without the grace time. Bps. Patrick and Wilson.
of God, when we read the account of Lot's intempe28. — and, lo, the smoke of the country went up &c.] rance after so great a deliverance; and if we have any “As it was in the days of Lot, so shall it be also in the concern for our salvation, we shall dread a vice, which days of the Son of Man :" when that last morning shall will lead a man to the greatest crimes. Bp. Wilson. dawn and the Sun of Righteousness shall arise in glo 36. Thus were both the daughters of Lot &c.] One rious majesty upon the earth. No sooner shall He circumstance must be remembered by those, who would make his appearance, than the heavens, being on fire understand the scope and design of the sacred writer, at his presence, shall be dissolved, and pass away with in furnishing us with particular relations contained in a great noise: the earth also, with the works that are this book ; which is, that he always kept in mind the therein, shall be burned up. Then shall be fulfilled promise of the Messiah, and was desirous of shewing, that which was spoken by the Psalmist in terms evi- that the expectation of this great object of the Jewish dently borrowed from the history before us : " Upon hopes was predominant in all times, and influenced the the ungodly He shall rain fire and brimstone, storm and opinions and manners of every generation. The recoltempest: this shall be their portion.” What Sodom lection of this will furnish the reason of many partiwas, the world shall be: and at the last day, when we culars mentioned in the book, which might otherwise shall arise and look towards the place, where its plea- appear extraordinary and exceptionable. It will persures and delights, its beauties and glories once existed, haps serve to explain the conduct of Lot's daughters; as “ Abraham arose in the morning, and looked towards the violent desire of Sarah for a son; the solicitude of Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the cities of the Isaac to remove the barrenness of Rebekah; and the plain,” we shall behold a sight like that which presented contention between the wives of Jacob. In conformity itself to the Patriarch, “the smoke of the country going with this design also Moses relates the jealousies beup, as the smoke of a furnace.”
tween Ishmael and Isaac; and between Esau and But the same all-gracious and merciful who, Jacob; and many other minute and singular particu“when He destroyed the cities of the plain, remembered lars, which an historian of his dignity would not have Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the over- condescended to describe, but with a view to illustrate throw;" when He shall destroy this place wherein we the general persuasion of, and gradual preparation for, dwell, will remember the true Abraham, the Father of the coming of the Messiah. Dr. Gray. us all, our dear Redeemer and Intercessor: and for his sake, if we now repent and believe in Him, will save us Chap. XX. ver. 1. - journeyed from thence] That is, in that day from the ruins of a burning world, and from from Mamre, probably to avoid the stench of the vale those fires which are never to be extinguished. Bp. of Siddim, and on occasion of the destruction
of Sodom, Horne.
of which he was an eye-witness. Stackhouse, Bp. Kidder,
Abraham denieth his wife.
Abimelech is reproved for her. and dwelled between Kadesh and 5 Said he not unto me, She is my CHRIST about 1898. Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. sister? and she, even she herself said, about 1898.
2 And Abraham said of Sarah his He is my brother : in the || integrity wife, She is my sister : and Abime- of my heart and innocency of my simplicity, or, lech king of Gerar sent, and took hands have I done this. Sarah.
6 And God said unto him in a 3 But God came to Abimelech in dream, Yea, I know that thou didst a dream by night, and said to him, this in the integrity of thy heart; Behold, thou art but a dead man, for for I also withheld thee from sinning
the woman which thou hast taken; against me: therefore suffered I thee + Heb. for she is ta man's wife.
not to touch her. married to an
4 But Abimelech had not come 7 Now therefore restore the man husband.
near her : and he said, LORD, wilt his wife; for he is a prophet, and he
toward the south country,] Towards Egypt. Bp. thou art but a dead man,] That is, thou shalt Patrick.
certainly die. But then there is a condition implied in Gerar.] Gerar was a regal city situated not far this as in other threats; namely, “ If he did not restore from the angle where the south and west sides of Abraham his wife.” See Jonah iii. 4; Ezek. xxxiii. Palestine meet : and the country, to which it gave the 14, 15. Besides, the words imply what punishment .name, extended itself pretty far into Arabia Petrea. adultery deserves in God's account. Bp. Kidder. Beer-sheba signifies the well of the oath, because here 5. Said he not unto me, She is my sister ?] Abimelech, Abraham made a covenant with Abimelech, king of an heathen man, who had not the knowledge of the true Gerar, concerning a well which he had digged hard by: God of heaven to direct him in the right way; and here he likewise planted a grove, and instituted an withal a King, who had therefore none upon earth above oratory, or place of divine worship; and here in pro- him, to controul him if he should transgress; would cess of time was a city or considerable town built, yet have abhorred to have defiled himself knowingly by taken notice of by heathen authors under the name of adultery with another man's wife, although the man were Berzimma, or Bersabe. Kadesh was a city, lying on but a stranger, and the woman exceeding beautiful. Certhe edge of the land of Canaan, to the south of Hebron. tainly Abimelech shall one day rise up in judgment, and Shur was the name of that part of Arabia Petrea, which condemn thy filthiness and injustice, whosoever thou joins Egypt and the Red Sea; and somewhere between art, that committest, or causest another to commit, these two was the well, near which Abraham, when he adultery : “ who knowing the judgment of God, that left Mamre, fixed his habitation. Stackhouse.
they which do such things are worthy of death, either 2. And Abraham said of Sarah &c.] See the note on dost the same thyself, or hast pleasure in them that do chap. xii. 13. It is still more extraordinary, that Abra- them;" or being in place and office to punish inconham failed under the same trial twenty-three years tinent persons, dost at once both criminate thy own after his former failure : when he again denied his wife conscience, and embolden the adulterer to commit that to Abimelech, whose character and that of his people sin again without fear, from which he hath once escaped was the reverse of that of the Egyptian court; for he without shame. Bp. Sanderson. took her “in the integrity of his heart,” and his nation - in the integrity of my heart] Not with any inwas then “righteous.” God therefore dealt more gently tention to defile her, but to make her my wife: and inwith him than with the Egyptians; and removed the nocency of my hands ; I did not take her by violence plague of barrenness from him and his household, on from Abraham, but he and she consented to it. Bp. Abraham's intercession. Dr. Hales.
Patrick. Abimelech] The name of all the kings of Pales 6.— I also withheld thee from sinning] It was God's tine, as Pharaoh was of the kings of Egypt. Bp. great mercy to all the three parties, that He did not Palrick.
suffer this evil to be done: for by this means He 3.- in a dream] God revealed Himself and his will graciously preserved Abimelech from the sin, Abraham frequently in old times, especially before the sealing of from the wrong, and Sarah from both. And it is to be the Scripture-canon, in sundry manners: as by visions, acknowledged the great mercy of God, when at any time prophecies, ecstasies, oracles, and other supernatural He doth (and He doth often more or less) by his means; among the rest by dreams. By such supernatural gracious and powerful restraint withhold any man from revelations He imparted his will, not only to the running into those extremities of sin and mischief, godly and faithful, though more frequently and espe- whereinto his own corruption would carry him headcially to them; but sometimes also to hypocrites long, especially when it is inflamed by the cunning perwithin the church, as to Saul and others; and some suasions of Satan, and the manifold temptations that times even to heathens out of the church, as to Pharaoh, are in the world through lust. Bp. Sanderson. Balaam, Nebuchadnezzar, &c. and here to Abimelech. 7. – he is a prophet,] This is the first time we meet But since the writings of the Prophets and Apostles with the word Prophet; and Abraham is the first that were made up, the Scripture-canon sealed, and the is honoured with this name. It signifies one admitted Christian church by the preaching of the Gospel be- to a nearer intercourse with God; so as to be allowed came universal; dreams, and other supernatural reve- to consult Him, and to declare his mind and will to lations, as also other things of like nature, as miracles, others; and also to prevail with Him by prayer to confer and all the more immediate and extraordinary manifesta- blessings upon them. Bp. Patrick. See note on Numb. tions of the will and power of God, have ceased to be of xi. 25. ordinary and familiar use : so that now, we ought ra he shall pray for thee,] Though God can give ther to suspect delusion in them, than to expect direc- his blessing without the intercession of any of his tion from them. Bp. Sanderson.
servants, yet it is plain that He has otherwise ordered it.
Abimelech rebuketh Abraham.
Isaac is born.
live: and if thou restore her not, / women-servants, and gave them unto about 1898. know thou that thou shalt surely die, Abraham, and restored him Sarah his about 1898. thou, and all that are thine.
wife. 8 Therefore Abimelech rose early 15 And Abimelech said, Behold, in the morning, and called all his my land is before thee: dwell + where Heb, as
is good in
hold, I have given thy brother a
and his wife, and his maid-servants;
up all the wombs of the house of
1 Isaac is born. 4 He is circumcised. 6 Sa-
comforteth her. 22 Abimelech's covenant
with Abraham at Beer-sheba.
he had said, and the LORD did
me, He is my Abraham a son in his old age, at the Gebr4, 22; brother.
set time of which God had spoken to
a Chap. 17. 19. & 18. 10.
a Chap. 12. 13.
Hebr. 11. 11.
He sends them to his “ Prophets ;” to those whom He the sake of those, whom they would have injured by has appointed to "bless in his name;" to "men of like their sins, if they had committed them. As here Abimepassions with themselves ;"_that He may prove their lech for his chosen Abraham's sake; and Laban and faith and their obedience. Bp. Wilson.
Esau for his servant Jacob's sake; and Balaam for his 11.- the fear of God is not in this place;} This people Israel's sake. As it is said in the 105th Psalm, fear of God being the great restraint upon men's lusts and that with special reference, as I conceive, to this and passions. By the fear of the Lord men depart very story of Abraham, “He suffered no man to do from evil,” Prov. xvi. 6. It appears however that them wrong, but reproved even kings for their sakes; Abimelech and his court were not so corrupt as Abra- saying, Touch not mine anointed, and do my proham suspected. Bps. Kidder and Patrick.
phets no harm:" He reproved “even kings," by re16. And unto Sarah he said,] In this speech Abime- straining their power, as here Abimelech : but it was lech tells Sarah, she was at liberty to return to her "for their sakes” still; that so Sarah “ his anointed brother, as she called him; and might live with him might not be touched,” nor “his prophet” Abraham without fear: for that he was so far from designing any sustain “any harm." Bp. Sanderson. injury to him, or resenting what had passed, that he had made him a present of great value, as a token of Chap. XXI. ver. 1.--the Lord visited Sarah &c.] Beesteem for a virtuous and good man. But by way of stowed on her the promised blessing. The word "visit" gentle reproof, he advised her not to use any more signifies, either, in a bad senise, to inflict punishment, artifices by disowning Abraham for her husband; but (Exod. xx. 5;) or, in a good sense, as here, to confer to place herself under his care, which would be a pro- blessings, (Exod. iii. 16; Ps. viii. 4.) Bp. Patrick. tection to her ; or (as the words may signify) wear her 2. Sarah conceived,] That the posterity of Abraveil over her face, as she ought to do, that every body ham might be disposed hereafter more readily to receive might know her to be a married woman to prevent the promised Seed, it pleased God to make Isaac, the such misfortunes for the future. Pyle.
heir of that promise, a most exact type and figure of 18.— because of Sarah Abraham's wife.] God here Jesus Christ. His birth was miraculous, as was that restrained Abimelech, as elsewhere He did Laban, and of Christ; for it was as much out of the common Esau, and Balaam, and others; not so much for their course of nature for Sarah to bear at ninety, as for å own sakes, though sometimes perhaps that also; as for virgin to bear a child. He disputed not his father's
Hagar and Ishmael cast forth. of his son that was born unto him, of thy bond-woman; in all that Sarah Before about 1897. whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac. hath said unto thee, hearken unto about 1892.
4 And Abraham circumcised his her voice ; for in Isaac shall thy seed
13 And also of the son of the bond-
14 And Abraham rose up early in
Hagar, putting it on her shoulder,
15 And the water was spent in
down over against him a good way
10 Wherefore she said unto Abra- and lift up her voice, and wept.
and her son: for the son of this the lad; and the angel of God called
her, What aileth thee, Hagar ? fear
18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold
, though it was to cost him his life: Jesus Christ 14.- took bread, and a bottle of water,] Which inbecame obedient even to the death. Isaac carried the cludes all sort of provision for their present necessity, wood on which he was to be sacrificed : Jesus Christ till they came to the place, to which in all probability carried the cross on which He was to be crucified. They he directed them. Their wandering about in the desert both carried them to the very same place, Mount until their water was consumed, appears to have been Moriah; being the place where the temple was after the effect of their accidentally mistaking their way; and wards built, though then a desert. So good was God: not to have been intended by Abraham. Bp. Patrick, who, for the greater confirmation of our faith, would Stackhouse. not let us want these surprising instances of the truth of - and the child,] Ishmael, though called "a child,” both the Old and the New Testaments, confirming each was not less than sixteen or seventeen years old ; and other. But then how great is the sin, and how great was consequently a youth capable of being å supmust be the punishment of infidelity! Bp. Wilson. See port and assistance to his mother, as he soon after note on ch. xxii, 19.
proved. Stackhouse. See the note on Jer. i. 6. An 6.- God hath made me to laugh,]. That is, to rejoice ambiguity in the text would be avoided, by placing the exceedingly. She refers to her laughter on a former oc- clause "putting it on her shoulder” within a parencasion ; though from a different motive. Bp. Patrick. thesis, as it is placed by Bishop Kidder, Stackhouse,
8.--and was weaned :). Probably when he was two and Pyle. or three years old. Stackhouse.
15. - she cast the child &c.] The lad being faint and 9. -- Sarah saw the son of Hagar--mocking.] He de- ready to perish, she laid him under the shade of a tree or rided perhaps the festivity observed at Isaac's weaning, shrub. Bp. Kidder. She left off supporting him, and looking on himself as the first-born. Bp. Patrick. let him gently drop on the ground, where he desired to
10. — she said] And God approved it, ver. 12. And lie. In a succeeding verse the Angel of the Lord bade the Apostle observes, that “the Scripture saith, Cast her lift up Ishmael, and hold him in her hand, or supout the bondwoman, &c.” Gal. iv. 30. Bp. Kidder. port him under his extreme weakness: she had doubtAbraham was satisfied by what follows in ver. 12, that less done this before ; and her quitting her hold, upon Sarah’s motion proceeded not merely from her anger, his lying down, is the meaning of the word translated but from a Divine suggestion. Bp. Patrick.
cast. Harman. 12.- in Isaac shall thy seed be called.] The pro
18. – I will make him a great nation.] Very properly mised Seed, the Messiah, shall not descend from Ish- denominated Ishmaelites and Hagarenes by others, they mael, but from Isaac. Bp. Kidder.
affectedly called themselves Saracens ; thus rejecting