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Before CHRIST

1822.

Before CHRIST

1773.

c Chap, 16.

+ Heb. fell.

1857.

about 1800. di Chron, 1. 29.

1838.

The generations of Ishmael.

GENESIS

Isaac prayeth for Rebekah. his son Isaac; and Isaac dwelt by thou goest toward Assyria : and he the well Lahai-roi.

+ died in the presence of all his bre-
12 / Now these are the generations thren.
14. & 24. 62. of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Ha 19 q And these are the generations

gar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, of Isaac, Abraham's son : Abraham
bare unto Abraham :

begat Isaac :
13 And a these are the names of 20 And Isaac was forty years old
the sons of Ishmael, by their names, when he took Rebekah to wife, the
according to their generations: the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of
first-born of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Padan-aram, the sister to Laban the
Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, Syrian.

14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and 21 And Isaac intreated the LORD
Massa,

for his wife, because she was barren:
15 Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Na- and the Lord was intreated of him,
phish, and Kedemah :

and Rebekah his wife conceived.
16 These are the sons of Ishmael, 22 And the children struggled to-
and these are their names, by their gether within her; and she said, If it
towns, and by their castles; twelve be so, why am I thus? And she went
princes according to their nations. to enquire of the LORD.

17 And these are the years of the 23 And the LORD said unto her,
life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty Two nations are in thy womb, and
and seven years: and he gave up the two manner of people shall be sepa-
ghost and died; and was gathered rated from thy bowels; and the one
unto his people.

people shall be stronger than the other 18 And they dwelt from Havilah people; and e the elder shall serve the e Rom. 9. 12. unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as younger.

1773.

great nations. His fame reached much farther than the 23. — Two nations] That is, the heads of two nations, Jewish scriptures reached, among the Gentiles, among the Edomites and Israelites. Bp. Kidder. the Arabians especially, his descendants : and there are two manner of people] Greatly differing in their some remains of his religion and memory among the disposition, manners, course of life, and country; which Persians at this day. Dr. Waterland.

will make them perpetually disagree. Bp. Patrick. 19. -- these are the generations of Isaac,] His prin The children struggled together in the womb, which cipal design being to give an account of those descended was an omen and token of their future disagreement; from Abraham by Isaac, Moses returns to that after a and when they were grown up to manhood, they manishort account of Abraham's other posterity. Bp. Pa- fested very different inclinations. Esau was “a cunning trick.

hunter," and delighted in the sports of the field; Jacob 20. - the Syrian of Padan-aram,] Bethuel, as also was more mild and gentle, " dwelling in tents," and his son Laban, is called the Aramite or Syrian, not as minding his sheep and his cattle. Esau slighted his descended from Aram, or a Syrian by descent; but as birthright, and those sacred privileges, of which Jacob living in the country, which fell to the lot of Aram at was desirous, and is therefore called the profane Esau, the first plantation after the flood, and which must ac- Heb. xii. 16; but Jacob was a man of better faith and cordingly be esteemed a part also of Syria, largely taken religion. The like diversity ran through their posterity. to denote all the country of Aram. For he lived at The religion of the Jews is very well known: but whatHaran, and so in the north part of Aram-Naharaim, or ever the Edomites were at first, in process of time Mesopotamia, which north part, from the fruitfulness of they became idolaters. Upon these religious differences, it, was particularly called Padan-aram, the word Padan and other accounts, there was a continual grudge and denoting a cultivated fruitful ground. Dr. Wells. enmity between the two nations. The king of Edom

21. Isaac intreated the Lord for his wife, &c.] He would not suffer the Israelites, in their return out of prayed, as the Hebrew implies, with earnestness, vehe- Egypt, so much as to pass through his territories, Num. mence, and importunity: being uneasy at her barren- xx. 14—21; and the history of the Edomites afterwards ness, on account of the promise of the Messiah. Bp. is little more than the history of their wars with the Jews. Patrick.

Bp. Newton. Of all the Patriarchs, none passed so quietly through the one people shall be stronger &c.] The family the world as Isaac: none lived either so privately, or so of Esau was for some time the greater and more powerinnocently : neither know I whether he approved him- ful of the two. But David entirely conquered the self a better son or husband. For the one, he gave Edomites, and made them tributaries. In aftertimes, himself over to the knife of his father, and mourned they were governed for the most part by viceroys or three years for his mother; for the other, he sought not deputies appointed by the kings of Judah. And in the to any handmaid's bed, but in a chaste forbearance re- time of the Maccabees they were incorporated into the served himself for twenty years' space, and prayed : Jewish church and nation. Bp. Newlon. Rebekah was so long barren. At last, in reward for his and the elder shall serve the younger.] In his piety, she conceived. Bp. Hall.

posterity, not in his own person. Bp. Patrick. 22. went to enquire of the Lord.] Either by prayer, The prediction was verified in the descendants of Jaor to some holy man, and possibly to Abraham, who cob, then represented by himself, being favoured with was now living. Bp. Kidder.

some distinguishing prerogatives, both spiritual and

Before CHRIST

1838.

Before CHRIST about 1805.

16.

1837.

The birth of Esau and Jacob. CHAP. XXV, XXVI. Esau selleth his birthright.

24 And when her days to be de 31 And Jacob said, Sell me this
livered were fulfilled, behold, there day thy birthright.
were twins in her womb.

32 And Esau said, Behold, I am
25 And the first came out red, all tat the point to die; and what profit + Heb.

going to die. over like an hairy garment; and they shall this birthright do to me? called his name Esau.

33 And Jacob said, Swear to me 26 And after that came his brother this day; and he sware unto him : { Hos. 12. 3. out, and his hand took hold on Esau's and 8 he sold his birthright unto Ja- . Hebr. 12.

heel; and his name was called Jacob : cob.
and Isaac was threescore years old 34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread
when she bare them.

and pottage of lentiles; and he did
27 And the boys grew: and Esau eat and drink, and rose up, and went
was a cunning hunter, a man of the his way: thus Esau despised his
field; and Jacob was a plain man, birthright.
dwelling in tents.
28 And Isaac loved Esau, because

CHAP. XXVI.
+ Heb. + he did eat of his venison : but Re- 1 Isaac because of famine went to Gerar. 2
bekah loved Jacob.

God instructeth, and blesseth him. 7 He is mouth.

reproved by Abimelech for denying his wife. 29 4 And Jacob sod pottage: and

12 He groweth rich. 18 He diggeth Esek, Esau came from the field, and he was Sitnah, and Rehoboth. 23 Abimelech maketh faint:

a covenant with him at Beer-sheba. 34 30 And Esau said to Jacob, Feed

Esau's wives, + Heb. with

ND there was a famine in the about 1804. that red, with

pottage ; for I am faint: therefore was pottage. his name called Edom.

was in the days of Abraham. And

venison was in his

me, I pray thee

, t with that same red A Vand, beside the first famine that

that red

temporal, above the descendants of Esau. For we know God indeed, before he was born, designed and promised Esau did not serve his brother Jacob : nay, his brother this privilege to him: but then he should have waited, Jacob did obeisance to him. Dean Tucker.

till the Divine wisdom had found out the means of exe25.- Esau.] That is, made or perfected, as if born cuting his promise in his own way, as David did, till more like a man than a babe. Bp. Kidder.

God gave him possession of Saul's kingdom; and not 26. Jacob :] That is, a supplanter ; or one that have anticipated God, and snatched it by an irregular taketh hold of, and trippeth up his brother's heels. act of his own. In the whole affair indeed, Jacob acted Stackhouse.

with a subtilty, not at all becoming an honest man. He 27. - Jacob was a plain man,] But he appears rather, knew that delays were dangerous, and that his brother's from his whole conduct and behaviour, to have been an consideration might possibly spoil his bargain; and artful man. The word in the original signifies perfect, therefore he required haste, both in the sale, and in his which is a general term : but being put in opposition oath ; and thereby incurred another sin, by hurrying his to the rough and rustic manners of Esau, it particularly brother into an oath by precipitation, which neither he imports, that Jacob was more humune and gentle. Bp. should have taken, nor Jacob have advised him to take, Newton.

without mature advice and deliberation. 29 sod] Boiled; the preterite of seethe. Johnson's And in like manner, as to his interception of the blessDictionary.

ing, which his father designed for his brother Esau; it 30. - Ēdom.] Which signifies red. Whence the city, is in vain to have recourse to forced constructions, or to which he built, and the country, which his posterity in- plead the lawfulness of mental reservations, in order to habited, were called by the same name; and by the excuse him in the lying and dissimulation, for which he Greeks Idumea: bordering

towards the south on Judea, was certainly culpable. The best way is, upon this ocArabia, and Egypt. Bp. Patrick.

casion, to lament the infirmity of human nature, which 31. Sell me this day thy birthright.] The birth- cannot always stand upright; and to admire the imparright, or right of primogeniture, had many privileges tiality of the Sacred Writings, in which the very blemannexed to it. The firstborn was consecrated to the ishes and transgressions of such as are designed to make Lord, Exod. xxi. 29; had a double portion of the estate the principal figure in them, are not forgotten to be reallotted him, Deut. xxi. 17; had a dignity and authority corded. Stackhouse. over his brethren, Gen. xlix. 3 ; succeeded in the go 34. -- pottage of lentiles ;] Lentiles were a kind of vernment of the family or kingdom, 2 Chron. xxi. 3 ; pulse, somewhat like our vetches, or coarser sort of and, as some with good reason imagine, succeeded to pease. Stackhouse. the priesthood, or chief government in matters ecclesias The inhabitants of Barbary still make use of lentiles, tical. He had a right to challenge the particular bless- boiled and stewed with oil and garlick, and forming a ing of his dying parent; he had the covenant, which pottage of a chocolate colour: this was “the red pottage,” God made with Abraham, that from his loins Christ ver. 30, for which Esau, thence called Edom, sold his should come, consigned to him: and, what is more, birthright.' Dr. Shaw. these prerogatives were not confined to his person only, In the account of the life of Hilarion, a celebrated but descended to his latest posterity, in case they com- hermit, that austere recluse is said for three years to ported themselves so as to deserve them. Stackhouse. have eaten nothing but half a sextary (about a pint)

33. -- Swear to me this day :] Moses, who records of lentiles, moistened with cold water: and for other this conduct of Jacob, does not commend him for it. three years only dry bread with salt, and some water.

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

a Chap. 13. 15. & 15. 18.

& 15, 18. & 22. 18.

God instructeth Isaac, and blesseth him. GENESIS.

Isaac dwelleth in Gerar. Isaac went unto Abimelech king of the people might lightly have lien about 1804. the Philistines unto Gerar.

with thy wife, and thou shouldest about 1804. 2 And the Lord appeared unto have brought guiltiness upon us. him, and said, Go not down into 11 And A bimelech charged all his Egypt; dwell in the land which I people, saying, He that toucheth this shall tell thee of:

man or his wife shall surely be put to 3 Sojourn in this land, and I will death. be with thee, and will bless thee; for 12 Then Isaac sowed in that land, unto thee, and unto thy seed, a I will and + received in the same year an * Heb. found. give all these countries, and I will hundred-fold : and the LORD blessed perform the oath which I sware unto him : Abraham thy father ;

13 And the man waxed great, and 4 And I will make thy seed to twent forward, and grew until he + Heb. went

going. multiply as the stars of heaven, and became very great: will give unto thy seed all these 14 For he had possession of flocks,

countries; and in thy seed shall all and possession of herds, and great b Chap. 12. 3. the nations of the earth be blessed; store of || servants : and the Philis- Or,

husbandry. 5 Because that Abraham obeyed tines envied him. my voice, and kept my charge, my 15 For all the wells which his facommandments, my statutes, and my ther's servants had digged in the days laws.

of Abraham his father, the Philistines
6 And Isaac dwelt in Gerar: had stopped them, and filled them

7 And the men of the place asked with earth.
him of his wife ; and he said, She is 16 And Abimelech said unto Isaac,
my sister: for he feared to say, She Go from us; for thou art much migh-
is my wife ; lest, said he, the men of tier than we.
the place should kill me for Rebekah; 17 G And Isaac departed thence,
because she was fair to look upon. and pitched his tent in the valley of

8 And it came to pass, when he Gerar, and dwelt there.
had been there a long time, that 18 And Isaac digged again the
Abimelech king of the Philistines wells of water, which they had digged
looked out at a window, and saw, and, in the days of Abraham his father ;
behold, Isaac was sporting with Re- for the Philistines had stopped them
bekah his wife.

after the death of Abraham: and he
9 And Abimelech called Isaac, and called their names after the names by
said, Behold, of a surety she is thy which his father had called them.
wife: and how saidst thou, She is my 19 And Isaac's servants digged in
sister? And Isaac said unto him, Be- the valley, and found there a well of
cause I said, Lest I die for her.

+ springing water.
10 And Abimelech said, What is 20 And the herdmen of Gerar did
this thou hast done unto us? one of strive with Isaac's herdmen, saying,

+ Heb. living.

This shews the eating of lentiles was thought to be very vengeance on those that were disagreeable to them, or poor living, though much eaten in those countries; and whom they would prevent from coming among them. sometimes sent to soldiers attending their prince, 2 Sam. Niebuhr relates that the Turkish emperours annually xvii. 28. It shews also, in a very strong point of light, give to every Arab tribe, which is near the road from the profaneness of Esau, who despised his birthright Egypt and Syria to Mecca, a certain sum of money, and to such a degree, as to part with it for a mess of len- a certain number of vestments, to keep them from detile pottage. Harmer.

stroying the wells that lie in that route. Harmer. See

2 Kings iii. 19. Chap. XXVI. ver. 1. Abimelech] Probably the son 20. the herdmen of Gerar did strive] It is our ignoof him, to whom Abraham went. Bp. Patrick. rance of the Patriarchal manner of living, which makes

10. guiltiness] The Hebrew word signifies both us think it unaccountable to hear, in those early days, sin and punishment. Bp. Kidder.

of so many contests about wells: for on nearer inspec12. - an hundred-fold:] This was a singular blessing tion we should find, that in those hot countries, where of God. However, Varro and Pliny say, that in parts of water was so very scarce, a well, or fountain of living Syria and Africa, they reaped an hundred bushels for water, was a possession of inestimable value: and for one: nay, Bochart shews out of several good authors, this reason we find Moses, in magnifying the Divine that some parts of Africa were so rich as to produce bounty to the children of Israel, among other parts of two and even three hundredfold. Bp. Patrick. the inventory, reckoning up, not only "great and

15. the Philistines had stopped them,] The people goodly cities, which they builded not,” but “ wells likeof these countries have put in practice, many ages since wise digged, which they digged not.”.

Biblioth. Bibl. the events recorded by Moses, the same mode of taking The importance of water is acknowledged all over the

Before CHRIST about 1804.

+ Heb.

Contention.

Hatred.

Rooin.

an outh,

He diggeth sundry wells, and CHAP. XXVI, XXVII. maketh a covenant with Abimelech.

Before The water is our's: and he called the 29 + That thou wilt do us no hurt, CHRIST about 1804. name of the well || Esek; because as we have not touched thee, and as they strove with him.

we have done unto thee nothing but | That is, 21 And they digged another well, good, and have sent thee away in it thou

shall, &c. and strove for that also: and he call- peace : thou art now the blessed of 1 That is, ed the name of it || Sitnah.

the Lord.
22 And he removed from thence, 30 And he made them a feast, and
and digged another well; and for they did eat and drink.

that they strove not: and he called 31 And they rose up betimes in A That is, the name of it || Rehoboth; and he the morning, and sware one to an

said, For now the Lord hath made other : and Isaac sent them away,
room for us, and we shall be fruitful and they departed from him in
in the land.

peace.
23 And he went up from thence 32 And it came to pass the same
to Beer-sheba.

day, that Isaac's servants came, and
24 And the Lord appeared unto told him concerning the well which
him the same night, and said, I am they had digged, and said unto him,
the God of Abraham thy father: fear We have found water.
not, for I am with thee, and will 33 And he called it || Shebah : ! That is,
bless thee, and multiply thy seed for therefore the name of the city is

il That is, my servant Abraham's sake. || Beer-sheba unto this day.

the well of 25 And he builded an altar there, 34 | And Esau was forty years and called upon the name of the old when he took to wife Judith the LORD, and pitched his tent there: daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and and there Isaac's servants digged a Bashemath the daughter of Elon the well.

Hittite: 26 9 Then Abimelech went to him 35 Which were + a grief of mind Chap. 27. from Gerar, and Ahuzzath one of his unto Isaac and to Rebekah.

bitterness of friends, and Phichol the chief captain

spirit.

CHAP. XXVII.
27 And Isảac said unto them, 1 Isaac sendeth Esau for venison. 6 Rebekah
Wherefore come ye to me, seeing ye

instructeth Jacob to obtain the blessing. 15
hate me, and have sent me away

Jacob under the person of Esau obtaineth from you?

it. 30 Esau bringeth venison. 33 Isaac

trembleth. 34 Esau complaineth, and by Heb. 28 And they said, + We saw cerSeeing we

importunity obtaineth a blessing. 41 He
tainly that the Lord was with thee: threateneth Jacob. 42 Rebekah disappoint-
and we said, Let there be now an

eth it.
oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and
thee, and let us make a covenant

ND it came to pass, that when about 1760.

A Isaac was old, and his eyes were with thee;

dim, so that he could not see, he

the cath.

1796.

+ Heb.

of his army.

saw.

26.

world; but its value, and the labour, with which it is under a parching sun, amidst an arid and sandy desert. sometimes procured in the East, are hardly credible to Fragments to Calmet. an English ear. At Cairo and Constantinople the gra

Phichol] The same name and the same office, tuitous distribution of water is esteemed a most bene- possessed by him who is mentioned chap. xxi. 22. It ficial charity. Niebuhr. At Suez, a very considerable was probably the name of some dignity among them, price, not less than a groat or sixpence a gallon, was like that of tribune or dictator among the Romans. Bp. paid for fresh water. Pitts. Persons are forced to Patrick. travel across the deserts without any supply for their 33. Beer-sheba] Isaac renewed the well dug by camels, sometimes as much as eighty miles. Plaisted. his father at this place, where in later times a city was The wells too are very deep ; many of them being from built. Dr. Wells. See note on Gen. xxi. 31. 160 to 170 feet. Niebuhr. From the great depth of 34. the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, &c.] Josephus earth which must be dug away to get at water, we may says, these two men, whose daughters Esau married, infer the labour that Abraham had to dig his wells, and were powerful men among the Hittites. Doubtless his Isaac afterwards to re-open them, when filled by the father had given him the same charge which Abraham Philistines. We see too that a well was an article of had done concerning his own marriage, chap. xxiv. 3. property of the most valuable kind; since it was to be And then it was a very undutiful, nay, an impious acprocured in many places only by continued and expen- tion to marry with those people, who were under the sive labour. An acquaintance with such particulars curse of God. The Scripture might well call him adds much to the spirit of those passages in Scripture, profane ; for he seems not to have regarded either the where wells, or brooks, or waters are mentioned: but curse or the blessing of the Almighty. Bp. Patrick. to know the full value of this indispensable element, we must endure burning thirst, beneath an unclouded sky, Chap. XXVII. ver. 1. — when Isaac was old,] He

Before

Before CHRIST

desirable.

Isaac sendeth Esau for venison.

GENESIS.

Jacob deceiveth his father, called Esau his eldest son, and said 13 And his mother said unto him, CHRIST about 1760, unto him, My son: and he said unto Upon me be thy curse, my son: only about 1760. him, Behold, here am I.

obey my voice, and go fetch me
2 And he said, Behold now, I am them.
old, I know not the day of my death : 14 And he went, and fetched, and

3 Now therefore take, I pray thee, brought them to his mother : and his

thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, mother made savoury meat, such as + Heb. hunt. and go out to the field, and † take his father loved. me some venison;

15 And Rebekah took + goodly Heb;
4 And make me savoury meat, raiment of her eldest son Esau, which
such as I love, and bring it to me, were with her in the house, and put
that I may eat; that my soul may them upon Jacob her younger son.
bless thee before I die.

16 And she put the skins of the
5 And Rebekah heard when Isaac kids of the goats upon his hands, and
spake to Esau his son. And Esau upon the smooth of his neck:
went to the field to hunt for venison, 17 And she gave the savoury meat
und to bring it.

and the bread, which she had pre-
69 And Rebekah spake unto pared, into the hand of her son
Jacob her son, saying, Behold, I Jacob.
heard thy father speak unto Esau thy 18 ( And he came unto his father,
brother, saying,

and said, My father: and he said,
7 Bring me venison, and make me Here am I; who art thou, my son ?
savoury meat, that I may eat, and 19 And Jacob said unto his father,
bless thee before the Lord before I am Esau thy firstborn; I have done

according as thou badest me: arise, I
8 Now therefore, my son, obey my pray thee, sit and eat of my venison,
voice according to that which I com- that thy soul may bless me.
mand thee.

20 Ånd Isaac said unto his son,
9 Go now to the flock, and fetch How is it that thou hast found it so
me from thence two good kids of the quickly, my son ? And he said, Be-
goats; and I will make them savoury cause the LORD thy God brought it
meat for thy father, such as he lov- † to me.
eth:

21 And Isaac said unto Jacob,
10 And thou shalt bring it to thy Come near, I pray thee, that I may
father, that he may eat, and that he feel thee, my son, whether thou be
may bless thee before his death.

my very son Esau or not.
il And Jacob said to Rebekah his 22 And Jacob went near unto
mother, Behold, Esau my brother is Isaac his father; and he felt him, and
a hairy man, and I am a smooth said, The voice is Jacob's voice, but
man :

the hands are the hands of Esau.
12 My father peradventure will 23 And he discerned him not,
feel me, and I shall seem to him as a because his hands were hairy, as his
deceiver; and I shall bring a curse brother Esau's hands : so he blessed
upon me, and not a blessing.

him.

my death.

+ Heb. before me.

cence.

was one hundred and thirty-seven years old. Bp. good men have said or done through infirmity, must Patrick.

not be imitated : the Law of God being our sure and 4.

- make me savoury meat,] For the eldest son of a never-failing rule. family to be so employed, may seem to shew that the A while hence we shall see Jacob himself imposed family was possessed of no great wealth or magnifi- upon by Laban, in the case of Rachel his espoused

Such however was the simplicity of those wife: and in his old age we shall see him imposed times, that it was customary for men of the highest upon by his own sons, and with the blood of a kid, rank to submit to meaner offices than this. The Sa- with which they dyed his son's coat. So exact, so cred History, in all its accounts and descriptions, wonderful, so instructive, are all the ways of Proviagrees with the sense of the most ancient writers, and dence! Bp. Wilson. is conformable to the manners and customs that then 23. so he blessed him.] Jacob and his mother were prevailed. Stackhouse.

justly to be praised, for having a due esteem of the pa16. —- put the skins of the kids &c.] Bochart ob- ternal benediction, as a means instituted by God for the serves, that in the Eastern countries goats' hair was conveyance of his covenant with Abraham. And if this very like that of men. Bp. Patrick.

blessing was, as some suppose, an appendage to the In this chapter is shewn, how Jacob deceived his birthright, Jacob, in purchasing the one, had acquired father. He was a good man; but every thing that a just title to the other. Pursuant to the Divine desig

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