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Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 1732.

The condition of circumcision

GENESIS

offered to the Shechemites: 4 And Shechem spake unto his that every male of you be circumabout 1732. father Hamor, saying, Get me this cised; damsel to wife.

16 Then will we give our daugh-
5 And Jacob heard that he had ters unto you, and we will take your
defiled Dinah his daughter: now his daughters to us, and we will dwell
sons were with his cattle in the field : with you, and we will become one
and Jacob held his peace until they people.
were come.

17 But if

ye

will not hearken unto
6 ( And Hamor the father of She- us, to be circumcised; then will we
chem went out unto Jacob to com- take our daughter, and we will be
mune with him.

gone.
7 And the sons of Jacob came out 18 And their words pleased Ha-
of the field when they heard it: and mor, and Shechem Hamor's son.
the men were grieved, and they were 19 And the young man deferred
very wroth, because he had wrought not to do the thing, because he had
folly in Israel in lying with Jacob's delight in Jacob's daughter: and he
daughter; which thing ought not to was more honourable than all the
be done.

house of his father.
And Hamor communed with 20 And Hamor and Shechem his
them, saying, The soul of my son son came unto the gate of their city,
Shechem longeth for your daughter: and communed with the men of their
I pray you give her him to wife.

city, saying,
9 And make ye marriages with us, 21 These men are peaceable with
and give your daughters unto us, and us; therefore let them dwell in the
take our daughters unto you.

land, and trade therein; for the land,
10 And ye shall dwell with us: behold, it is large enough for them;
and the land shall be before you ; let us take their daughters to us for
dwell and trade ye therein, and get wives, and let us give them our
you possessions therein.

daughters.
11 And Shechem said unto her 22 Only herein will the men con-
father and unto her brethren, Let me sent unto us for to dwell with us, to
find grace in your eyes, and what ye be one people, if every male among
shall

say unto me I will give. us be circumcised, as they are cir-
12 Ask me never so much dowry cumcised.
and gift, and I will give according as 23 Shall not their cattle and their
ye

shall say unto me: but give me substance and every beast of their's
the damsel to wife.

be our's ? only let us consent unto
13 And the sons of Jacob answer them, and they will dwell with us.
ed Shechem and Hamor his father 24 And unto Hamor and unto She-
deceitfully, and said, because he had chem his son hearkened all that went
defiled Dinah their sister :

out of the gate of his city; and every
14 And they said unto them, We male was circumcised, all that went
cannot do this thing, to give our sis- out of the gate of his city.
ter to one that is uncircumcised; for 25 9 And it came to pass on the
that were a reproach unto us : third day, when they were sore, that
15 But in this will we consent two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon

If
ye

will be as we be, and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took

unto you:

she ventured to go to, desirous of seeing the fine spec- daughters. Bp. Patrick. The same custom of men tacles and fashions of the place. Stackhouse.

giving dowries for their wives prevails at this time 7. — wrought folly in Israel] Or, against Israel. Com- among the Turks and Persians. Thevenot. mitted a wickedness highly to the disgrace and injury 14. We cannot] Or, we ought not: it is not lawof Israel's family. Bp. Patrick.

ful. Bp. Wilson. Here is a specious pretence of reli12. Ask me never so much dowry] This shews more gion, with design to do an injury. Bp. Kidder. fully, that the custom was (as noted before, chap. xxix. 25. - on the third day, &c.] Physicians have ob18,) for men to give money for their wives. But there served, that this was the time when fevers usually atwas a greater reason for a dowry now, and that a large tended circumcision, occasioned by the inflammation of one, to make compensation for the wrong he had done. the wound, which was generally then most painful. For there was a natural equity in those laws of Moses, Stackhouse. Exod. xxii. 16, and Deut. xxii. 28, 29, by which men Simeon and Levi,] These are mentioned, bewere bound to make satisfaction to the families, if cause, being own brothers to Dinah both by father and either by enticement or violence they had abused their mother, and consequently more concerned to resent the

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 1732.

28 They took their sheepletand AND God said unto Jacob, Arise,

43.

The sons of Jacob slay them. CHAP. XXXIV, XXXV. God sendeth Jacob to Beth-el. each man his sword, and came upon

CHAP. XXXV. about 1732. the city boldly, and a slew all the 1 God sendeth Jacob to Beth-el. 2 He pur

males. a Chap. 49. 6.

geth his house of idols. 6 He buildeth an 26 And they slew Hamor and altar at Beth-el. 8 Deborah dieth at Allon+ Heb.mouth. Shechem his son with the + edge of

bachuth. 9 God blesseth Jacob at Beth-el. the sword, and took Dinah out of

16 Rachel travaileth of Benjamin, and dieth

in the way to Edar. 22 Reuben lieth with
Shechem's house, and went out. Bilhah. 23 The sons of Jacob. 27 Jacob

27 The sons of Jacob came upon cometh to Isaac at Hebron. 28 The age,
the slain, and spoiled the city, be death, and burial of Isaac.
cause they had defiled their sister.

go up to Beth-el, and dweli
their oxen, and their asses, and that there: and make there an altar unto
which was in the city, and that which God, that appeared unto thee & when a Chap. 27.
was in the field,

thou fleddest from the face of Esau
29 And all their wealth, and all thy brother.
their little ones, and their wives took 2 Then Jacob said unto his hous-
they captive, and spoiled even all hold, and to all that were with him,
that was in the house.

Put away the strange gods that are
30 And Jacob said to Simeon and among you, and be clean, and change
Levi, Ye have troubled me to make your garments :
me to stink among the inhabitants of 3 And let us arise, and go up to
the land, among the Canaanites and Beth-el; and I will make there an
the Perizzites: and I being few in altar unto God, who answered me in
number they shall gather themselves the day of my distress, and was with
together against me, and slay me; me in the way which I went.
and I shall be destroyed, I and my 4 And they gave unto Jacob all
house.

the strange gods which were in their
31 And they said, Should he deal hand, and all their earrings which
with our sister as with an harlot ? were in their ears; and Jacob hid

injury done to her honour, they were the chief con The abhorrence, which Jacob expressed of the cruelty trivers and conductors of it: but it is to be supposed, of his sons, the sharpness of the reproaches uttered that their domesticks were engaged in the execution of against them, the remembrance of it, even to the end of it. Nothing is more known and common in history, his life, and the care he took to recapitulate it upon his than to ascribe an action, especially in military affairs, death-bed, give us a much juster idea of it than the to the chief commanders in it, however many under- writings of some Rabbins, who have undertaken not agents they may employ. Stackhouse.

only to excuse, but even to commend it. Stackhouse. slew all the males.] Though this was a base ac 31. Should he deal with our sister &c.] What great tion, yet God permitted it, to punish the sin of Shechem, evils arise from small beginnings! The idle curiosity and the connivance of his father. Bp. Wilson.

of Dinah hath bred all this mischief: ravishment follows The women and children were always spared in the upon her wandering; upon her ravishment, murder; most deadly wars. As when the Midianites were killed, upon the murder, spoil : it is holy and safe to be jeaNumb. xxxi. 7. 9; and the Edomites, 1 Kings xi. 16. lous of the first occasions of evil, either done or suffered. And so Moses commanded they should even with Bp. Hall. the Canaanites, Deut. xx. 13, 14. Bp. Patrick.

26. And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son] To Chap. XXXV. ver. 2. Put away the strange gods execute rigour upon a submissive offender, is more that are among you,] Hence it is supposed, that some merciless than just: or if the punishment had been of Jacob's family were addicted to idolatry. But “the both just and proportionable from another, yet from strange gods,” or “the gods of the stranger," as the them, who had avowed peace and affinity, it was shame- words may be rendered, probably mean the gods of the fully unjust. To disappoint the trust of another, and Shechemites, whom Jacob's sons had taken captive, and to neglect our own promise and fidelity for private pur- brought into his family. These were to be put away, poses, adds faithlessness unto our cruelty. That they in order to preserve in his family that purity of worship, were impotent, was caused by their circumcision : what which he designed to keep up among them. Shuckford. impiety was this ! instead of honouring a holy sign, to - be clean, and change your garments: The mantake an advantage by it! Bp. Hall.

ner in which Jacob required his domesticks to purify 27. because they had defiled] Their prince had de- themselves, was by washing their bodies, and putting filed her; and the people, it seems, did not disapprove on fresh apparel. This was a custom among other nathe fact. It is therefore imputed to them all, as the tions, as well as the Jews : and may be regarded as an cause of their slaughter. Bp. Patrick.

external profession of the purity of heart and mind, with 30. — Ye have troubled me to make me to stink &c.] which persons should approach God in solemn and reThat is, to render me odious to all the country, as a ligious offices. Bp. Patrick. murderer, a robber, and a breaker of my faith, as if I and all their earrings which were in their ears ;] had been privy to your craft and cruelty. Bps. Patrick Besides the earrings, which were for ornament, there and Kidder.

were others worn in the nature of amulets or charms,

4.

CHRIST

1729.

19.

the God of Beth-el.

sorroro.
| That is,
the son of the

Jacob's name is changed.

GENESIS.

The sons of Jacob. Before them under the oak which was by | even a pillar of stone: and he poured Heforest about 1732. Shechem.

a drink offering thereon, and he about 1732. 5 And they journeyed: and the poured oil thereon. terror of God was upon the cities th 15 And Jacob called the name of were round about them, and they did the place where God spake with him, not pursue after the sons of Jacob. Beth-el.

6 4 So Jacob came to Luz, which 16 | And they journeyed from is in the land of Canaan, that is Beth-el; and there was but t a little ti Heba Beth-el, he and all the people that way to come to Ephrath : and Rachel ground. were with him.

travailed, and she had hard labour.
7 And he built there an altar, and 17 And it came to pass when she
b Chap. 28. called the place || El-beth-el: be- was in hard labour, that the midwife
|| That is, cause there God appeared unto him, said unto her, Fear not; thou shalt

when he fled from the face of his have this son also.
brother.

18 And it came to pass, as her
8 But Deborah Rebekah's nurse soul was in departing, (for she died) about 1729.
died, and she was buried beneath that she called his name || Ben-oni : ! That is,

the son of my Beth-el, under an oak: and the name but his father called him || Benja|| That is, of it was called || Allon-bachuth. min. weeping. 9 And God appeared unto Jacob 19 And Rachel died, and was right hand.

again, when he came out of Padan- buried in the way to Ephrath, which
aram, and blessed him.

is Beth-lehem.
10 And God said unto him, Thy

20 And Jacob set a pillar upon name is Jacob: thy name shall not her grave: that is the pillar of Rac Chap. 32. be called any more Jacob, c but Israel chel's grave unto this day.

shall be thy name : and he called his 21 And Israel journeyed, and
name Israel.

spread his tent beyond the tower of
11 And God said unto him, I am Edar.
God Almighty: be fruitful and mul 22 And it came to pass,

when
tiply; a nation and a company of Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben
nations shall be of thee, and kings went and a lay with Bilhah his fa- d Chap. 49. 4.
shall come out of thy loins ;

ther's concubine: and Israel heard it.
12 And the land which I gave Now the sons of Jacob were twelve:
Abraham and Isaac, to thee I will 23 The sons of Leah; Reuben,
give it, and to thy seed after thee Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and
will I give the land.

Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and
13 And God went up from him in Zebulun:
the place where he talked with him. 24 The sons of Rachel; Joseph,

14 And Jacob set up a pillar in and Benjamin:
the place where he talked with him, 25 And the sons of Bilhah, Ra-

the oak of

28.

or for some other superstitious uses ; having the effigies So this Syrian nurse continued until her death with of some false god, or some symbolical notes, in which Rebekah's family, and was buried with great solemnity was fancied to be a power to preserve them from evil. of mourning : since the oak, under which she was buBp. Patrick.

ried, was from that time distinguished by the name of I have seen some Eastern earrings with figures upon the oak of weeping. Harmer. them, and strange characters, which, I believe, may be 16. Ephrath:]

Which is Beth-lehem, ver. 19, talismans or charms, or perhaps nothing but the amuse- called Beth-lehem Ephratah, Mic, v. 2, where Christ ment of old women. The Indians say they are preser- was born. Bp. Kidder. vatives against enchantment. Perhaps the earrings of 20. And Jacob set a pillar upon her grade :) This Jacob's family were of this kind. Sir J. Chardin. monument of Rachel's is the first that we read of in

8. Deborah Rebekah's nurse died,] She attended Scripture. It was certainly standing, when Moses Rebekah on her marriage with Isaac. Jacob had pro- wrote, as appears from this verse; and mention is bably been at his father's house before this time; and made of it, just before Saul was anointed king, 1 Sam. Rebekah being dead, Deborah was desirous of living x. 2. The monument, now shewn for it, is a modern with his wives, who were her country-women. Bp. Pa- and Turkish structure; for though the work is rude trick.

enough, and without any ornament, yet the whole is as Mons”. Savary, speaking of the Egyptian women, entire, as if it had been only just made. Maundrell. says,

“When circumstances compel them to have re 22. Reuben went] Moses mentions this, that he course to a nurse, she is not looked upon as a stranger. may give us a true account, why the right of inheritShe becomes part of the family, and passes the rest of ance, which was originally in Reuben, was transferred her life in the midst of the children she has suckled. to Joseph; and the kingdom, or right of dominion, She is honoured and cherished like a second mother,” which was forfeited by his transgression, was conferred

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

1716.

about 1796.

NON

Esau's generations ; and the CHAP. XXXV, XXXVI. dukes which descended of his sons.

chel's handmaid; Dan, and Naph- | that they might dwell together; and about 1729. tali:

the land wherein they were strangers about 1740. 26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's could not bear them because of their handmaid; Gad, and Asher: these cattle. are the sons of Jacob, which were 8 Thus dwelt Esau in b mount b Josh. 24. 4. born to him in Padan-aram.

Seir: Esau is Edom. 27 | And Jacob came unto Isaac 9 q And these are the generations his father unto Mamre, unto the city of Esau the father of + the Edomites + Heb. Edom. of Arbah, which is Hebron, where in mount Seir: Abraham and Isaac sojourned.

10 These are the names of Esau's 28 And the days of Isaac were an sons; ° Eliphaz the son of Adah the ç1 Chron. 1. hundred and fourscore years.

wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Ba- 35, &c. 29 And Isaac gave up the ghost, shemath the wife of Esau. e Chap. 25. 8. and died, and was gathered unto 11 And the sons of Eliphaz were

his people, being old and full of days: Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Gatam,
and his sons Esau and Jacob buried and Kenaz.
him.

12 And Timna was concubine to
CHAP. XXXVI.

Eliphaz Esau's son ; and she bare to

Eliphaz Amalek : these were the sons
1 Esau's three wives. 6 His removing to of Adah Esau's wife.

mount Seir. 9 His sons. 15 The dukes
which descended of his sons. 20 The sons

13 And these are the sons of
and dukes of Seir. 24 Anah findeth mules. Reuel ; Nahath, and Zerah, Sham-
31 The kings of Edom. 40 The dukes that mah, and Missah: these were the
descended of Esau.

sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. TOW these are the generations 14 | And these were the sons of of Esau, who is Edom.

Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah 2 Esau took his wives of the the daughter of Zibeon, Esau's wife: daughters of Canaan ; Adah the and she bare to Esau Jeush, and daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Jaalam, and Korah. Aholibamah the daughter of Anah 15 I These were dukes of the sons about 1715. the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz the

3 And Bashemath Ishmael's daugh- firstborn son of Esau; duke Teman,
ter, sister of Nebajoth.

duke Omar, duke Zepho, duke
4 And a Adah bare to Esau Eli- Kenaz,
phaz; and Bashemath bare Reuel; 16 Duke Korah, duke Gatam, and

5 And Aholibamah bare Jeush, and duke Amalek : these are the dukes
Jaalam, and Korah: these are the that came of Eliphaz in the land of
sons of Esau, which were born unto Edom; these were the sons of Adah.
him in the land of Canaan.

17 | And these are the about 1740. 6 And Esau took his wives, and Reuel Esau's son; duke Nahath, duke

his sons, and his daughters, and all Zerah, duke Shammah, duke Mizzah: + Heb. souls, the + persons of his house, and his these are the dukes that came of

cattle, and all his beasts, and all his Reuel in the land of Edom; these
substance, which he had got in the are the sons of Bashemath Esau's
land of Canaan; and went into the wife.
country from the face of his brother 18 | And these are the sons of
Jacob.

Aholibamah Esau's wife; duke Jeush, 7 For their riches were more than duke Jaalam, duke Korah: these were on the tribe of Judah : and that he might furnish his ritual promises, that “in their Seed all the nations of the countrymen with matter for humiliation, by giving earth should be blessed,” would be made good in God's them to understand, from this and the like instances, due time. Bp. Wilson. that it was not their merit, but purely God's mercy, 29. his sons Esau and Jacob buried him.] As Isaac that advanced them to the honour of being his peculiar and Ishmael had buried Abraham. Hence it appears people. Stackhouse.

the friendship between Esau and Jacob continued after 26.-born to him in Padan-aram.] All except Benjamin. their interview on Jacob's return. Bp. Patrick.

27. - Jacob came unto Isaac his father). To dwell with him, and to be the comfort of his old age. Bp. Chap. XXXVI. ver. 2. Esau took his wives] They Patrick.

had probably several names as well as he. Bp. Kidder. Isaac had the comfort of seeing the promise of God, See chap. xxvi. 34. in this instance of earthly prosperity, made good to 15. These were dukes] Heads, chiefs, or rulers of himself and to Abraham ; as a sure pledge that the spi- families. Bp. Patrick.

about 1760.

a 1 Chron. 1. 35.

sons

of

Before CHRIST about 1676.

about 1840.

The kings of Edom.

GENESIS. The dukes that descended of Esau. Before

the dukes that came of Aholibamah reigned in Edom: and the name of CHRIST about 1715. the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. his city was Dinhabah.

19 These are the sons of Esau, 33 And Belah died, and Jobab the who is Edom, and these are their son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in dukes.

his stead.
20 q . These are the sons of Seir 34 And Jobab died, and Husham
38. Chron. 1. the Horite, who inhabited the land; of the land of Temani reigned in his

Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and stead.
Anah,

35 And Husham died, and Hadad
21 And Dishon, and Ezer, and the son of Bedad, who smote Midian
Dishan: these are the dukes of the in the field of Moab, reigned in his
Horites, the children of Seir in the stead : and the name of his city was
land of Edom.

Avith.
22 And the children of Lotan were 36 And Hadad died, and Samlah
Hori and Hemam; and Lotan's sister of Masrekal reigned in his stead.
was Timna.

37 And Samlah died, and Saul of
23 And the children of Shobal Rehoboth by the river reigned in his
were these; Alvan, and Manahath, stead.
and Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.

38 And Saul died, and Baal-
24 And these are the children of hanan the son of Achbor reigned in
Zibeon; both Ajah, and Anah: this his stead.
was that Anah that found the mules 39 And Baal-hanan the son of
in the wilderness, as he fed the asses Achbor died, and Hadar reigned in
of Zibeon his father.

his stead: and the name of his city
25 And the children of Anah were was Pau; and his wife's name was
these; Dishon, and Aholibamah the Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred,
daughter of Anah.

the daughter of Mezahab. 26 And these are the children of 40 And these are the names of the about 1496. Dishon ; Hemdan, and Eshban, and dukes that came of Esau, according Ithran, and Cheran.

to their families, after their places, about 1780. 27 The children of Ezer are these; by their names; duke Timnah, duke

Bilhan, and Zaavan, and Akan. Alvah, duke Jetheth,

28 The children of Dishan are 41 Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah,
these ; Uz, and Aran.

duke Pinon,
29 These are the dukes that came 42 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman,
of the Horites; duke Lotan, duke duke Mibzar,
Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah, 43 Duke Magdiel, duke Iram :

30 Duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke these be the dukes of Edom, accord-
Dishan: these are the dukes that came ing to their habitations in the land of
of Hori, among their dukes in the their possession : he is Esau the father
land of Seir.
of the Edomites.

+ Heb. Edom.
31 And these are the kings that
reigned in the land of Edom, before

CHAP. XXXVII.
there reigned any king over the chil-
dren of Israel.

2 Joseph is hated of his brethren. 5 His two

dreams. 13 Jacob sendeth him to visit his 32 And Bela the son of Beör brethren. 18 His brethren conspire his

about 1676.

24. that found the mules in the wilderness,] Or, truly exercised royal authority over them, as Selden that discovered springs of warm water, or encountered observes. Bp. Patrick. See the note on Deut. xxxi. 5. the Emim, a gigantick people, whom he overthrow. Calmet.

Chap. XXXVII. The history of Joseph sets before 31. before there reigned any king over the children of our eyes such a scene of the wonders of Providence, as Israel.] Moses having recently mentioned the promise will confirm our faith in God. His brethren conspire of God to Jacob, that “kings should come out of his to kill him : God sends a company of merchants at that loins,” observes it as remarkable, that Esau's posterity very moment to buy him. A thousand others might should have so many kings, and yet there was no king have purchased him in the land of Egypt: but God had in Israel when he wrote this book. Moses might have trials for him to pass through, and work for him to do, written this by inspiration; or he might well write it in the palace of the king. Thither he is to be sold. without a spirit of prophecy; and we might affirm, if In the next place we find him run the hazard of his necessary, that his meaning is, “ All these were kings very life, rather than do what he knew would displease in Edom, before his own time;" who was, in a certain God: and God rewarded him for it, beyond what Potisense, the first king in Israel, Deut. xxxiii. 5; for he phar could do for him. The very dreams of Pharaoh

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