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Before CHRIST about 1729.

Before CHRIST

1729.

1729.

The history of Joseph.
CHAP, XXXVII.

His two dreams.
death. 21 Reuben saveth him. 26 They | I pray you, this dream which I have
sell him to the Ishmeelites. 31 His father, dreamed :
deceived by the bloody coat, mourneth for
him. 36 Ře is sold to Potiphar in Egypt. sheaves in the field, and, lo,

7 For, behold, we were binding

, , my sheaf ND Jacob dwelt in the land, arose, and also stood upright; and, + Heb. of his + wherein his father was a behold, your sheaves stood round father's 80journings.

stranger, in the land of Canaan. about, and made obeisance to my

2 These are the generations of sheaf.
Jacob. Joseph being seventeen years 8 And his brethren said to him,
old, was feeding the flock with his Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or
brethren; and the lad was with the shalt thou indeed have dominion over
sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of us? And they hated him yet the
Zilpah, his father's wives: and Joseph more for his dreams, and for his
brought unto his father their evil re- words.
port.

9 | And he dreamed yet another
3 Now Israel loved Joseph more dream, and told it his brethren, and
than all his children, because he was said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream

the son of his old age: and he made more; and, behold, the sun and the Or, pieces.

him a coat of many || colours. moon and the eleven stars made

4 And when his brethren saw that obeisance to me.
their father loved him more than 10 And he told it to his father,
all his brethren, they hated him, and to his brethren: and his father
and could not speak peaceably unto rebuked him, and said unto him,
him.

What is this dream that thou hast
59 And Joseph dreamed a dream, dreamed ? Shall I and thy mother
and he told it his brethren: and they and thy brethren indeed come to
hated him yet the more.

bow down ourselves to thee to the 6 And he said unto them, Hear, earth ?

and his servants are all directed by God for the advance- brother Benjamin. The Jewish historian Josephus says, ment of Joseph: nay, the very fate of the whole king “ his father loved him above the rest of his sons, both dom, both the seven years' plenty, and the seven years' because of the beauty of his body, and the virtues of famine, were ordained, in order to bring Joseph's father his mind, for he excelled the rest in prudence.Bp. and his family into Egypt, according to former pro Patrick. phecies.

a coat of many colours.] Generally thought to We may observe, in Joseph's brethren, how God by signify a garment wrought with threads of divers coafflictions brings men to a sense of their sins : inso- lours, or made up of variegated pieces of silk or stuff. much as that Judah himself, who had hated Joseph Bp. Patrick. because he was dear to his father, is now willing to be 5. -- dreamed a dream,] See the note on chap. xx. 3. a bond-slave for Joseph's brother, for the very same In the manifestations which God made of Himself by reason.

dreams, the point, intended to be disclosed, was either We may observe, what a lively type or figure Joseph expressly signified; or else shadowed forth by sufficient is, and was so designed by God to be, of Jesus Christ. representations and emblems. These emblems again were Sold by his brethren: sold to strangers : sold for a sometimes so plain and clear, that their meaning was few pieces of money : the bargain proposed by his immediately apprehended; as in these dreams of Joseph : brother Judah, the very namesake of that disciple and at other times they were more difficult to be understood, brother, for so Christ vouchsafes to call him, who sold so that the person, who saw the dream, was a stranger to his Lord and Master; and after all he became the its meaning. In this case Providence so ordered it, that saviour of them and of all the neighbouring nations. there was some one in the way, to whom the gift of

All these things came to pass by the direction of a interpreting dreams was vouchsafed. Of this we have wise, great, and good God, who would not let the world instances in the dreams of Pharaoh's butler and baker, want such instances, to confirm their faith in Him. and afterwards in Pharaoh's own dreams; which were Bp. Wilson.

interpreted by Joseph, and the meaning justified by the Ver. 2. These are the generations of Jacob.] Or things accomplishment. Bp. Conybeare. which happened to him. Bp. Kidder.

9. the eleven stars] The obeisance of the sun, their evil report.] What evil lives they led. Bp. moon, and eleven stars (or constellations of the Zodiack) Patrick.

to him the twelfth. Dr. Hales. 3.- because he was the son of his old age:] Not 10. — his father rebuked him,] Gave him a check ; because he was his youngest son, for that he was that Joseph might not grow proud, and that his brenot, Benjamin being younger. But probably because, thren might not be provoked to hate him. Still Jacob after a long season of barrenness, he was born of did not look upon the dream as a mere fancy, but laid Rachel, the most beloved consort of Jacob; and be- it up in his heart. Bp. Patrick. cause, at the period referred to, the was carrived at an it up What is this dream &c.] From this time forage, when he was capable of affording more comfort to ward in all the Scripture, when in any dream, vision, the declining years of his father, than his younger parable, or prophecy, there is mention of sun, moon,

Before CHRIST

1729.

Before CHRIST about 1729.

about 1729.

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22.

Joseph's brethren conspire his death. GENESIS.

He is cast into a pit, and 11 And his brethren envied him ;] pit, and we will say, Some evil beast but his father observed the saying. hath devoured him : and we shall see

12 | And his brethren went to what will become of his dreams. feed their father's flock in Shechem. 21 And Reuben heard it, and a Chap. 42.

13 And Israel said unto Joseph, he delivered him out of their hands ; Do not thy brethren feed the flock in and said, Let us not kill him. Shechem ? come, and I will send thee 22 And Reuben said unto them, unto them. And he said to him, Shed no blood, but cast him into this Here am I.

pit that is in the wilderness, and lay 14 And he said to him, Go, I pray no hand upon him; that he might rid + Heb. sce the thee, + see whether it be well with him out of their hands, to deliver him brethren, &c. thy brethren, and well with the flocks; to his father again.

and bring me word again. So he 23 | And it came to pass, when
sent him out of the vale of Hebron, Joseph was come unto his brethren,
and he came to Shechem.

that they stript Joseph out of his
15 | And a certain man found coat, his coat of many || colours that i Or, pieces.
him, and, behold, he was wandering was on him;
in the field: and the man asked him, 24 And they took him, and cast
saying, What seekest thou ?

him into a pit: and the pit was empty,
16 And he said, I seek my bre- there was no water in it.
thren: tell me, I pray thee, where 25 And they sat down to eat
they feed their flocks.

bread : and they lifted up their eyes
17 And the man said, They are and looked, and, behold, a company
departed hence; for I heard them say, of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with
Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph their camels bearing spicery and
went after his brethren, and found balm and myrrh, going to carry it
them in Dothan.

down to Egypt.
18 And when they saw him afar 26 And Judah said unto his bre-
off, even before he came near unto thren, What profit is it if we slay our
them, they conspired against him to brother, and conceal his blood ?

27 Come, and let us sell him to 19 And they said one to another, the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand + İleh master Behold, this + dreamer cometh. be

upon him ; for he is our brother 20 Come now therefore, and let and our flesh. And his brethren us slay him, and cast him into some + were content.

slay him.

of dreams.

1 Heb. hearkened.

stars darkened, falling, &c. it is generally meant of have defended at the hazard of their own; and at a kings, emperours, or other superiours, as here of father time too, when he was performing towards them an act and mother. Dr. Wall.

of brotherly love, and bringing a tender message from 12. - their father's flock in Shechem.] Not that She- their father. Bp. Conybeare. chem, I suppose, where they had so lately robbed and 21. And Reuben heard it, &c.] Several reasons may murdered the people, and where they had been afraid be assigned for this interference of Reuben: such as of being pursued by the neighbours : the Septuagint the common feelings of humanity, fraternal affection, or makes a difference in the spelling of that name and this : the sense of responsibility to God for the murder of an here it is Sychem; that Shechem it always calls Sekima : innocent and excellent youth. Besides these reasons, it was more northward. This Sychem and Dothan, which Josephus suggests, he may have either thought which must be nigh it, were in the way, which the himself most concerned to save his brother, as being Ishmeelites took from Gilead to Egypt. Dr. Wall. the firstborn, and therefore likely to be the first in

18. – they conspired against him to slay him.] See in blame: or he may have hoped, by thus piously and this instance the sad consequences of giving way to compassionately preserving the favourite Joseph, to reanger! At first perhaps the displeasure, which they cover that place in his father's affection, which he had conceived against their brother, was moderate, and lost by his late crime. Stackhouse. pardonable in persons so liable to errour as men are. 25.

a company of Ishmeelites] They are called But then, the first cool reflections ought to have checked below Midianites. These people were near neighbours these resentments, and have brought them back to a to each other; and were joined together in one combetter temper. Instead of this, they laid hold of every pany or caravan, as it is now called. It is the custom, opportunity to keep up, and even to heighten their even to this day, in the East, for merchants and others passion. I'hey rose from one degree to another; till at to travel through the deserts in large companies, for length they deliberated about the commission of an fear of robbers or wild beasts. Bp. Patrick. action, which in former times they could not have 27. Come, and let us sell him &c.] The providence of thought on without horrour. They®“ conspired toge- God makes use of the wickedness of men to accomplish ther to slay their brother:"—to commit murder, a his designs. His ways are dark, and to us unsearchable, crime abhorred both by God and man ;-and this upon till they are cleared up by the event. Means, to us so near a relation as a brother, whose life they ought to unlikely, are applied by God to bring about the most

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

+ Heh. cunuch: But the word doth

Acts 7.9.

but also chamber

13

officers. + Heb.

men,
or, execution-
ers.

marshal.

Joseph is sold to the Ishmeelites. CHAP. XXXVII, XXXVIII. Judah begetteth three sons.

28 Then there passed by Midian 36 And the Midianites sold him about 1729. ites merchantmen; and they drew into Egypt unto Potiphar, an + officer about 1729.

and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, of Pharaoh's, and † || captain of the b. Ps. 165. 17. band sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites guard. for twenty pieces of silver : and they

signify not brought Joseph into Egypt.

CHAP. XXXVIII.

only eunuchs, 29 q And Reuben returned unto 1 Judah begetteth Er, Onan, and Shelah. 6 lnius, the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not Er marrieth Tamar. 8 The trespass of courtiers, and in the pit; and he rent his clothes. Onan. 11 Tamar stayeth for Shelah. 30 And he returned unto his bre

She deceiveth Judah. 27 She beareth twins, chief of the

slaughter

Pharez and Zarah.
thren, and said, The child is not ;
and I, whither shall I go?

ND it came to pass at that time,
31 And they took Joseph's coat,
and killed a kid of the goats, and brethren, and turned into a cer-
dipped the coat in the blood; tain Adullamite, whose name was

32 And they sent the coat of many Hirah.
colours, and they brought it to their 2 And Judah saw there a daughter
father; and said, This have we found : of a certain Canaanite, whose name
know now whether it be thy son's was a Shuah ; and he took her, and a 1 Chron. 2.
coat or no.

went in unto her. 33 And he knew it, and said, It is 3 And she conceived, and bare a e Chap. 44. my son's coat; an evil beast hath son; and he called his name Er.

devoured him ; Joseph is without 4 b And she conceived again, and 1 Numb. 26. doubt rent in pieces.

bare a son; and she called his name 34 And Jacob rent his clothes, Onan.

upon

his loins, and 5 And she yet again conceived,
mourned for his son many days. and bare a son; and called his name

35 And all his sons and all his Shelah : and he was at Chezib, when
daughters rose up to comfort him; she bare him.
but he refused to be comforted; and 6 And Judah took a wife for Er
he said, For I will go down into the his firstborn, whose name was Ta-
grave unto my son mourning. Thus mar.
his father wept for him.

7 And Er, Judah's firstborn, was i..

3.

about 1727.

28.

19.

and put

put sackcloth

c Numb. 26.

important ends : and it is sometimes seen, that adversity generation,” which lived with Joshua, that they “were itself is the direct way to happiness. Bps. Wilson and gathered unto their fathers,” Judg. ii. 10. Abp. Secker. Conybeare.

Where parental affection exists, it will express itself in 29. he rent his clothes.] This was an Eastern way grief and mourning, when the person beloved is taken of expressing either grief for calamity, or horror for sin. from us. Grief on such occasions is natural. Our Reuben was the first we read of, who, to denote his ex- blessed Lord Himself wept on the death of Lazarus. ceeding sorrow, "rent his clothes :” and as Jacob, we Care however must be taken, not to run into excess. find ver. 34, does the same, we may suppose it to have To grieve is generous and humane; to be loud and been an usual manner of expressing grief and uneasiness querulous is childish; and to refuse comfort is inexof mind in those days. Putting on sackcloth, which cusable. It is impious towards God; it shews too Jacob is here first described as doing, was afterwards great disregard to other men; and it is highly precommon on all mournful occasions. “ Rend your judicial to ourselves. Nothing can excuse such conduct clothes, and gird you with sackcloth, and mourn before in Jacob but this, that his present passion overcame his Abner," 2 Sam. iii. 31. “Mordecai rent his clothes, reason, and that this misfortune befel him at an age and put on sackcloth with ashes, and cried with a loud when he was least able to bear it. We find however and a bitter cry,” Esth. iv. 1-3. Stackhouse, Calmet. by the event, that he got the better of his grief. When

30. The child is not ;] That is, he is dead. A com- the first fit was over, he grew more moderate : time in mon Scripture phrase.

some degree cured him of his concern; and he sub35. - all his daughters] Dinah and his sons' wives. mitted to that misfortune, which he could not avoid.

- I will go down into the grave &c.] That is, to Bp. Conybeare. the state or place of the dead. The sense is, I will not cease mourning until I die and be laid in the grave. Chap. XXXVIII. ver. 1.- at that time,] Judah was Stackhouse.

married about eight years before Joseph was sold; JoThe translation into the grave is wrong; as if he seph being then not above twelve years of age. Therefore meant to have his body laid by Joseph's. That could the words " at that time,” do not refer to the time of not be, for he thought him devoured by wild beasts. It Judah's marriage, but to the deaths of Er and Onan means, into the invisible state, the state of departed which happened not long after Joseph was sold, and souls; and in this sense it is said of several of the Pa- shew how Judah was punished in his children for the triarchs, that they were gathered unto their people,” sale of his righteous brother. Dr. Lightfoot. Gen. xxv. 8; xxxv. 29; xlix. 29; and of “all that Adullamite] A citizen of Adullam, a famous VOL. I.

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Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

eril in the eyes of the LORD.

Tamar stayeth for Shelah.

GENESIS.

She deceiveth Judak. wicked in the sight of the LORD; and 15 When Judah saw her, he about 1727. the LORD slew him.

thought her to be an harlot; because about 1727. 8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go she had covered her face. in unto thy brother's wife, and marry 16 And he turned unto her by her, and raise up seed to thy bro- the way, and said, Go to, I pray thee, ther.

let me come in unto thee; (for he 9 And Onan knew that the seed knew not that she was his daughtershould not be his; and it came to in-law.) And she said, What wilt pass,

when he went in unto his bro- thou give me, that thou mayest come ther's wife, that he spilled it on the in unto me? ground, lest that he should give seed 17 And he said, I will send thee to his brother. ta kid from the flock. And she said, + Heb. a kid

of the goats. 10 And the thing which he did Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou + Hel, was + displeased the Lord: wherefore he send it? slew him also.

18 And he said, What pledge shall
11 Then said Judah to Tamar his I give thee? And she said, Thy
daughter-in-law, Remain a widow at signet, and thy bracelets, and thy
thy father's house, till Shelah my staff that is in thine hand. And he
son be grown: for he said, Lest per- gave it her, and came in unto her,
adventure he die also, as his brethren and she conceived by him.
did. And Tamar went and dwelt in 19 And she arose, and went away,
her father's house.

and laid by her vail from her, and 12 And t in process of time the put on the garments of her widowmultiplied. daughter of Shuah Judah's wife died; hood.

and Judah was comforted, and went 20 And Judah sent the kid by the
up unto his sheepshearers to Tim- hand of his friend the Adullamite, to
nath, he and his friend Hirah the receive his pledge from the woman's
Adullamite.

hand: but he found her not.
13 And it was told Tamar, say 21 Then he asked the men of that
ing, Behold thy father-in-law goeth place, saying, Where is the harlot,
up to Timnath to shear his sheep. that was || openly by the way side ? Or, in

. 14 And she put her widow's gar- And they said, There was no harlot ments off from her, and covered her in this place. with a vail, and wrapped herself, and 22 And he returned to Judah,

sat in an + open place, which is by and said, I cannot find her; and also door por eyes, the way to Timnath; for she saw that the men of the place said, that there Enajim. Shelah was grown, and she was not was no harlot in this place. given unto him to wife.

23 And Judah said, Let her take

+ Heb. the days were

+ Heb. the

town, that fell afterwards to the tribe of Judah. Bp. of joy. Judah, having finished the time of mourning Patrick.

for his wife, went to recreate himself with his friends, at 7. and the Lord slew him.] By some extraordinary this festival season. Bp. Patrick. judgment. Bp. Wilson.

14. — covered her with a vail,] As all women did in Notorious sinners God reserves to his own vengeance. the Eastern countries, when they went abroad. This is He doth not inflict sensible judgments upon all his ene still the practice, and is required by several passages in mies, lest the wicked should think there were no punish- the Koran. Bp. Patrick. ment abiding for them elsewhere. He doth inflict such and sat in an open place,] Hoping to impose judgments upon some, lest He should seem careless of herself, either upon Judah himself, on his return from evil. It were as easy for Him to strike all dead, as one : the feast, or upon Shelah, whom she presumed he would but He would rather all should be warned by one; and take with him. This most desperate and unlawful prowould have his enemies find Him merciful, as well as ceeding of Tamar was probably undertaken out of rehis children, just. Bp. Hall.

venge upon Judah, for not fulfilling his promise, but re8. marry her, and raise up seed &c.] This is the first taining Shelah from her, after he was fully arrived at mention of the custom, which nevertheless seems to have man's estate. Pyle. been a very common one, and well understood by Onan; 15. because she had covered her face.] This is not for he knew that the firstborn son was not to be account the reason, why he took her for an harlot; but why he ed his, but his deceased brother's; to be called by his did not know her to be his daughter-in-law, because he name, and inherit his estate. Stackhouse.

could not see her face. He thought her to be an harlot, 10. -- he slew him also.] Thus Judah, who deprived because she sat in the highway, where she publickly exhis aged father of his son, is himself deprived of two of posed herself. Selden, Bp. Patrick. his own sons. Bp. Wilson,

18.- thy bracelets, According to the views of differ13. to shear his sheep.] Sheep-shearing was a kind ent commentators, the word, translated “ bracelets,” is of harvest, and used to be observed with the same sort supposed to be a cloak, or girdle ; Bp. Patrick, Pyle.

Before CHRIST

+ Heb. become a con

1 Or, Where

made this

a breach,
d i Chron. 2.
4.
Matt. 1. 3.

1729.

She beareth Pharez and Zarah. CHAP. XXXVIII, XXXIX.

Joseph advanced. Before it to her, lest we + be shamed: be- || How hast thou broken forth ? this CHRIST about 1727, hold, I sent this kid, and thou hast breach be upon thee: therefore his about 1727. not found her.

name was called || Pharez. 24 | And it came to

pass

about 30 And afterward came out his fore hast thou tempi.

three months after, that it was told brother, that had the scarlet thread breach Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter- upon his hand : and his name was that is,

against ? in-law hath played the harlot; and called Zarah. also, behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Judah said, Bring

CHAP. XXXIX. her forth, and let her be burnt.

1 Joseph advanced in Potiphar's house. 7
25 When she was brought forth, He resisteth his mistress's temptation. 13
she sent to her father-in-law, saying, He is falsely accused. 20 He is cast in
By the man, whose these are, am I

prison. 21 God is with him there.
with child : and she said, Discerno; AND Joseph was brought down
net, and bracelets, and staff.

ficer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard,
26 And Judah acknowledged them, an Egyptian, bought him of the
and said, She hath been more right hands of the Ishmeelites, which had
eous than I; because that I gave brought him down thither.
her not to Shelah my son. And he 2 And the Lord was with Joseph,
knew her again no more.

and he was a prosperous man; and
27 9 And it came to pass in the he was in the house of his master the
time of her travail, that, behold, Egyptian.
twins were in her womb.

3 And his master saw that the
28 And it came to pass, when she Lord was with him, and that the
travailed, that the one put out his Lord made all that he did to prosper
hand : and the midwife took and in his hand.
bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, 4 And Joseph found grace in his
saying, This came out first.

sight, and he served him: and he
29 And it came to pass, as he made him overseer over his house,
drew back his hand, that, behold, his and all that he had he put into his
brother came out : and she said, hand.

A scarf : Bp. Kidder. A handkerchief : Bp. Hall, Sir she had been more righteous and faithful to Judah, than
J. Chardin. A fillet or wreath, worn about the head; he had been to her. Dr. Waterland.
Harmer.

It is not meant, that in this matter she had committed The ancient Hebrews wore their seals or “signets” a less sin, than he; for she had knowingly committed in rings on their fingers, or in “ bracelets” on their arms: adultery and incest, whereas he had not by design comas is now the custom in the East. See Cant. viii. 6. mitted either. She was more wicked in the sight of God; Calmet.

yet she may be said to be juster before Judah ; or to 23. - Let her take it to her, lest we be shamed:] Though have done no more to him, than what he justly deserved. the fact, he had committed, was not punished by the Stackhouse. laws, yet men were ashamed it should be known, which he knew her again no more.] This abstaining from was a sign that they were sensible of its moral turpitude. sin is necessary, and without it we cannot be said to reAgreeable to this is the sense of Judah's words : “ It is pent. Bp. Kidder. If this had not cost Judah many a better to lose what she hath of our's, than, by inquisition sigh, he had no more escaped his father's curse than after it, to divulge the business, and increase our shame." Reuben did. The difference was not in the sins, but in Bp. Patrick

the men. Bp. Hall. 24. Judah said, Bring her forth,] If Judah had not forgotten his sin, his pity had been more than his hatred, Chap. XXXIX. ver. 2. And the Lord was with Joseph,] to this of his daughter's. How easy is it to detest those To guide him in his deportment, and in the management sins in others, which we flatter in ourselves! Bp. Hall. of all affairs committed to him. Bp. Patrick. He was fa

- let her be burnt.] Some think burning was the vourable and merciful to him in his affliction. Bp. Kidder. punishment for adultery in those days; others, that the he was in the house of his master] One of his punishment depended on the will of the supreme govern- domestick servants. Bp. Patrick. our, whom some suppose Judah himself to have been, as 4. - overseer] The office, to which Joseph was thus chief in his own family. Others suppose, that by burning promoted, was one of great trust and honour; for he is meant no more than branding her in the forehead. was made superintendent of all the property of Potiphar. All this proceeds on the supposition of her being an Fragments to Calmet. adulteress, as the wife of Shelah, by virtue of the first Here was a prodigious change of circumstances. He contract with his eldest brother. Bp. Patrick.

who a little before was sold by his brethren, brought down 26. — She hath been more righteous than 1;] Tamar to Egypt, and delivered over to Potiphar as a slave, is had kept her faith with Judah for a considerable time, now advanced to a creditable and advantageous post; living long a widow in expectation of being married, as made steward to a rich and great man ; the director of she ought to have been, to his son Shelah. In that respect, all his fortunes. This instance should teach us to rely

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