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|| Or, from
Noah findeth grace.
destroy them with the earth.
without with pitch,
Being, who is privy to all his motions and all his by God for the recovery of mankind, and especially "in thoughts, who knows his downsitting and his uprising, the days, that his long-suffering waited, while the ark who is about his path, and about his bed, and spieth out was a preparing,” they amply vindicate the ways of God all his ways.” In a word, he remembers that the eye of with man, and justify his severity in “bringing in the his Judge is always upon him, and in every action he flood upon the world of the ungodly," which neither reflects that he is doing what is commanded or allowed his restraints, nor rewards, nor all the monitions and by Him, who will hereafter either reward or punish it. exhortations of his Prophets, added to his own deThis was the character of those holy men of old, who in clarations, institutions, inflictions, and denunciations that beautiful phrase of Scripture are said to have of vengeance could reclaim, in the course of many pre"walked with God.” Addison.
ceding centuries. This was said before of Enoch; and it denotes that Other living creatures, it is true, were not culpable in general and habitual course of religion and piety which this manner. They all answered the end of their prohe led: not only in preaching righteousness to the old duction, and man was the only rebel against his Maker. world, but in preaching it on every occasion in his own But as, in an universal deluge, it was impossible to prelife and conversation : as a light and example, as well as serve them alive without a miracle : so having in some an instructor to others. In a word, it denotes that uni- measure been made instrumental to man's wickedness, form obedience, which we all promise in our holy vow innocent though they were, they were all to be destroyed, at Baptism, and almost in the same words, “the keeping in order to evince the malignity of sin, and God's abof God's holy will and commandments, and walking in horrence of it. For the great end of his Providence the same all the days of our life." Wogan.
in sending the deluge was not so much to "ease Him11. The earth also was corrupt] It is remarkable that self of his adversaries," as to leave a perpetual monuour Lord, speaking of this generation, chiefly insists ment of his unrelenting severity; that thereby. He upon their carnality, or worldly-mindedness, as the door might deter future ages from the like provocations. at which all other abominations entered. “In the days for this is the inference which the Apostle draws from of Noah,” says he," they were eating and drinking, all his judgments of old: “If God spared not the marrying, and giving in marriage :” thereby intimating, angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell ; if He that when we see a people wholly immersed in the cares spared not the old world, but brought in a flood upon of the world, and the pleasures of sense, regardless of the ungodly; if He turned the cities of Sodom and that heavenly country to which they are travelling, it is Gomorrah into ashes, and condemned them with an a sure sign of approaching destruction. So was it in overthrow; these are an example unto those, that after the days of Noah : so was it in the days of Lot: and shall live ungodly, that,” however they may escape in 80 shall it be in the days of the Son of Man. Let every this life, “ He hath reserved the unjust unto the day of reader of this examine his own heart in this particular, judgment to be punished,” 2 Pet. ii. 4, &c. Stackhouse. and take heed lest at any time it “ be overcharged with 14. Make thee an ark] This vessel was not made in surfeiting and drunkenness and cares of this life, and so the form of one of our ships or boats, sharp forward, that day," the day either of particular or general judg- and at the bottom to cut the waves, but broad at the ment, come upon him unawares.” Bp. Horne. ends, like a chest, and flat at the bottom, with a cover
violence.) Cruelty, and outrage, and injustice of or a roof. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells. every kind. Men were corrupt, that is, irreligious to The Hebrew word, which we render ark, occurs only wards God; and unjust to one another. Bp. Kidder. here, and in another place, where Moses, when an infant,
Uncleanness, covetousness, and oppression were the is said to have been put into one made of bulrushes, special causes which occasioned the flood. Bp. Latimer. Exod. ii. 3. It is supposed to come from a root, which
In the period between the creation of the world and signifies to dwell or inhabit, and may therefore here dethe flood, all mankind had, or might have had, a perfect note a house or place of abode. Stackhouse. knowledge of the will of God, and of their duty, had it -gopher-wood ; ] Probably cypress ; which aboundnot been their own fault : for Methuselah lived with ed in Babylonia, and was a durable timber fit for shipAdam two hundred and forty-three years, and with Noah building. The bitumen also, with which the ark was six hundred: so that no man needed to want informa- pitched both inside and outside, abounded in Babylonia, tion of the creation, &c. that had a mind to be informed. which probably was the country of Noah's residence ; Bp. Wilson.
not far, we may presume, from the original settlement 12. And God looked upon the earth,] The hundred of Adam's family, in the neighbourhood of Eden, after and twenty years, allowed by God for mankind to repent, the fall. Dr. Hales. now drawing to an end, God is represented, as if in a rooms shalt thou make] Little cabins or cells, special manner He “looked upon the earth" to see what to sever the beasts from the birds; the clean beasts from use mankind had made of his gracious forbearance. the unclean; and to preserve their several kinds of food. Dr. Wells.
Bp. Patrick 13. — The end of all flesh is come before me;] I am 15. And this is the fashion &c.] When one sees with determined to make an end of, that is to destroy, all what unconcernedness Moses relates the dimensions of mankind shortly. Bp. Patrick.
the ark, which at first view seems too little for such a Very many methods of mercy having been employed number of creatures and provisions as it was to hold;
form, and end
of the ark. the ark shall be three hundred cubits, and every thing that is in the earth CHRIST
the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the shall die.
18 But with thee will I establish
flesh, two of every sort shalt thou
the breath of life, from under heaven; 20 Of fowls after their kind, and and this without explaining himself, whereas a writer of an ordinary flood; but one, of which I will appear to his own head would have taken pains to obviate diffi- be the author. Bp. Patrick. culties and explain them ;—this is a sure proof that If we take the circuit of the globe, and inquire of Moses wrote just as he was inspired to write ; and after- the inhabitants of every climate, we shall find, that the ages, notwithstanding all objections of infidels, have fame of this deluge is gone through the earth ; and that found all most agreeable to truth and the reason of in every part of the known world there are certain rethings. Bp. Wilson.
cords and traditions of it: that the Americans acknowThe length of the ark &c.] The dimensions of ledge and speak of it in their continent; that the Chinese, the ark were 300 cubits in length, 50 in breadth, and 30 who are the most distant people in Asia, have the tradiin height: and it consisted of three stories or floors. tion of it; that the several nations of Africa tell various Reckoning the cubit at 18 inches, it must have been of stories concerning it; and that in the European parts the burden of 42,413 tons. A first-rate man of war is the food of Delicalion is the same with that of Noah, between 2200 and 2300 tons; and consequently the only related with some disguise. So that we may trace ark had the capacity or stowage of 18 such ships, the the deluge quite round the globe; and, what is more relargest in present use, and might carry 20,000 men with markable still, every one of these people has a tale to provisions for six months, besides the weight of 1800 tell, some one way, some another, concerning the restocannons and of all inilitary stores. It was then by ration of mankind, which is a full proof, that they much the largest ship ever built. Can we doubt of its thought all mankind was once destroyed in that deluge. being sufficient to contain eight persons, and about 200 Stackhouse. or 250 pair of four-footed animals; (a number to which, 18. — with thee will I establish my covenant;]. Either according to Buffon, all the various distinct species may the promise to preserve him and his family in the ark; be reduced ;) together with all the subsistence necessary or the covenant concerning the promised Seed of the for a twelvemonth? Dr. Hales.
woman. Bp. Patrick. cubits.] The Hebrews made use of three sorts Although this is the first place, where a “ covenant” of cubits: 1. The common cubit, which was about one is expressly mentioned in Scripture, it appears, from the foot and a half of our measure. 2. The sacred cubit, form of words here used, to have subsisted before. It which was a hand's-breadth more than the common is not said, a covenant, but "my covenant will I establish cubit.
3. The geometrical cubit, which was about nine with thee;" plainly referring to the same covenant, feet. The ark is to be measured by the common cubit. which God had made with Adam. As if God had said, The standard of the common cubit was that part of a “I do not revoke my covenant made with Adam, notman's arm which reaches from the bend of the elbow withstanding it hath, on man's part, been so grievously to the point of the middle finger. If we think the sta- infringed: but I establish and confirm it to thee, and to ture of mankind in Moses' time larger than it is now, all that shall descend from thee.” The covenant, here we may suppose the common cubit something larger spoken of, is not the first, but the second covenant; than we shall now compute it: if not, the strict measure not the covenant of works, but that of
mercy, of the ark will be, length 450 feet, breadth 75, height by which we are now saved, even the gospel of peace, 45 : and the best writers generally agree, that the com- and grand charter of our salvation: the person, spoken mon stature of mankind has always been much the same to, was Noah, not in his private capacity only, but in that it now is. Shuckford,
his publick character, as a second Adam, the head and 16. A window shalt thou make] To let in light to the representative of all mankind, and so the type and figure several apartments. For which purpose should we con of Christ, the new man, who was to restore to the world ceive that one great window might be contrived so as to that life which had been lost by the first : and the benebe sufficient, that would not exclude many little ones, fit, thus renewed and confirmed, was to extend to his here and there, for greater convenience. Bp. Patrick. posterity, to “him, and his sons, and his seed after him."
- and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above ;] It, that Consequently as the grant is general, and without any is, the ark; which was covered with a roof, raised a limitation or reservation whatsoever, except what necescubit high in the middle to carry off the rain, Stack- sarily results from the nature of the covenant itself, house,
namely, the terms and conditions on our part; with lower, second, and third stories] The lower God has likewise in the Gospel declared, that“He would story was probably for the greater beasts; the second have all men to be saved" the miscarriage of no one for stowage of provisions; the third for Noah's family, soul can justly be imputed to Him; on his part of the and the fowls, and perhaps some of the smaller creatures. covenant He has never failed, and never will : the default Bp. Kidder.
is wholly on the side of men, who reject the covenant 17. And, behold I, even I, do bring a flood of waters when it is offered to them, or neglect the terins of it, .&c.] That is, all creatures, shall unavoidably be swept and so forfeit the benefit. Wogan. away; for I myself will bring a deluge upon them: not 19. -- two of every sort] Not that there shall be but
+ Heb. seven seven.
Noah, with his family,
and the living creatures,
days and forty nights; and every liv-
ing substance that I have made will
I + destroy from off the face of the + Heb. blot 1 Noah, with his family, and the living crea- earth. tures, enter into the ark. 17 The beginning,
5 And Noah did according unto all increase, and continuance of the flood.
that the LORD commanded him. unto
c Heb. 11, 7.
2349. a 2 Pet. 2. 5.
A Come thout and ali thy house into old when the flood of waters was upon
the ark; for thee have I seen righ- the earth.
2 Of every clean beast thou shalt sons, and his wife, and his sons'
two of any sort, (compare chap. vii. ver. 2,) but there have of what happened in the days of his own father must be two at least, namely, male and female, of every and grandfather; or as any man can have of what hapkind, ver. 20. Bp. Kidder.
pened sixty years ago : for Lamech, Noah's father, had 20. — two of every sort shall come unto thee,] In the conversed with Adam fifty-six years. Bp. Wilson. foregoing verse He had said, “two of every sort shalt Ver. 1.- for thee have I seen righteous before me in thou bring into the ark." Which Noah might think this generation.] Thee only have I found, in this corimpossible; for how should he get them all together? rupt and depraved age, free from the common infection Therefore it is here explained in these words, they “ shall of wickedness, and sincere-hearted towards me. Bp. come unto thee;" by the care of God, who made them, Hall. and moved them to it. Bp. Patrick.
2. Of every clean beast] The distinction between 22. Thus did Noah ; according to all that God com- beasts that were clean and unclean being made by the manded him, &c.] The Apostle to the Hebrews, chap. law, has given some a colour to imagine, that Moses xi. 7, mentions Noah's building the ark, as an heroick wrote this book, after his coming out of Egypt, and react of faith : “By faith, Noah being warned of God of ceiving of the law. But though with respect to man's things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark, food, the distinction between clean and unclean was not to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned before the law, yet some were accounted fit for sacrifices, the world, and became heir of the righteousness which and others unfit, from the very first beginning; and is by faith.” For, we may well imagine that this work then, unclean beasts in this place must denote such as of his was not only costly and laborious, but esteemed are rapacious, which were not to be offered to God. In by the generality very foolish and ridiculous; especially short, since the rite of sacrificing was before the flood, when they saw all things continue in the same posture we may well suppose that this distinction also was beand safety, for so many scores of years together. "Stack-fore it! and we may suppose farther, that, as the rite house.
was undoubtedly of God's institution, so the difference The conduct of the patriarch upon this occasion shews of clean and unclean creatures to be sacrificed, was of us what ours ought to be in like circumstances. "Ac- his appointment likewise. Bp. Patrick, Stackhouse. cording to all that God commanded him, so did he.” Many things, established afterwards in the law of Being once well assured, upon good and sufficient evi- Moses, obtained before that law, and were generally dence, what the will of God is, we should suffer no ap- practised by the worshippers of God; for example: pearances of things, or opinions of men, to discourage sacrifices, (chap. iv. 3, 4; viii. 20; xiii. 18,) the paying and prevent us from accomplishing it, to the utmost of of tithe, (chap. xiv. 20,) circumcision, (chap. xvii
. 11,) our ability. The only question to be asked is-Hath the right of primogeniture, (chap. XXV. 33,) making vows, God spoken it? This being resolved in the affirmative, (chap. xxviii
. 20; xxxi. 13,) marrying the brother's the soul is to rest on his word and promise, as an an- wife, (chap. xxxviii. 8.) And some of those things, chor sure and stedfast, from which she should never which Moses forbad, were forbidden before his law: as suffer herself to be parted by all the doubts, difficulties, the eating of blood, and murder, which was a capital and objections in the world. In simplicity and godly crime before the law, (chap. ix. 4, 6.). And there is no sincerity let her do what she is commanded to do, wait- doubt, but the difference of clean and unclean beasts, ing with patience the appointed time ; and in the end with respect to sacrifice, was known and observed God will be found true, though all men are liars. Bp. before the Law of Moses, and before the Flood. Bp. Horne.
Kidder. Noah built the ark and laid up provisions for all by sevens,] Seven couple, most probably; that creatures, as here directed, when the hundred and they might have sufficient for sacrifice when they twenty years drew towards an end. Bp. Patrick, came out of the ark; and if need were, for food, if
other provision did not hold out : at least for food after Chap. VII. Noah had as perfect an account of what the flood, when God enlarged their former grant, chap. ever had happened since the Creation, as any man can lix, 3. Bp. Patrick.
+ Heb. wing.
enter into the ark.
The beginning of the flood. wives with him, into the ark, be 14 They, and every beast after his cause of the waters of the flood. kind, and all the cattle after their
8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts kind, and every creeping thing that
every bird of every + sort.
16 And they that went in, went in 1 Or, on the 10 And it came to pass || after male and female of all Aesh, as God
seven days, that the waters of the had commanded him: and the LORD
shut him in.
17 And the food was forty days Noah's life, in the second month, the upon the earth; and the waters inseventeenth day of the month, the creased, and bare up the ark, and it same day were all the fountains of was lift up above the earth.
the great deep broken up, and the 18 And the waters prevailed, and || Or, flood- || windows of heaven were opened. increased greatly upon the gates.
12 And the rain was upon the earth; and the ark went upon the
face of the waters.
20 Fifteen cubits upward did the
11.-— were all the fountains of the great deep broken those, that might else have broken in upon him. Bp. up,] By “the great deep” is meant those waters that Kidder. are contained in vast quantities within the bowels of the 17, 18. And the flood &c.] At the end of forty days earth : which by some cause unknown to us were now the waters were come just high enough to lift the ark made suddenly to gush out at several parts of the earth, from the ground; and afterwards increased so far as to where they either found or made a vent: the waters of carry it freely up and down, as the waves drove it. the sea likewise at the same time breaking in upon the Pyle. land. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells.
19. — all the high hills, that were under the whole and the windows of heaven were opened.] By heaven, were covered.] These words, and other passages, this must be understood the causing of the waters, which say, that “all flesh died,” ver. 21, prove the which were suspended in the clouds, to fall upon the flood to have been universal. The truth is, there is earth, not in ordinary showers, but in floods, or (as the every reason to suppose that the world was, at the least, Seventy translate it) in cataracts, of which travellers full as well peopled as it is now; perhaps much more may have the truest notion, who have seen those pro- so: and that to destroy its inhabitants, the inundation digious falls of water, so frequent in the Indies, where must have fallen upon every quarter, and encompassed the clouds many times do not break into drops, but fall the whole globe. Bp. Patrick, Stackhouse. with a terrible violence in a torrent. Bp. Patrick, 20. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail :] Stackhouse.
That is, about twenty-two feet and a half above the In the Scriptures, the heavens are said to be “opened” mountains. Whereas Moses assures us, that the waters when it rains, and "shut” when rain is withholden, and prevailed fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, let the like. The original word here does not signify win the mountains themselves be appealed to for the truth dows, according to the modern idea ; but rather clefts, of this assertion. Examine the highest eminences of fissures, passages;
these were opened, the clouds were the earth, and they all with one accord, produce the rent, as we say. The waters, rising from beneath, met | spoils of the ocean, deposited upon them on that occathe rains descending from above; and uniting their sion; the shells and skeletons of sea-fish and seaforces, they deluged the world. Bp. Horne.
monsters of all kinds. The Alps, the Apennines, the Some are puzzled to find water enough to form an Pyrennees, the Andes, the Atlas, and Ararat, every universal deluge : to assist their endeavours it may be mountain of every region under heaven, from Japan to remarked, that was all that precipitated, which is dis- Mexico, all conspire in one uniform universal proof, solved in the air, it might probably be sufficient to cover that they all had the sea spread over their highest the surface of the whole earth to the depth of above summits. Search the earth, and you will find the thirty feet. Bp. Watson.
Moose-deer, natives of America, buried in Ireland ; 12. And the rain was upon the earth forty days &c.] It Elephants, natives of Asia and Africa, buried in the continued raining so long without any intermission. midst of England; Crocodiles, natives of the Nile, in Bp. Patrick.
the heart of Germany; shell-fish, never known in any 16. — and the Lord shut him in.] God, probably by but the American seas, together with entire skeletons the ministry of an angel, fastened and secured the door of whales, in divers other countries; and, what is more, of the ark, into which Noah was entered, from the trees and plants of various kinds, which are not known danger of the waters, as well as against the attempts of to grow in any region under heaven. All which are
b Wisd. 10.4.
The continuance of the flood.
The ark resteth on Ararat. waters prevail; and the mountains ND God remembered Noah, and
CHRIST were covered.
every living thing, and all the
2 The fountains also of the deep
restrained ; 23 And every living substance was 3 And the waters returned from off destroyed which was upon the face of the earth + continually: and after the + Heb. in the ground, both man, and cattle, and end of the hundred and fifty days the poing and.
. the creeping things, and the fowl of waters were abated.
the heaven; and they were destroyed 4 And the ark rested in the seventh Wisd, 10. 4. from the earth: and Noah only re- month, on the seventeenth day of
mained alive, and they that were with the month, upon the mountains of
the tenth month, on the first day of the CHAP. VIII.
month, were the tops of the moun-
Ararat. 7. The raven and the dove. 15 6 And it came to pass at the
2 Pet. 2. 5.
a perfect demonstration, that Moses's account of the he dwelt, Judg. xii. 7. “Jephthah was buried in the deluge is incontestably true. Stackhouse.
cities of Gilead;" that is, in one of the cities. Bp. the mountains were covered.] It appears upon Patrick. examination that the highest mountain in the world is Mount Ararat, according to Major Rennell's excelnot more than four miles perpendicular. Bp. Stillingfleet. lent map of the ancient Persian empire, (Geogr. of
21. And all flesh died]" "If God spared not the old Herodotus, p. 229,) lies in 39° 30' North lat. and 40° 30' world, but saved Noah, a preacher of righteousness, &c. East long. nearly in the middle of the vast ridge of the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly, and to Taurus, that stony girdle encompassing the earth," reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be as aptly described by the Arabian geographers, which punished," 2 Pet. ii. 4, &c.
runs eastward from Cilicia, through the whole extent “ As it was in the days of Noah," saith our Saviour, of Asia ; for Ararat lies nearly midway between the so shall sinners be surprised in the midst of their secu- southern extremities of the Euxine and Caspian seas. rity. Consider here, what was the consequence of a Dr. Hales. forgetfulness of God, a contempt of his Laws, an abuse The Persians call mount Ararat Asis, or the happy of his patience, and the turning of a deaf ear to the mountain, on account of the choice which God made of preachers of righteousness : a whole world of sinners, it, to serve as a port for Noah's ark. The Armenians surprised by death and judgment, in the midst of the maintain by tradition, that, since Noah, no one has been greatest security! Whether something like this is not able to climb this mountain, because it is perpetually the case of too many Christians, when death surprises covered with snow, which never melts, but to make them, is worthy of the consideration of every one who room for some newly fallen : that Noah, when he left reads this history. Bp. Wilson.
the ark, settled at Erivan, twelve leagues from Ararat;
and that at a league from this city, in a very happy Chap. VIII. ver. 1. And God remembered Noah,] aspect, this Patriarch planted a vine, in a place where This is spoken of God after the manner of men. The at present there is excellent wine made. Calmet. meaning is, that God shewed his care of Noah.
5. - were the tops of the mountains seen.] The ark are said to remember that which we take care of. God by its weight settled on mount Ararat, while the top of is said to "remember,” when He relieves and shews the mountain, where it rested, was covered with water, mercy, Heb. vi. 10; Ps. cxxxvi. 23. Bp. Kidder. and that several cubits high : so that the top of this
He remembered the promise He had made to Noah, mountain might not appear much before the tops of the of preserving him, and all that were with him in the ark. other mountains. That the top of it was higher than Dr. Wells.
the neighbouring ones, is probable from the ark's set- and God made a wind to pass over the earth,] tling upon it. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells. Which by degrees drove back the waters into the 6. — window] Or, casement. It is not the same several channels and caverns, whence they had broken word, which is used chap. vi. 16. And most probably, out. Pyle.
(by comparing the word used here by the Chaldee, with 4. -— upon the mountains of Ararat.] That is, upon Dan. vi. 10,) it is to be understood of some shut or one of the mountains ; as chap. xix. 29. “God overthrew casement; which, being easily removed, gave a prospect the cities in which Lot dwelt;" that is, in one of which abroad, as well as a passage out for the raven, and