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+ Heb. in going forth and return ing.
The raven and the dove
are sent out,
from off the earth. was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah
9 But the dove found no rest for days; and sent forth the dove; which
then he put forth his hand, and took first month, the first day of the month, + Heb. caused her, and † pulled her in unto him the waters were dried up from off the her to come. into the ark.
earth: and Noah removed the cover10 And he stayed yet other seven ing of the ark, and looked, and, bedays; and again he sent forth the hold, the face of the ground was dry. dove out of the ark;
14 And in the second month, on
dove; and for the rest of the fowls afterwards. Bp. descent: and we have the attestation of Strabo, that it Kidder.
produced the olive. The region styled Araratia was 7. – he sent forth a raven,] To make discovery, also very high, though it had fine plains and valleys whether the earth was dry; for if it were, the smell of between the mountains. A country of this nature and the dead carcases, he knew, would allure it to fly away situation must, after the flood, have been the soonest from the ark. Bp. Patrick.
dried, and consequently the soonest habitable. And it went forth to and fro] In the Hebrew more seems, also, in an eminent degree to have contained plainly, going forth and returning. After many flights, every requisite for habitation. Bryant. finding nothing but water, it still betook itself to the 14. in the second month, &c.] If their months were ark; either entering into it, or sitting upon it: till at such as ours, twelve of which make 365 days, then last, the waters being dried up, it returned no more : Noah stayed in the ark a whole year and ten days, as that is, fifty days after its first going forth. Bp. Patrick. appears by comparing this verse with chap. vii. 11.
8. Also he sent forth a dove] As a proper creature But if they were lunar months, which is most probable, to make farther discoveries ; being of a strong flight, then he was in the ark just one of our years, going loving to feed on the ground, and pick up seeds, and out on the 365th day after his entrance into it. Bp. constantly returning to its rest from the remotest places. Patrick. This was seven days after he had sent forth the raven. Basnage has given us the calendar of this melancholy Bp. Patrick
year of Noah's confinement. 10. And he stayed yet other seven days ;] It appears by this, that on the seventh day Noah expected a bless
The year of the world's creation, 1656. ing rather than on another day: it being the day devoted from the beginning to religious services. Having 1. September. Methuselah died at the age of probably performed these services, he sent out the dove again on this day, as he had done before, with hope of II. October. Noah and his family entered the good tidings. Bp. Patrick.
ark. 11. – in her mouth was an olive-leaf ] Some versions III. November the 17th. The fountains of the read “ leaves ;” others, “ a branch :” perhaps, “a sprig
great deep were broken up. of olive leaves” was what the dove really brought to IV. December the 26th. The rain began, and conNoah. Hence the olive-branch has ever been among
tinued 40 days and 40 nights. the forerunners of peace, and chief of those emblems, V. January. All the men and beasts that were by which a happy state of renovation and restoration to
on the earth, were buried under the prosperity has been signified among mankind. Expos.
waters. Ind. Script. illust.
VI. February. The rain continued. Dr. Chandler supposes, that the olive-groves are the VII. March. The waters remained in their elevaprincipal places for the shooting of birds; and he ob
tion till the 27th, when they began to serves, that when the olive blackens, vast flights of
abate. doves, pigeons, thrushes, and other birds, repair to the VIII. April the 17th. The ark rested on mount olive-groves for food: the connexion then between
Ararat, in Armenia. Noah's dove and an olive-leaf is not at all unnatural. IX. May. They did nothing, while the waters The tops of olive-trees might alone, possibly, be in
were retreating. view of the place where the ark was then foating, X. June the 1st. The tops of the mountains apthough it is a tree of only middling height; but if the
peared. dove saw a great number of other trees appear above XI. July the 11th. Noah let go a raven. the water, it was natural for it to repair to olive-trees,
the 18th. He let go a dove, which rewhere it had been wont to shelter itself, preferably to
turned. others, according to Dr. Chandler's account. Harmer.
the 25th. He let go the dove again, We may be assured, that the ark was providentially
which returned with an olive-branch. wafted into Armenia; as that region seems to have been XII. August the 2d. The dove went out a third particularly well calculated for the reception of the
time, and returned no more. Patriarch's family, and for the repeopling of the world. I. September the 1st. The dry land appeared. The soil of the country was very fruitful; and espe II. October the 27th. Noah went out of the ark cially of that part, where the Patriarch first made his
with his family. Stackhouse.
a Chap. 6. 5.
Noah, &c. go forth of the ark.
God blesscth Noah. the seven and twentieth day of the his heart, I will not again curse the month, was the earth dried.
ground any more for man's sake; for 15 | And God spake unto Noah, the a imagination of man's heart is saying,
evil from his youth ; neither will I Matt. 15. 19. '16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and again smite any more every thing thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' living, as I have done. wives with thee.
22 + While the earth remaineth, 4 Heb as yet
are forbidden. 8 God's covenant, 13 signi-
fied by the rainbow. 18 Noah replenisheth
the world, 20 planteth a vineyard, 21 is sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives
drunken and mocked of his son, 25 curseth with him :
Canaan, 26 blesseth Shem, 27 prayeth for
upon the earth, and upon all the + Heb. a 21 And the LORD smelled ta fishes of the sea;
hand are savour of
sweet savour; and the Lord said in they delivered.
& 8. 17.
+ Heb. families.
16. Go forth of the ark,] Though Noah saw that the smelling savour," Eph. v. 2. Dr. Waterland. See note earth was fit to be inhabited, he waited for God's order on chap. vi. 6. to go out of the ark, as he had for his entering into it. - and the Lord said in his heart,] He determined Bp. Patrick
or resolved in Himself. Bp. Patrick. Or, (as the He20. And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord;] A brew will bear,) to his heart, meaning the heart of Noah; place, where a sacrifice or oblation was laid, when it was that is, God spake comfortably to Noah. “To speak to be offered up. Here is the first express mention of to the heart of a man,” is, in the Scripture phrase, to an altar, though it is to be supposed there was one, comfort and speak kindly to him, Gen. xxxiv. 3 ; Isai. upon which Cain and Abel offered, in the place ap- xl. 2. Bp. Kidder. pointed for Divine worship. Bp. Kidder.
for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his Noah having been preserved from the flood by a youth ;] Such a proclivity there is in men to evil, that miraculous providence, the first thing he did, was to if I should scourge them thus, as often as they deserve offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving for his deliverance, and it
, there would be no end of deluges. Or, the words for God's faithfulness and truth, in continuing in him may mean, “ Though the imagination, &c." and in his posterity the blessing of the promised Seed. Those words, "from his youth,” signify a long-rooted This was so acceptable to God, that it drew down a corruption, as appears from many places, Isai. xlvii. 12, blessing upon the whole earth, and a promise, that 15; Jer. iii. 25; Ezek. xxiii. 8, &c. Perhaps they may it should never be destroyed again by water. Bp. be extended so far as to signify from his mother's womb. Wilson.
Bp. Patrick burnt offerings] They were offerings, which 22 While the earth remaineth, seed-time &c.] This were entirely burnt, Levit. vi. 9. Bp. Kidder.
word is our only security. Our only dependence is 21. And the Lord smelled a sweet savour ;] This upon God. To Him therefore we ought to pray and expression is used in great condescension to human give praise. thoughts and human language; and is intended to sig This seems to have been what Noah prayed for, and nify, that God was pleased with the piety and devout intended by his sacrifice; and this was granted. Bp. services of Noah and others, sacrificing to Him from Wilson. a pure heart, as men are wont to be pleased with sweet odours. A comparison taken from things human Chap. IX. ver. 1. And God blessed Noah and his sons, serves in some measure to illustrate things divine : and &c.] As He did our first parents. The blessing upon though it is not exact, as none can be exact, yet it helps Noah and his offspring is more particularly expressed to convey a more lively and more affecting idea of the afterwards : first, in blessing them with increase, “ Be thing than could be given without it. “A sweet-smell- fruitful, &c.” ver. 7; secondly, restoring them to their ing savour" is St. Paul's phrase in the New Testament dominion over the creatures, ver. 2 ; thirdly, allowing also ; where Christ is said to have “ given Himself for them the living creatures for food, ver. 3; fourthly, asus, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-suring them that He would take special care of their
c Lev. 17. 14.
Blood and murder are forbidden. CHAP. IX.
God's covenant with Noah. 3 Every moving thing that liveth 8 9 And God spake unto Noah, shall be meat for you; even as the and to his sons with him, saying,
green herb have I given you all 9 And I, behold, I establish my
covenant with you, and with your
that is with you, of the fowl, of the
be cut off any more by the waters of 6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, a flood; neither shall there any more Rev. 13. 10. by man shall his blood be shed : be a flood to destroy the earth. e Chap. 1. 27. @ for in the image of God made he 12 And God said, this is the token
of the covenant which I make be7 And you, be ye fruitful, and tween me and you and every living multiply: bring forth abundantly in creature that is with you, for perpethe earth, and multiply therein. tual generations :
d Matt. 26. 52.
lives, ver. 5, 6; and lastly, that He would not destroy which the age of Moses, and ages following, knew nothe earth by another flood, ver. 11 Bp. Kidder. thing of. Bp. Wilson. Life is supposed in Scripture to
3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for be seated in or attached to, the blood : and that excelyou ;] Here the first grant made to mankind concern- lent anatomist, Mr. John Hunter, from the result of ing food is enlarged. The first legislation granted them many experiments, has confirmed the doctrine, that the the use of fruits ; but now they are permitted to eat of living principle is inherent in the blood. Dr. Hales. all living creatures as freely, as formerly of all the fruits 5. — at the hand of every beast will I require it,] That of the garden. This is the general sense of the Jews, is, Any beast that kills a man, shall itself be killed : not and of the Christian Fathers, and of the first Reformers. as if beasts were to blame if they killed a man; for they Bp. Patrick
are capable of neither vice nor virtue: but this was or4. But flesh with the life thereof, &c.] As the crite- dained with respect to men, for whose use beasts were rion of judging of the aptitude of animals for food was created. For 1st, such owners as were not careful to declared to be their moving and having life, a danger prevent such mischief were hereby punished. 2dly, appeared of misinterpretation, and that these creatures Others were admonished by their example to be caushould be used living; a thing, which God by no means tious. 3dly, God hereby instructed them that murder intended : and therefore, immediately after, it is said, was a most grievous crime, the punishment of which “ But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood extended even to beasts. And 4thly, the lives of men thereof, shall ye not eat;" or, as it is explained by the were hereby much secured by killing such beasts as best interpreters, Flesh, or members torn from living might otherwise have done the like mischief again. Bp. animals, having the blood in them, thou shalt not eat. Patrick. We see by this prohibition, that the abuse of eating at the hand of every man's brother] And thereliving meat, or part of animals while yet alive, was fore “if at the hand of every beast, much more will I known in the days of Noah, and forbidden after being require it at the hand of every man :" whom He calls known: and it is precisely what is practised in Abys- brother, to shew that murder is the more heinous on sinia to this day. This law then was prior to that of this account, because we are all brethren. Bp. Patrick. Moses, but it came from the same Legislator.
6. — by man shall his blood be shed:] That is, by the given to Noah, and consequently obligatory upon the magistrate or judges. Bp. Patrick. whole world. Moses, however, insists upon it through Against murder the Lord thus provided by an early out his law. He positively prohibits it four times in law, enacted and published before him, out of whose one chapter of Deuteronomy, chap. xii., and thrice in loins the whole world after the flood was to be re-peoone of the chapters of Leviticus, chap. xvii. Bruce. pled; to shew that it was not meant for a national and
Another reason perhaps was, that God intending in temporary ordinance, but for an universal and perpeafter-times to reserve the blood for the expiation of sin, tual law. Bp. Sanderson. required this early abstinence from it, that men might for in the image of God made he man.] This is be the better prepared to submit to that law, and under- a farther aggravation of the sin of murder. It is a great stand the reason of it: which was, that God accepted trespass upon God, as it destroys his likeness. And the life of the beast instead of their life, when they had self-murder upon this account is forbidden, as well as forfeited it by their sins.
the killing of others. Bp. Kidder. Another plain reason is immediately added, that they God having stamped his own image upon every man, might be the more fearful of shedding the blood one of and withal signified his blessed pleasure, how precious another, when it was not lawful so much as to taste the He would have him to be in our eyes and esteem, acblood of a beast. Bp. Patrick.
cording to the tenour of the edict in this verse, and the - which is the blood thereof,] That blood is the reason of it; we must expect to answer it as an high seat of life could not be known to Moses, but by revela- contempt of that Sacred Majesty, if we set any man at tion; it being a secret in nature never discovered till nought, or make less account of him than God would of late, and that by many experiments and observations, have us. Bp. Sanderson.
+ Heb. Chenaan.
Noah replenisheth the earth, 13 I do set my bow in the cloud, is the token of the covenant, which I and it shall be for a token of a coye- have established between me and all
nant between me and the earth. flesh that is upon the earth. g Ecclus. 43.
14 & And it shall come to pass, 18 q And the sons of Noah, that 11, 12,
when I bring a cloud over the earth, went forth of the ark, were Shem,
the father of + Canaan.
bandman, and he planted a vineyard :
told his two brethren without.
13. I do set my bow in the cloud,] It was now that mily. This consideration shews not only the reasonthe rainbow was appointed by God to be a memorial ableness of that universal benevolence and humanity, both of his justice upon the whole world, and of his which God, the great Lord and Master of all, requires mercy to the new. Let us, when we look upon it, bless towards all men; but also the folly and injustice of that God for being mindful of his covenant, and securing pride, which puffs up one man against another. “The to us the blessing of his promised Seed. Bp. Wilson. rich and poor meet together : the Lord is the Maker of
When the Jews behold the rainbow, they bless God, them all," Prov. xxii. 2. Wogan. who remembers his covenant, and is faithful to his The two continents of Asia and America, so widely promise. And the tradition of this its designation to separated from each other by the vast Pacific or Eastern proclaim comfort to mankind was strong among the Ocean at their southern extremities, are now found to heathen; for according to the mythology of the Greeks, approach each other towards the northern within thirthe rainbow was the daughter of wonder, "a sign to teen leagues, instead of eight hundred, as was supposed. mortal men,” and regarded, upon its appearance, as the And in this narrow strait there are several intervening messenger of the celestial deities. Bp. Horne.
islands, as Bering's, &c. Among other good purposes It is not at all necessary to inquire whether there was, therefore, the voyages of Captain Cook have rendered or was not, any rainbow before the flood. Upon either essential services to religion, by robbing infidelity of a şupposition the Divine Wisdom is very apparent, in favourite objection to the Mosaical account of the peoappointing the rainbow for a token of his covenant, pling of the earth. North America might have been and a memorial of his promise: that as often as men easily furnished with inhabitants from the opposite should see it, they might remember that God had given coasts of Asia : and South America, by means of the them such a promise, and that his infallible word should great chain of newly-discovered tropical isles, scattered be their sufficient security. Dr. Waterland.
between the two great continents, and successively co14. — the bow shall be seen in the cloud :] Not always, lonized from Asia ; and also, on its eastern side, by but at certain times : often enough to remind men of vessels driven by storms, or trade winds and currents, the promise, and stir up their belief of it. Bp. Patrick. from the shores of Europe and Africa. And indeed the
16. – I will look upon it, that I may remember &c.] similarity of languages, religion, manners, and customs, God did not "set this bow in the clouds” for his own in several leading points, furnishes decisive evidence of sake, to engage his attention, and revive his memory the descent of all mankind from the same parent stock. whenever " He looked on it;" though that be the ex Dr. Hales. See the note on chap. x. 32. pression which the Holy Spirit, speaking after the man 21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken ;] ner of men, has thought fit to make use of: but for our Being unacquainted with the strength of the liquor; or sakes was it placed there, as an illustrious symbol of the else being old, and unable to bear its strength. This Divine Mercy and Goodness, and to confirm our belief happened a great while after the flood. Bp. Patrick. and confidence in God. And therefore, whenever we Bp. Wilson, after Bedford's Scrip. Chronol., says 100 “look upon the rainbow," we should do well to "praise years. Him that made it; very beautiful it is in the brightness It is a strong argument of the veracity of Moses, that thereof. It compasseth the heaven about with a glorious throughout his history he has drawn no character so circle, and the hands of the Most High have bended it," fair, as not to leave some blemishes, some instances of Ecclus. xliii. 11, 12. Stackhouse.
human frailty, still abiding on it. And indeed it is an 18. Ham is the father of Canaan.] He had other act of singular kindness and benefit to us, that God has sons besides, chap. x. 6. But Canaan is here mentioned, ordered the faults and miscarriages of his saints so conas the head of a cursed race, whose country God gave stantly to be recorded in Scripture; since “they are to the Israelites; and in order to the ensuing relation, written for our admonition,” to remind us of our frailty, ver. 22. Bps. Patrick and Kidder.
and to alarm our caution and fear. The exainple of 19. — of them was the whole earth overspread.], We Noah, who had escaped the pollutions of the old world, see then that all mankind are of one blood and on- and was now overcome in a time of security and peace, ginal; being descended of one common ancestor; and calls perpetually upon “him that thinketh he standeth, therefore are all brethren, and, as it were, but one fa- to take heed lest he fall.” Stackhouse.
curseth Canaan, blesseth Shem,
and prayeth for Japheth. celors r garment, and laid it upon both their | a servant of servants shall he be unto
shoulders, and went backward, and his brethren.
1. Or, servant 24 And Noah awoke from his wine, 27 God shall || enlarge Japheth, 1 Or, perand knew what his younger son had and he shall dwell in the tents of suade. done unto him.
Shem; and Canaan shall be his ser25 And he said, Cursed be Canaan; vant.
25.— Cursed be Canaan ;] The ancient prophecies a strain of devotion he breaks forth into thanksgiving to must be understood, not of single persons, but of whole God as the Author of all good to Shem. Neither doth nations. The curse of servitude pronounced upon Ca- he say the same to Japheth; for God certainly may naan, and the promise of blessing and enlargement made dispense his particular favours according to his good to Shem and Japheth, extend to their whole race; as pleasure, and salvation was to be derived to mankind afterwards the prophecies concerning Ishmael, and those through Shem and his posterity. God prefers Shem to concerning Esau and Jacob, and those relating to the his elder brother Japheth, as Jacob was afterwards preTwelve Patriarchs. The curse therefore upon Canaan ferred to Esau, and David to his elder brothers, to shew was properly a curse upon the Canaanites. God fore- that the order of grace is not always the same as the seeing the wickedness of this people, which began in order of nature. The Lord being called “the God of their father Ham, and greatly increased in this branch Shem” particularly, it is plainly intimated that the of his family, commissioned Noah to pronounce a curse Lord would be his God in a particular manner. And upon them, and to devote them to the servitude and accordingly the Church of God was among the posmisery, which their more common vices and iniquities terity of Shem for several generations, “of whom as would deserve. And this account was plainly written concerning the flesh Christ came.” Bp. Newton. by Moses for the encouragement of the Israelites in 27. God shall enlarge Japheth,] In the Hebrew there their expedition against a people, who by their sins had is a plain allusion to Japheth's name, which signifies forfeited the Divine protection, and were destined to enlargement; as there is to many others in Scripture; slavery from the days of Noah. Bp. Newton.
Noah, chap. v. 29; Judah, Dan, Gad, &c. chap. xlix. 8, This curse did not affect individuals, nor even nations, 16, 19. Japheth was enlarged both in territory and in so long as they continued righteous. In Abraham's children. As to territory, his posterity possessed, bedays, before the iniquity of the Canaanites came to the sides all Europe, the lesser Asia, Media, part of Arfuil
, in the fourth generation afterwards, Melchizedek, menia, Iberia, Albania, and those vast regions to the whose name was expressive of his character, " king of north, which anciently the Scythians inhabited, and righteousness,” was a worthy “priest of the Most High now the Tartars; and it is not improbable that the new God:” and Abimelech, whose name denotes “ * parental world was peopled by some of his northern descendking,” pleaded the integrity of his heart, and the righ- ants going thither by the straits of Anian. As to teousness of his nation before God, and his plea was progeny, from the next chapter it appears that Japheth admitted. Yet they appear both to have been Canaan- had seven sons, whereas Ham had only four, and Shem ites, chap. xiv. 18—20; xv. 16; xx. 4-9. Dr. Hales. only five: and the northern hive was always remarkable
a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.] for its fecundity, and hath been continually sending out The word brethren, in Hebrew, comprehends more dis- colonies southward, both in Europe and in Asia, both tant relations. The descendants therefore of Canaan in former and in later times. Bp. Newton. were to be subject to the descendants of both Shem and and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem;] By Japheth: and the natural consequence of vice in com- this may be meant either that God or that Japheth shall munities, as well as in single persons, is slavery, dwell in the tents of Shem. In either sense it has been
Several centuries, 800 years, after the delivery of this fulfilled. In the former sense literally, when the Sheprophecy, the Israelites, who were descendants of Shem, chinah or Divine Presence rested on the ark, and dwelt under the command of Joshua, invaded the Canaanites, in the tabernacle and temple of the Jews; and when smote about thirty of their kings, took possession of the Word, who was with God and was God,” pitched their land, slew several of the inhabitants, made the his tent, and “dwelt among us." In the latter sense Gibeonites and others servants and tributaries; and it was fulfilled, first, when the Greeks and Romans, Solomon afterwards subdued the rest, 2 Chron. viii. who sprung originally from Japheth, subdued and pos7-9.
sessed Judea and other countries of Asia, belonging to The Greeks and Romans too, who were descend- Shem: and again spiritually, when they were proselyted ants of Japheth, not only subdued Syria and Palestine, to the true religion; and they, who were not Israelites but also pursued and conquered such of the Canaanites by birth, became Israelites by faith, and lived, as we as were any where remaining; as for instance, the and many others of Japheth's posterity live at this Tyrians and Carthaginians, the former of whom were day, within the pale of the Church of Christ. Bp. ruined by Alexander and the Grecians, and the latter by Newton. Scipio and the Romans. And ever since the miserable How just a regard is here shewn both to piety and remainder of this people have been slaves to a foreign disobedience! Because Ham sinned against his father, yoke; first to the Saracens, who descended from Sheml; therefore he shall be plagued in his children. Japheth and afterwards to the Turks, who descended from is dutiful to his father, and finds the reward of it in his Japheth; and they groan under their dominion at this posterity. Because Ham was an ill son to his father, day. Bp. Newton.
therefore his sons shall be servants to his brethren; 26. - Blessed be the Lord God of Shem ;] The old because Japheth assisted Shem to bear the cloke of Patriarch doth not say, “ Blessed be Shem,” as he said, shame, therefore shall Japheth dwell in the tents of “Cursed be Canaan :" for men's evil springeth of Shem, partaking with him in blessing, as in duty. themselves, but their good from God: and therefore in When we do but what we ought, yet God is gracious