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1 Chron, 1.
The generations of Noah.
The sons of Japheth, and of Ham. 28 And Noah lived after the flood 2 « The sons of Japheth ; Gomer, three hundred and fifty years. and Magog, and Madai, and Javan,
29 And all the days of Noah were and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. nine hundred and fifty years : and he 3 And the sons of Gomer; Ash- 5. died.
kenaz, and Riphath, and Togamah.
4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, CHAP. X.
and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 1 The generations of Noah. 2 The sons of 5 By these were the isles of the Japheth. 6 The sons of Ham. 8 Nimrod Gentiles divided in their lands; every the first monarch. 21 The sons of Shem.
one after his tongue, after their famiow these are the generations lies, in their nations.
of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, 6 q” And the sons of Ham; Cush, 1 Chron. 1. and Japheth: and unto them were and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. sons born after the flood.
7 And the sons of Cush; Seba,
to us; and rewards that, the omission of which would The late excellent Sir William Jones has very satisbe a sin. Who could ever yet shew me a man, rebel- factorily traced the origin of all the people of the earth liously undutiful to his parents, that had prospered in to the three roots, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, according himself and his seed? Bp. Hall.
to the account given in this chapter. Bp. Tomline. 29. — and he died.] Not above two and thirty years 2.- Japheth ;] He seems to have been the same before Abram was born. Bp. Patrick.
with Japetus, whom the Greeks own to have been their
father. Bp. Patrick. Chap. X. ver. 1. Now these are the generations &c.] 5. By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided] The The tenth chapter of Genesis is one of the most valu- Hebrews (as Mr. Mede observes) use the word isles to able and the most venerable records of antiquity. It signify all those countries divided from them by the explains what all profane historians were ignorant of- sea, Isai. xi. 10,11; xl. 15; Jer. ii. 10: or the word may the origin of nations. Instead of telling us, as other be used generally for a region, country, or province, books do, that one nation had sprung out of the earth Job xxii. 30; Isai. xx. 6. And the word here rendered
they inhabited; another from a cricket or a grass “Gentiles,” may signify a multitude of people, or “nahopper; another from an oak; another from a mush- tions," as it is translated in the last verse of this chapter. room; another from a dragon's tooth; instead of these The phrase then may be thus interpreted : By these, absurdities, it gives such an account of the peopling of or among these, were divided the regions of the people, the earth after the deluge, as no other book in the world or nations, (descended from Japheth,) in their lands; ever did give; and the truth of which all other books in the several countries which they possessed. Bp. in the world, which contain any thing on the subject, Patrick. confirm. The last verse of the chapter says, “These “ The isles of the Gentiles” mean many of the are the families of the sons of Noah, after their gene- maritime countries washed by the Mediterranean sea. rations, in their nations : and by these were the nations Gisborne. divided in the earth after the flood.” It would require divided] It appears by the following words, great learning to trace out precisely, either the actual according to his language, family, and nations, this situation of all the countries, in which these founders great division of the earth was made in an orderly manof empires settled, or to ascertain the extent of their ner, and not by a confused irregular dispersion, wherein dominions. This however has been done by various every one went and seated himself where he thought authors, to the satisfaction of all competent judges; so good. Jos. Mede. much at least to my satisfaction, that had I no other This distribution was by the immediate appointment proof of the authenticity of Genesis, I should consider of God. We have full evidence of this in that sublime this as sufficient. But without the aid of learning, any and pathetick hymn of Moses, where he addresses himman who can barely read his Bible, and has but heard self to the people of Israel, “Remember the days of of such people as the Assyrians, the Elamites, the old, &c.” Deut. xxxii
. 7–9. From this we may see Lydians, the Medes, the Ionians, the Thracians, will that the whole was by God's appointment; and that readily acknowledge that they had Assur, and Elam, there was a reserve for a people who were to come and Lud, and Madai, and Javan, and Tiras, grandsons after. St. Paul likewise speaks of it expressly as a of Noah, for their respective founders. Bp. Watson. Divine ordinance, Acts xvii. 26. This is taken notice
The following curious and valuable commentary on of by many of the Fathers. Eusebius in particular the tenth chapter of Genesis, which records the primitive mentions "the distribution of the earth :” and adds, settlements of the three families, is furnished by Abul- that it happened in “the 2672d year of the creation, faragi, in his History of the Dynasties. “In the 140th and in the 930th year of the Patriarch’s life. Then it year of Phaleg, the earth was divided, by a second divi- was that Noah, by Divine appointment, divided the sion, among the sons of Noah. To the sons of Shem world between his three sons. ." The Grecians had some was allotted the middle of the earth; namely, Palestine, traditions of this partition of the earth, which they supSyria, Assyria, Samaria, (a town of Babylonian, or posed to have been by lot, and between Jupiter, NepChaldean frac,) Babel, Persia, and Hegiaz, (or Arabia tune, and Pluto. The tradition probably came to Greece Petrea.) To the sons of Ham, Teman, (or Idumea, from Egypt. Bryant. Jer. xlix. 7,) Africa, Nigritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, after his tongue,] Not distinct languages, but Scindia, and India, (or Western and Eastern India,) different dialects. Bp. Patrick, Pyle. Many dialects, on both sides of the Indus. To the sons of Japheth even now spoken, may be traced to one common lanalso, Garbia, (the North,) Spain, France, the countries guage, which, as the primitive stock, has been the oriof the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and ginal of them all. Sir William Jones has demonstrated, Armenians." Dr. Hales.
that three great branches of language are sufficient to
Before CHRIST about 2218.
+ Heb. Tzidon.
Nimrod the first monarch.
16 And the Jebusite, and the
and the Sinite,
ites spread abroad.
Accad, and Calneh, in the land of to Gerar, unto + Gaza; as thou goest, + Heb.
unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Ad Azzah. # Or, he went 11 Out of that land || went forth mah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. Assyria.
Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and 20 These are the sons of Ham, after
|| the city Rehoboth, and Calah, their families, after their tongues, in city.
12 And Resen between Nineveh their countries, and in their nations. and Calah: the same is a great city. 21 [ Unto Shem also, the father of
13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and all the children of Eber, the brother Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtu- of Japheth the elder, even to him him,
were children born. 14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, 22 The children of Shem; Elam, c1 Chron. 1. (out of whom came Philistim,) and and Asshur, and + Arphaxad, and Heh. Caphtorim. Lud, and Aram.
1 Or, the streets of the
“ Bel" or
account for all the varieties now extant; and it forms a
Baal,” which is the same name, signifies very strong, as well as a new argument in favour of the Lord; and “ Nimrod,” a Rebel, in the Jewish and ChalMosaical account of the early postdiluvian ages. Cal dean languages; the former was his Babylonish name, mel's Dictionary, Supplement
by reason of his empire in that place; and the latter his 8.- he began to be a mighty one in the earth.] He Scripture name, by reason of his rebellion, in revolting was the first great warriour and conqueror : or, as some from God to follow his own wicked designs. Dean say, a more severe governor than they had been, who Prideaux. only exercised paternal authority. For he was the first wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod &c.] That that put down the government of eldership or pater- is, thence came the common proverb: which Moses nity, and laid the foundation of sovereign rule. Bp. alleges as a proof of the truth of what he delivered. Bp. Patrick.
Patrick. 9. He was a mighty hunter] Or rather, mighty in 10.- the beginning of his kingdom was Babel,] He hunting : by which means he became a great monarch. first erected the city of Babylon, making it the capital For he enured himself to labour by this toilsome exer seat of his dominions. Pyle.
and got together a great company of robust young 11. Out of that land went forth Asshur,] The transmen to attend him in this sport; who were hereby also lation in the margin is to be preferred, He went out into fitted to pursue men, as they had done wild beasts. Assyria : meaning that Nimrod went to war against For this was looked upon in all ages as the rudiment of Assyria, which belonged to the children of Shem, but warfare, all the heroes of old being bred up to hunting. was usurped by this son of Cush. Bp. Patrick. Besides, in the age of Nimrod, the exercise of hunting and builded Nineveh,] So called from his son might win him the hearts of men, whom he thus de- Ninus. Thus Cain built a city, and called it, not by livered from wild beasts, to which they were much ex- his own, but by his son's name. Bp. Patrick. posed, in their rude and unprotected way of living, 13. — Ludim,] That is, Lud and his posterity the So that many at last joined with him in the great Ludims ; the form of that word, as of several others designs he formed of subduing men, and making him that follow, being plural, and denoting several nations, self master of the neighbouring people in Babylon, probably in Africa. Bp. Kidder. Susiana, and Assyria. The memory of this hunting of 18. – afterward were the families of the Canaanites his was preserved by the Assyrians, who made Nimrod spread abroad.] The race of the Canaanites was so the same as Orion; for they joined the dog and the numerous, as not only to spread over the tract of land hare, the first creature perhaps that he hunted, with his possessed afterward by the Israelites, but reached into constellation. Bp. Patrick.
several countries round it. Pyle. before the Lord:] That is, to the highest degree. 21. — the father of all the children of Eber,] And so For so a great city to God is a very great city, Jonah ii. consequently the father of the Hebrews, who had their 3, and a child very beautiful is called fair to, or before name from him. From him Abram was called an HeGod, Acts vii. 20. Bp. Patrick. The phrase may brew, chap. xiv. 13, and his posterity Hebrews, Gen. perhaps be more properly rendered, “ against the Lord.” xxxix. 14; Exod. i. 15, 16. Some however have Bibliotheca Biblica. Bei was the name of the great thought that Eber in this place is not a proper name: God of the Babylonians. He is supposed to have been and that Abraham is called an Hebrew, not from Eber, the same with Nimrod; and to have been called Bel as the proper name of a man, but as this word imports from his dominion, and Nimrod from his rebellion. For one who comes from beyond the river Euphrates. And VOL. I.
+ Heb. Shelah,
2247. di Chron. 1. 19.
The sons of Shem.
One language in the world. 23 And the children of Aram ; Uz, / Mesha, as thou goest, unto Sephar a about 2218. and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. mount of the east.
24 And Arphaxad begat + Salah 31 These are the sons of Shem,
after their families, after their tongues,
the nations divided in the earth after
CH AP, XÍ.
of Babel. 5 The confusion of tongues. 10
The generations of Shem. 27 The gene28 And Obal, and Abimael, and rations of Terah the father of Abram. 31 Sheba,
Terah goeth from Ur to Haran. 29 And Orphir, and Havilah, and ND a the whole earth was of one Jobab: all these were the sons of + language, and of one + speech. ^ Heb. lip
2 And it came to pass, as they 30 And their dwelling was from journeyed from the east, that they
about 2247. a Wisd. 10. 5.
+ Heb. words.
then, what we render " the children of Eber," imports appeared to be of a different race from the Moors : far the inhabitants beyond the river Euphrates. Bp. Kidder. from swarthy, their complexion is fair and ruddy, and
25.— Peleg :] "The great dispersion, recorded in the their hair a deep yellow, instead of being dark, as among next chapter, happening just when he was born, made the neighbouring Moors. He conjectures that they are his father call him by this name, which signifies division a remnant of the Vandals. And they probably retained and separation. Bp. Patrick.
their complexion from their high mountainous situa32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, &c.] tion; as the natives of Armenia, in western Asia, and The derivation of the human species, all from one stock, Cashmire, in eastern, are fair ; owing to the great eleNoah, the second father of mankind, has proved a great vation of the soil in both places, and the temperature of stumbling-block to minute philosophers: who cannot the climate occasioned thereby. reconcile the fact to the varieties of the species in differ 4. On the other hand, a colony of Jews, settled at ent countries, as to colour, size, shape, disposition, &c. Cochin, on the Malabar coast, from a very remote epoch, However inadequate we may be fully to unfold the of which they have lost the memory, though originally mysteries of nature and the ways of Providence, yet a fair people in Palestine, and from their customs premuch of these alleged varieties may be satisfactorily serving themselves unmixed, are grown as black as the accounted for, from the influence of climate, local cir- other Malabarians, who are hardly a shade lighter than cumstances of air, water, food, customs, &c. which may, the negroes of Guinea. And at Ceylon, the Portuguese, in process of time, make a material change in the con- who settled there only a few centuries ago, are degenestitutions and complexions of the inhabitants. If dogs, rated, and grown blacker than the original natives. taken to the frigid zone, grow shaggy; and if sheep, They are in number about 5000, still speak Portuguese, transported to the torrid zone, exchange their wool for wear the European dress, and profess the Romish rehair ; why may not the human species gradually partake ligion. of the influence of climate ?
Still there are anomalies, or exceptions, to the general 1. Man was formed to reside in all climates. “The conclusions of the influence of climate and customs, that human animal is the only one which is naked, and the must be ascribed to other, and perhaps undiscovered only one which can clothe itself. This is one of the pro- causes, which baffle the pride of human sagacity to perties, which renders him an animal of all climates and develop: and which, after all, must be resolved into the of all seasons. He can adapt the warmth or lightness will and pleasure of the Creator, and deposited among of his covering to the temperature of his habitation. “the unsearchable riches” of his wisdom and proviHad he been born with a fleece upon his back, although dence, in the variety, no less than the regularity, of his he might have been comforted by its warmth in high works. Dr. Hales. latitudes, it would have oppressed him by its weight and heat, as the species spread toward the Equator.” Chap. XI. ver. 1. one language,] The learned are This is the simple but profound remark of Paley. not agreed, whether we have any remains of the primi
2. “Man, though white in Europe, black in Africa, tive language of men : and as the Scriptures are silent yellow in Asia, and red in America, is still the same upon the subject, we must be content to leave it in animal
, tinged only with the colour of the climate. uncertainty. Perhaps it is most probable, that the old Where the heat is excessive, as in Guinea and Senegal, Hebrew or Syriack is the most ancient language which the people are perfectly black : where less excessive, as has descended to us; and in support of this opinion, in Abyssinia, the people are less black : where it is more the Jewish historians assert, that the sons of Eber, or temperate, as in Barbary and in Arabia, they are brown : Heber, did not concur with the rest in the attempt to and where mild, as in Europe and in Lesser Asia, they build the tower, and therefore retained the primitive are fair.” Buffon. This concession from a great natu- language. Sir William Jones is of opinion that the ralist and sceptick is important.
original language is entirely lost. Bp. Tomline. 3. Shaw, in his travels through Barbary, found a as they journeyed from the east,] Not all the tribe in the mountains of Auress, south of Algiers, who posterity of Noah, who after the flood were planted in
Before CHRIST about 2247.
said to his
them to a burning.
The building of Babel.
CH AP. XI.
The confusion of tongues. found a plain in the land of Shinar; see the city and the tower, which the about 2247, and they dwelt there.
children of men builded. 3 And + they said one to another, 6 And the LORD said, Behold, the + Heb. a man
Go to, let us make brick, and † burn people is one, and they have all one
for stone, and slime had they for and now nothing will be restrained
from them, which they have imagined
8 So the LORD scattered them
the east; much less Noah himself; but a great colony God hath a special indignation at pride, above all of them, who, when the east was much peopled, chose sins; and will cross our endeavours, not because they to go westward. Bp. Patrick.
are evil, (what hurt could there be in laying one brick Shinar ;]. Not only that part of Assyria where upon another?) but because they are proudly underBabylon stood, but all that country which bordered taken. Bp. Hall. upon the river Tigris unto the mountains of Armenia. - lest we be scattered abroad] What they dreaded, Bp. Patrick.
they brought upon themselves by their own vain atthey dwelt there.] By what follows it appears, tempt to avoid it: and now there is no memory prethat they intended to dwell there for the future, contrary served of the names of those who conspired in this to God's command of replenishing the earth. Bp. Kidder. attempt. Thus what Solomon saith was long before
3. — they said] Nimrod very probably, as Josephus verified, “The fear of the wicked shall come upon affirmas, encouraged others of his race and temper to this him.” But this evil by God's Providence was attended contempt of God. Bp. Kidder.
with a great good: for by this dispersion the whole - let us make brick,] In that low and fat soil there earth was peopled; and the foundation laid of several was no stone. Herodotus, Justin, and many others, de- great nations and kingdoms. Bp. Patrick. scribe the walls of Babylon as made of burnt bricks. 5 And the Lord came down to see &c.] This is an
The cement, here mentioned by the name of slime, accommodation to our conceptions. It means, that by was probably what the ancients called asphaltus or bitu- the effects He made it appear, that He observed their men; a kind of pitch, which is described by authors as motions and knew their intentions. Bp. Patrick. very gluey, and therefore it was used by Noah, under -the children of men] Children of men in ScripGod's direction, about the ark. Assyria abounds with ture are opposed to children of God; as bad men and it, both in a liquid and solid state ; as we learn from an- infidels are to good and faithful. So that the people cient historians and modern travellers, who describe it engaged in this work were not Noah, Shem, and other as cast up from some fountains with the water. Hero- good men; but some of the worst sort, who had degedotus, and many other authors, both Greek and Latin, nerated from the piety of their ancestors. Bp. Patrick. affirm that the walls of Babylon were cemented with it. 6. -- now nothing will be restrained from them,] They And it is observable that Arrian says, the Temple of will give farther instances of their rebellion and tyranny, Belus, in the midst of the city of Babylon, of a vast big- if they be not defeated. Bp. Kidder. ness, was made of brick, cemented with asphaltus. Bp. Or the sentence may be taken interrogatively, thus : Patrick, Stackhouse.
“Shall they not be restrained in all they imagine to Many have thought that the tower of Belus, men- do?” The question amounts to the most express aftioned by Herodotus, and in his time to be seen in Ba- firmation that they shall be restrained, which accordbylon, was the tower of Babel; or at least was built ingly was executed immediately. Stackhouse. upon the old foundations. Calmet.
7.- confound their language,] God did not make - a city and a tower,] The tower was contained every one speak a new different language; but they had in the city, and formed part of it. It was probably the such a confused remembrance of their original language, Acropolis, as the Greeks call it, a strong place in the that they spake it very differently: so that by the vahighest part of the city, such as we call a citadel. Bp. rious inflections, and terminations, and pronunciations Patrick.
of the divers dialects, they could no more understand whose top may reach unto heaven ;] Or to the one another, than they, who understand only Latin, can clouds. An exceeding high tower. The same is said understand those who speak French, Italian, or Spanish; of the walls of the cities of Canaan, Deut. i. 28; ix. 1. though these languages arise out of the former. Bp. Patrick.
It is probable that each family had its peculiar dialect ; The misunderstanding of this text probably gave rise or rather the same common dialect, or way of speaking, to the fable of the giants attempting to scale heaven. was given to those families, whom God intended to form The silliest of the Pagan fables generally have some one colony in the following dispersion. Bp. Patrick foundation in truth, either misunderstood or misap 8. So the Lord scattered them] This followed upon plied. Stackhouse.
God's multiplying the languages of these builders. For let us make us a name,] The work was intended as the unity of one common language had before knit to frustrate the good design of regularly peopling the them into one community, so it is the proper effect of earth; out of an ambitious aim of raising themselves pluralities of tongues to sort men into pluralities of sointo a powerful state, and getting the honour of being cieties. Jos. Mede. Division of tongues must needs the founders of the first great city and government in slacken any work. Happy were the Church of God, if the world. Pyle.
we all spake but one language. Bp. Ilall.
bi Chron. 1. 17.
f Luke 3. 34, Thara,
1 Chron. 1. 26.
c1 Chron. 1.
Luke 3, 35,
The generations of Shem, and
of Terah, the father of Abram. all the earth : and they left off to build 20 And Reu lived two and thirty about 2247, the city,
years, and begat • Serug: 9 Therefore is the name of it
21 And Reu lived after he begat e Luke 3. 35, || That is,
called || Babel; because the Lord Serug two hundred and seven years, Saruch.
23 And Serug lived after he begat
twenty years, and begat 'Terah :
and begat sons and daughters.
13 And Arphaxad lived after he ran.
14 And Salah lived thirty years, hor, and Haran; and Haran begat
16 · And Eber lived four and thirty 29 And Abram and Nahor took
them wives: the name of Abram's d Called,
17 And Eber lived after he begat wife was Sarai ; and the name of Peleg four hundred and thirty years, Nahor's wife, Milcah, the daughter of and begat sons and daughters. Haran, the father of Milcah, and the
18 And Peleg lived thirty years, father of Iscah. and begat Reu:
30 But Sarai was barren; she had 19 And Peleg lived after he begat no child. Reu two hundred and nine years, and 31 And Terah took Abram his son, about 1923. begat sons and daughters.
and Lot the son of Haran his son's upon the face of all the earth:] The migrations The whole time from the flood to the birth of Abram of the three primitive families took place from the central is but 352 years; whereas from Adam's creation to the regions of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria ; and by food was no less than 1656 years. Bp. Kidder. successive colonisations established far distant commu Shem was an hundred years old,] Abram lived nities, and various modes of society and government; with Shem 150 years; and could have from him a most the Phenicians, Arabians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, and exact account of the creation, food, &c. for Shem was Libyans, southwards; the Persians, Ethiopians, Indians, one hundred years old when the flood came, and had and Chinese, eastwards; the Scythians, Celts, and Tar- long conversed with Lamech, who had conversed with tars, northwards ; and the Goths, Greeks, and Latins, Adam 56 years. Bp. Wilson. even as far as the Peruvians and Mexicans of South 26.-- Abram, Nahor, and Haran.] Abram seems to America, and the Indian tribes of North America, west- have been the youngest : but is named first because of wards. All these various inhabitants of the globe retain his pre-eminence. Bp. Patrick. See note on chap. v. a striking affinity in the leading principles of their lan- 32. guage, customs, and religions, however diversified in 28. And Haran died before his father] He was the process of time from each other by local circumstances : first son, who in the natural way died before his father. such affinity evincing their common descent from one Bp. Wilson. and the same parent stock. Dr. Hales. See the notes Ur of the Chaldees.] That part of Mesopotamia, on chap. ix. 19, and x. 32.
which was next to Assyria, is called “the land of the - and they left off to build the city.) And the Chaldees.” For Ur was in Mesopotamia. St. Stephen tower. They desisted from their enterprise ; but the therefore makes Mesopotamia and the land of the Chalcity and tower probably stood long after this, and may dees the same, Acts vii. 2, 4. Bp. Patrick. have been the very tower afterwards consecrated to 29. - Iscah.] This is supposed to be another name Belus. Bp. Patrick.
of Sarai, whom Abram married : his eldest brother's 10. These are the generations of Shem :] As we have daughter, and sister to Lot. Haran had three children: an account in chap. v. of the generations from Adam Lot, Milcah whom Nahor married, and Sarai whom to Noah, who was the tenth from Adam: so we have Abram married. That is, on the death of Haran, his here an account from Noah to Abram, who was the two surviving brothers married his two daughters. Sarai tenth from Noah. And hence we may learn that the perhaps had one name before they came out of Chaldea, age of man's life was much shortened after the flood. and the other after. Bp. Patrick.