« AnteriorContinuar »
Jacob's death ; his embalming, CHAP. XLIX, L.
and funeral. 32 The purchase of the field and him ; for so are fulfilled the days of of the cave that is therein was from those which are embalmed: and the the children of Heth. Egyptians + mourned for him three
+ Heb. wept.
have found grace in your eyes, speak,
pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh,
saying, 1 The mourning for Jacob. 4 Joseph gelteth 5 My father made me swear, say- a Chap 47. leave of Pharaoh to go to bury him. 7 The ing, Lo, I die : in my grave
his house, and all the elders of the 3 And forty days were fulfilled for land of Egypt, them mistake it, when they went to bury him; and that heart and kidneys, and then washed them with palmhe might shew his title to it
, if the inhabitants of Canaan, wine, and other strong and binding drugs. The brains from which he had been absent many years, should deny they drew through the nostrils with an hooked piece of the right of laying his body there. Bp. Patrick. iron, and filled the skull with astringent drugs. The
33. — And was gathered unto his people.] To his an- whole body they anointed with oil of cedar, with myrrh, cestors. Hence is inferred the belief entertained in those cinnamon, and other drugs, for about thirty days : by days of another life, in society with such as were depart- which means it was preserved entire, without so much ed out of this life. Bp. Patrick.
as losing its hair ; and sweet, without any signs of In the history, which the Scriptures give us, of putrefaction. It was then put into salt about forty good men in old time, it is worth observing, that their days: so that when Moses says, “that forty days were dying appears to have been a circumstance as easy and employed in embalming Jacob,” he must mean the forty indifferent to them as to the historian who relates it. days of his continuing in the salt of nitre, without inWith Moses, it is only, “Go up to mount Nebo, and cluding the thirty days spent in the other operations : so die.” With Aaron, “Ascend to mount Hor,” and do in the whole they mourned seventy days in Egypt, as the same. And before them, we find the holy Patriarchs, Moses likewise observes. Last of all, the body was when the appointed hour came, calling their children taken out of this salt, washed, and wrapped up in linen about them, bequeathing to posterity the promised bless- swaddling-bands, dipped in myrrh, and rubbed with a ing of salvation by the Messiah, gathering up their feet certain gum, which the Egyptians used instead of glue, into the bed, and dying with the same satisfaction and and so restored to the relations, who put it into the complacency, as they would have fallen asleep. And coffin, and kept it in some repository, in their houses, why? but because, having been always accustomed to or in tombs, made particularly for that purpose. Calmet. think of themselves as strangers in the earth, they con The Egyptians excelled all other people in this art. stantly regarded death as a departure to that other and Bodies thus embalmed remain to this day, and are often better country, of which they lived in perpetual expec- brought into these countries under the name of mumtation; and could not therefore be surprised or alarmed, mies. Bp. Patrick. at being called to take possession, as knowing they be 4. --- Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh,] He gan their journey in order to finish it. Could we think does not speak to Pharaoh himself, perhaps because he as they did, we should live as they did, and die as they was a mourner, and for that reason might not come into did. Bp. Horne.
the king's presence, being looked upon as defiled. See
Esth. iv. 2. Bps. Patrick and Kidder. Chap. L. ver. 2. the physicians] Those to whom 5. — in my grave which I have digged for me] It was the care of embalming belonged. Bp. Kidder. usual for men to dig their sepulchres in their lifetime.
- embalmed Israel.] The manner of embalming Bp. Kidder. And Jacob, it seems, had taken care to among the Egyptians was as follows. A coffin was first have a grave digged for himself in the cave that Abraprepared, the upper part of which represented the per- ham had bought. Bp. Patrick. son of the deceased, and was generally adorned with 7. — all the servants] That is, a great number of paintings and embellishments, suitable to his quality. them; all that could well be spared. Thus in Matt. Preparations were then made for embalming the body, iii. 5, all Judea is said to have gone out to John's the price varying from about £300 sterling, to a very baptism, that is, a great many of the inhabitants. Bp, small sum. An incision was first made in the left side, Patrick, Pyle. through which they drew all the intestines, except the the elders of his house,] Elder is a name of dig
b Acts 7. 16.
Joseph returneth to Egypt. 8 And all the house of Joseph, and 12 And his sons did unto him achis brethren, and his father's house : cording as he commanded them: only their little ones, and their flocks, 13 For bhis sons carried him into and their herds, they left in the land the land of Canaan, and buried him of Goshen.
in the cave of the field of Machpelah,
place of Ephron the Hittite, before
15 9 And when Joseph's brethren
the Egyptians: wherefore the name 16 And they + sent a messenger Hebe the mourning of it was called || Abel-mizraim, which unto Joseph, saying, Thy father did Egyptians. is beyond Jordan.
command before he died, saying,
il That is,
nity, as in chap. xxiv. 2, where it signifies, the princi- thighs, with many other expressions of sorrow. Bp. pal servant, who was set over all the rest, as their Patrick. governour. It appears from this place to have been The cries of the Eastern people are especially long in used by the Egyptians, as well as by the Hebrews, long the case of death, and very frightful. I was lodged in before Moses's time, as a title of honour; as it hath 1676 at Ispahan when the mistress of the next house to been ever since by all nations whatsoever. Selden. mine died. The moment she expired, all the family, to
9. -- and it was a very great company.] The splen- the number of twenty-five or thirty persons, set up dour and magnificence of our Patriarch's funeral seem such a furious cry that I was quite startled. These to be without a parallel in history. The noble obsequies cries continue a long time, then cease all at once : of Marcellus come nearest in comparison. But how do they begin again as suddenly at day-break, and in coneven these fall short of the simple narrative before us ! cert. This enraged kind of mourning continued forty For what are the six hundred beds, for which the days: not equally violent, but diminishing from day to Roman solemnities on this occasion were so famous, day. The longest and most violent acts were when when compared to that national itinerant multitude, they washed the body, when they perfumed it, when which swelled like a flood, and moved like a river; to they carried it out to be interred, at making the inven“all Pharaoh's servants, to the elders of his house, and tory, and when they divided the effects. Sir J. Chardin. all the elders of the land of Egypt,” that is, to the - seven days.] This was the time of publick officers of his household, and deputies of his provinces; mourning among the Jews in succeeding ages, as apwith “all the house” of Joseph, and his “brethren," pears from 1 Sam. xxxi. 13; Ecclus. xxii. 12; Judith and his “father's house,” conducting their solemn sor- xvi. 24. They rejoiced the same length of time at row for near two hundred miles into a distant country? solemn weddings; see chap. xxix. 27. Bp. Patrick. Stackhouse.
Thus died, and thus was honoured in his death, the 10. — the threshing floor of Alad,] It is uncertain founder of the Jewish nation, who, amidst, many merwhether Atad is the name of a place or of a man : the cies, and many visitations, sudden and surprising vicisthreshingfloor was probably not far from Hebron. Dr. Situdes of afflictions and joy, found it the greatest Wells.
blessing of his varied and eventful life, that he had been beyond Jordan,] Beyond, not in respect of the father of a dutiful and affectionate son. It has been Egypt, whence Jacob's corpse was brought; but in said, and, as I believe, truly, that there is no virtuous respect of the place, in which Moses was when he wrote quality belonging to the human character, of which there this history, and which was east of Jordan ; conse- is not some distinct and eminent example to be found quently the places beyond Jordan lay on the west. in the Bible: no relation, in which we can be placed, Why they made this threshingfloor, rather than the no duty, which we have to discharge, but that we may place of interment, the scene of their lamentations, is observe a pattern for it in the Sacred History: Of the not so easy to resolve. Perhaps it was a place more duty of children to parents, of a son to his father, convenient to stay in for seven days, than the field of maintained under great singularities and variations of Machpelah : or perhaps it might be the custom at the fortune, undiminished, nay rather increased, by absence, entrance of the country, whither they were carrying the by distance, by unexampled success, by remote and body for burial, to fall into lamentations, which they foreign connexions, we may see, in this most ancient of might repeat over the grave. Dr. Wells.
all histories, as conspicuous, and as amiable an instance, they mourned with a great and very sore lamenta- as can be met with in the records of the world, in the tion :] In what this lamentation consisted we are not purest, best ages of its existence. Archdeacon Paley. told; but in aftertimes they sat with their faces covered, 15. — Joseph will peradventure hate us,] Their guilt having ashes sprinkled on their heads, crying out with was so great that it continued to make them suspicious. a mournful voice, sometimes wringing, sometimes clap- Bp. Patrick. ping their hands together, smiting their breasts or their This was probably twenty years after their coming
He comforteth his brethren.
He dieth, and is chested. 17 So shall ye say unto Joseph, 22 9 And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, Forgive, I pray thee now, the trespass he, and his father's house: and Joof thy brethren, and their sin; for seph lived an
an hundred and ten they did unto thee evil: and now, we years. pray thee, forgive the trespass of the 23 And Joseph saw Ephraim's servants of the God of thy father. children of the third generation : ethe & Numb. 82. And Joseph wept when they spake children also of Machir the son of unto him.
Manasseh were + brought up upon + Heb. Borne. 18 And his brethren also went and Joseph's knees. fell down before his face; and they 24 And Joseph said unto his bresaid, Behold, we be thy servants. thren, I die: and God will surely f Hebr. 11.
19 And Joseph said unto them, visit you, and bring you out of this a Chap. 45. 5. a Fear not: for am I in the place of land unto the land which he sware to God?
Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.
21 Now therefore fear ye not: I 26 So Joseph died, being an hun-
And he comforted them, and spake embalmed him, and he was put in a their hearts. † kindly unto them,
coffin in Egypt.
into Egypt; and forty since the commission of the crime. not desire to have his body carried into Canaan immeSins of great presumption will not suffer him that hath diately, for several reasons; chiefly, Because the prerepented them, for ever quite to forget them : and he sence of his body with the Israelites might be a pledge shall never be able to remember them, without shame to assure them, and a means to strengthen and confirm and horrour. Bp. Sanderson.
their faith and hope in God's promises to their pro17.- of the servants of the God of thy father.]. Be- genitors, that He would infallibly put their posterity in sides the command of their father, and their relation to possession of the land of Canaan. And accordingly, him as his brethren, they urge that they are of the same when Moses delivered them out of Egypt, he carried religion with him. This, if rightly understood and prac- Joseph's body along with him, Exod. xiii. 19; and tised, causes the greatest union of minds and affections. committed it to the care of the tribe of Ephraim, who For how can the worshippers of the same God hate one buried it near Shechem, Josh. xxiv. 32, in the field, another? Bp. Patrick.
which Jacob, a little before his death, gave to Joseph, 19. - - am I in the place of God?] To whom alone as his peculiar property. Stackhouse. belongs vengeance. Bp. Wilson. It belongs not to me Moses does not tell us what became of the other sons to punish you for your sins, nor will it become me to of Jacob: but Josephus saith, they were all carried remember your former faults, since God hath turned into the land of Canaan to be buried. For they had your evil into good. Bp. Kidder.
probably the same desire, and gave the same charge 20. — but God meant it unto good, &c.] Joseph does concerning their bodies, to keep their posterity in hope not vaunt his own wisdom and skill; but acknowledges that God would certainly bring them thither. This God as the author of the good which befel him and his may seem to be imported by the words of St. Stephen father's house. Bp. Kidder. Herein appears the won- also, “ Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he and derful wisdom of God's over-ruling providence; which, our fathers, and were carried over into Sychem, and contrary to the nature of sin and the will of sinners, laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought, &c.” Bp. turns the evil they do into good, and directs it to the Patrick. most excellent ends. Bp. Patrick.
26. — he was put in a coffin in Egypt.] Such a chest 22.- Joseph lived an hundred and ten years.] Eighty as dead bodies were inclosed in, after being embalmed; of which he spent in great prosperity, being but thirty to be preserved in it, until the Israelites should go out years old when he first stood before Pharaoh. Bp. of Egypt. Travellers, who have gone to search for Patrick.
mummies, tell us, they found some of the coffins made 23. — Ephraim's children of the third generation :] of wood, not putrefied to this day; and others of cloths That is, his great grandchildren. So that Joseph had pasted together, forty times double, which were as the pleasure of seeing his father's blessing upon his own strong as wood, and not at all rotten. Bp.
Patrick. two sons in part fulfilled : for he saw great grand Coffins were not used universally in Egypt: and children from Ephraim; and grandchildren by one probably they were only persons of distinction that branch of Manasseh. Bp. Patrick, Pyle.
were buried in them. In times so remote as those of 24. — his brethren,] Such of the principal heads of Joseph, they might be much less common than afterhis family as were then alive. Pyle.
wards; and consequently Joseph's body being put in a God will surely visit you,] Accomplish his coffin in Egypt may be mentioned, with a design of expromise of giving you the land of Canaan. Pyle. pressing the great honours the Egyptians paid him in
25. And Joseph took an oath] As his father had done death, as well as in life, being treated after the most of him, chap. xlvii
. 30, 31. The oath was to oblige all sumptuous manner of the Egyptians, embalmed and such as should be alive on their going out of Egypt. put into a coffin. Harmer. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells.
Throughout the foregoing narrative we trace in the ye shall carry up my bones from hence.] He did Patriarch Joseph, the character of one, who diligently
“exercised himself to have always a conscience void rative, present us in this character of Joseph with one of offence towards God and towards man.” Endowed of the most faultless patterns for our imitation. We with a solid understanding, and with a heart alive to may therefore reasonably demand in the language of virtuous thoughts and to kind affections, he made “the the Egyptian monarch, and with that enlarged significafear of God” the ruling principle of his conduct. He tion, which the Christian will affix to the words, Can accordingly affords us an example of devout and ra we find such an one as this is; a man in whom is the tional piety; of blameless and manly virtue. To the Spirit of God?" And we may then safely conclude, Almighty he was humble, grateful, and resigned ; that we are guided by the same Spirit, when we testify zealous in promoting his glory, and resolute in keeping our “love of God, by that piety, faith, resignation, his commandments. To his fellow-creatures he was, gratitude, and obedience; and our “love of man," by as a son, dutiful and affectionate; as a brother, kind that affectionate behaviour in our domestick relations, and forgiving; faithful, as a servant and a subject; by that faithful discharge of our social duties, and that discreet and benevolent, as a ruler; of integrity un- general tenour of kindness and benevolence, which so shaken, and of manners uncorrupt. The concluding eminently distinguished this well-beloved son of Israel, chapters of the book of Genesis, which are unexampled this highly-favoured servant of God. Mant's Parochial for the interesting and affecting simplicity of the nar Sermons,
The following are the Chapters from the book of Genesis, appointed for Proper Lessons on Sundays and
Evening. ......Morning. ......... ditto.
Evening. ....Morning. ...Evening
Evening ......Morning. ... ditto.
THE SECOND BOOK OF MOSES,
INTRODUCTION. THE title of this Second Book of Moses is descriptive of its contents. The word Exodus is of Greek derivation, and signifies a going out or departing from one place to another. The book relates the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt, after a previous description of their state of servitude, of the appointment of Moses, and of the miracles by which he effected their deliverance. It presents us also with the account of their journey through the wilderness, of the solemn promulgation of the Law at Mount Sinai, of the delivery of the Ten Commandments, and of the building of the tabernacle. It is universally allowed to be written by Moses, and the words of Exodus are cited as the words of Moses, by Daniel, David, and other Sacred Writers: there are, besides, no less than twenty-five passages from this book, quoted by Christ and his Apostles in express words,
and nineteen more as to the sense. Exodus contains a history of one hundred and forty-five years, or perhaps of a somewhat shorter period. Besides historical events, this book contains some predictions, of which it records also the accomplishment ; as
that of the deliverance of the Jews, which Moses foresaw and effected (Exod. vii. 4, 5).- It likewise describes some of which were not fulfilled till after his death, as that concerning the conquest of Canaan, and the future division and allotment of the land,- also those relating to the revolutions that were to take place in the government of the Jews, their future subjections, captivities, deliverances, and returns.
Dr. Gray. Moses proceeds in this book in such an order, as was most natural to a writer, relating the different occurrences
which took place, exactly as they took place. The history is perpetually interrupted with exact details of the laws, as they were occasionally delivered : with minute, and even tedious, though necessary descriptions of the materials and work of the tabernacle and its furniture, of the altar, the ark, the dress of the priests, and the mode of offering the sacrifices : these are detailed in the most inartificial manner, if we consider the book as intended for a regular and finished composition. The description of the method, in which these things should be formed, is spread through near six chapters ; chap. xxv—xxx; then the history proceeds for five more; and then succeeds a relation
of the fact, that each particular, directed to be made, was made according to the direction given, in most cases word for word the same as the direction; and this extended through five long chapters, xxxvi-xl. The measures of the curtains, and the boards, and the borders, the number and size of the rings and the loops, of the tenons, and the pillars, and the sockets, of the curtains and the hangings, are enumerated with such exactness, as proves the detail was not at all designed to display in strong and glowing colours the magnificence of the objects described; for such a purpose it is totally unfit, but it is exactly such as was necessary to instruct the workmen in the making of them. All this is just and natural if Moses was really the author of Exodus, and if he detailed the circumstances at the time when they occurred; because he conceived the formation of all this work, according to a particular model, chap. xxv. 3. 9, and 40, as a matter of important obligation; and worthy a peculiar record, when he tells us, “ that according to all that the Lord commanded Moses, so the children of Israel made all the work, and Moses blessed them,” chap. xxxix. 42. But such an enumeration would have been utterly irrational and unnatural in any other writer, or for any other purpose, Dr. Graves.
commandeth the male children to be cast CHAP. I.
into the river.
do multiply. 8 The more they are op-
children of Israel, which came Chap. 6. 14.
Na these are the names of the
a Gen. 46. 8.
Chap. I. ver. 1. Now these are the names &c.] As it, and the heads of the distinct households or tribes ; Moses was about to relate the departure of the children whereby it might the better appear also, how God had of Israel out of Egypt; it was very proper to begin fulfilled his promise to Abraham of “ multiplying his with setting down the number of those who came into seed.” Bp. Patrick, VOL. I.