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g Hebr. 12. 20.
God's fearful presence
the mount. 11 And be ready against the third 17 And Moses brought forth the day: for the third day the Lord will people out of the camp to meet with come down in the sight of all the God; and they stood at the nether people upon mount Sinai.
part of the mount. 12 And thou shalt set bounds unto 18 And h mount Sinai was alto- h Deut. 4. 11. the people round about, saying, Take gether on a smoke, because the LORD heed to yourselves, that ye go not up descended upon it in fire: and the into the mount, or touch the border smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of it: & whosoever toucheth the mount of a furnace, and the whole mount shall be surely put to death : quaked greatly.
13 There shall not an hand touch 19 And when the voice of the it, but he shall surely be stoned, or trumpet sounded long, and waxed shot through ; whether it be beast or louder and louder, Moses spake, and
man, it shall not live: when the God answered him by a voice.
upon mount Sinai, on the top of the
21 And the LORD said unto
Lord to gaze, and many of them
The people cannot come up to mount
it into God's sight: it envenometh both our persons and of Egypt. Moses therefore stood single: he had not a our services, and turns our good into evil. Ás therefore person to assist him, except the great God of all, by we must be always holy, so most, when we present our-whose command he acted, and by whom the law was selves to the holy eyes of our Creator. And if we must enforced. Bryant. be sanctified to receive the Law, how holy must we be to the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud ;] The receive the grace promised in the Gospel! Bp. Hall. angels, the ministers of heaven and attendants on the
11.- the Lord will come down] From heaven “upon Divine Majesty, summoned the people by a voice resem, mount Sinai.” The Scripture, suiting itself to man's bling that of a trumpet, but loud and terrible beyond all common way of speaking and thinking, assigns to God human art or expression. Pyle. such things as are only proper to the effects. Thus it is 19. — Moses spake,] We read at Heb. xii. 21, “ So said, that God should come down” upon the mountain, terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly because He made his presence more visible there by sen- fear and quake:” which words are judiciously referred sible and surprising effects. Stackhouse.
to this place. Bp. Patrick. 16.- that there were thunders and lightnings, &c.] 22. — the priests] Perhaps the principal and most Such was the splendid and terrifick appearance, in which honourable persons in the several tribes. Bp. Patrick. it pleased God to manifest Himself to the people. The Or those who ministered in holy things before Aaron whole was calculated to produce a proper reverence and and his sons were consecrated. Bp. Kidder. Or posfear, and make the people more ready to receive the law, sibly Aaron and his sons, who were shortly to be conseand to obey it, when delivered. For the law was of such crated. Dr. Wells. a nature, and contained such painful rites and ceremo If the law were given with such majesty and terrour, nies, and injunctions seemingly so unnecessary and how shall it be required? If such were the proclamation without meaning, that no people would have conformed of God's statutes, what shall the judgment be? I see, to it, or even permitted it to take place, if there had not and tremble at the resemblance. The trumpet of the been these terrours and this sanction to enforce it. A angel called unto the one; the voice of an archangel, the meaning certainly there was in every rite and ordinance: trumpet of God, shall summon us to the other. To the yet, as it was a secret to them, there was nothing which one, Moses, that climbed up the hill, and alone saw it, could have made them submit, but the immediate hand says, “God came with ten thousands of his saints :" in of Heaven. A shepherd of Midian could never have the other, “thousand thousands shall minister to him, brought about so great a work, though he had been and ten thousand times ten thousand shall stand before joined by Aaron his brother, and all the elders of Israel. him.” In the one, mount Sinai only was on a flame; all
But Aaron was so far from co-operating, that, even while the world shall be so, in the other. In the one there were the law was giving, while the cloud was still upon Sinai, fire, smoke, thunder, and lightning: in the other, a fiery he yielded to the importunities of the people, and made a stream shall issue from Him, wherewith the heavens golden calf, and suffered them to lapse into the idolatry shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt away
Moses descendeth from the mount. EXODUS.
The ten commandments. Sinai : for thou chargest us, saying,
CHRIST Set bounds about the mount, and
1 The ten commandments. 18 The people ure
afraid. 20 Moses comforteth them. 22 Ido-
Egypt, out of the house of + bondage. + Heb. ser25 So Moses went down unto the 3 Thou shalt have no other gods people, and spake unto them.
Ps. 81. 10.
with a noise. O God, how powerful art Thou to inflict presents the two great grounds or motives on which vengeance upon sinners, who didst thus forbid sin! And God required the obedience of the Jews. 1st, That He if Thou wert so terrible a Lawgiver, what a Judge shalt was “the Lord their God;” and 2ndly, That He had Thou appear. Bp. Hall.
“ brought them out of the land of Egypt, out of the
house of bondage.” These reasons extend to us ChristChap. XX. ver. 1. And God spake all these words,] ians, no less, if not more, than they did to the Jews. Or precepts, as the Hebrew term sometimes signifies. For we are the “spiritual Israel, and heirs of the proBp. Patrick. Though the Ten Commandments which mises.” He is the “ LORD our God,” by a more excelfollow were given to the Jews particularly, yet the lent covenant than He was their's. He has brought us things contained in them are such, as all mankind out of that slavery, of which the Jews' Egyptian bondfrom the beginning were bound to observe. And there- age was but a type. And He has prepared for us an infore even under the Mosaick dispensation they, and the heritance in heaven, in comparison of which their land tables on which they were engraven, and the ark in of Canaan is of no account, Rom. ii. 28, 29; 1 Cor. x. which they were put, were distinguished from the rest 18; Gal. iii. 23. 26; vi. 16; Phil. iï. 3; Heb. viï. 6. of God's ordinances by a peculiar regard, as containing 8; Luke i. 74, 75; Gal. iv. 26; Heb. xii. 22. Abp. Wake. the covenant of the Lord. And though the Mosaick 3. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.] The dispensation be now at an end, yet concerning these same reasons, which prove that God is, prove that there moral precepts of it our Saviour declares, that "one jot is but one God. And what reason teaches in this mator one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all ter, Scripture every where confirms; forbidding us to be fulfilled,” Matt. v. 18. Accordingly we find both worship or believe in any other deity than the one Him and his Apostles quoting these Ten Command Maker and Ruler of heaven and earth, who hath maniments as matter of perpetual obligation to Christians; fested Himself to all men by the works of his hands; to who are now, as the Jews were formerly, “ the Israel of the Patriarchs and Jews, by the revelations recorded in God,” Gal. vi. 16.
Moses, and the Prophets; and finally, to Christians, by To comprehend the full extent of these Command his Son, our Lord, who, in a way and manner to us ments, it will be requisite to observe the following rules. inconceivable, is one with the Father, and the Holy Where any sin is forbidden in them, the opposite duty Spirit with both. Abp. Secker. is implicitly enjoined; and where any duty is enjoined, The first Commandment, which concerns the acknowthe opposite sin is implicitly forbidden. Where the ledgment of God, forbids these sins. 1. The sin of highest degree of any thing evil is prohibited; whatever atheists, who acknowledge no God, Ps. xiv. 1. 2. The is faulty in the same kind, though in a lower degree, is sin of such as serve false gods, Gal. iv. 8. 3. The sin by consequence prohibited. And where one instance of of such as serve not the true God only, and aright, virtuous behaviour is commanded, every other, that 2 Kings xvii. 33, 34. It also enjoins these duties : 1. hath the same nature, and the same reason for it, is That we acknowledge but one God, Mark xii. 32., 2. understood to be commanded too. What we are ex- That we have the only true God for our God, I Cor. pected to abstain from, we are expected to avoid, as far viii. 6; which must appear by our loving, fearing, trustas we can, all temptations to it, and occasions of it: and ing in, and obeying Him above all others, Mark xii. 30; what we are expected to practise, we are expected to use Ps. ii. 11; Prov. iii. 5; Acts v. 29. Oxford Catechism. all fit means, that may better enable us to practise it. All, no other gods] There is not, nor does this Comthat we are bound to do ourselves, we are bound, on mandment at all suppose that there is any other God fitting occasions, to exhort and assist others to do, when besides the Lord. Abp. Wake. But before and long it belongs to them; and all, that we are bound not to after the law of Moses was given, the generality of the do, we are to tempt nobody else to do, but keep them world entertained a belief that there were many gods; back from it, as much as we have opportunity. The a great number of beings, superiour to men, that Ten Commandments, excepting two that required amongst them governed the world, and were fit objects enlargement, are delivered in few words ; which brief of devotion. To these, as their own fancy, or the folly manner of speaking hath great majesty in it. But ex- and fraud of others led them, they ascribed more or less plaining them according to these rules, which are na both of power and goodness; attributed to several of tural and rational in themselves, favoured by ancient them the vilest actions, that could be; supposed them Jewish writers, authorized by our blessed Saviour, and to preside some over one nation or city, some over anocertainly designed by the makers of our Church Cate- ther; worshipped a few or a multitude of them just as chism to be used in expounding it; we shall find, that they pleased, and that with a strange variety of ceremothere is no part of the moral law, but may be fitly ranked nies, absurd and impious, immoral and barbarous. under them. Abp. Secker.
Amidst this crowd of imaginary deities, the real God 2. I am the Lord thy God, &c.] This is a general was almost entirely forgot; false religion and irreligion preface or introduction to the Commandments; and re- divided the world between them; and wickedness of
The ten commandments.
The ten commandments. 4 b Thou shalt not make unto thee visiting the iniquity of the fathers
any graven image, or any likeness of upon the children unto the third and b Lev. 26.1. any thing that is in heaven above, or fourth generation of them that hate
that is in the earth beneath, or that me;
5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself sands of them that love me, and keep
my commandments. LORD thy God am a jealous God, °7 Thou shalt not take the name Matt. 5. 33.
Ps. 97. 7.
c Lev. 19. 12. Deut. 5. 11.
every kind was authorized by both. The cure for these the fidelity which we have vowed to Him; and fall into dreadful evils must plainly be, restoring the old true those grievous immoralities, which St. Paul describes notion of one only God, ruling the world Himself; as the consequences of idolatry, Rom. i. 21–32, and which therefore was the first great article of the Jewish which have been its consequences in all times and faith, as it is of our's. Abp. Secker.
places. Abp. Secker. before me.] Rather “besides me.” As much risiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the chilas if He had said, Thou shalt love nothing as God, be- dren] It cannot consist with the justice of God, to fore me; worship nothing as God, before me. Serve punish one person for the sin of another; neither does nothing as God, before me. Bp. Beveridge.
God threaten any such thing. But God, who is the 4. Thou shalt not make unto thee &c.] In this second great Lord of the whole world, may so punish a man Commandment, which concerns the worship of God, are for his sins, that the temporal evil of it may reach, not forbidden these sins : 1. The appointing of any kind of to himself alone, but to his posterity also. As in the image for religious worship, Lev. xxvi. 1. 2. The wor case of high treason, the father, by forfeiting his honour shipping of such an image or any other creature, Rev. and estate, brings the ill consequence of his crime upon xxii. 8, 9. 3. The neglect of the worship of the true his family, as well as upon himself; and the prince, by God, Rom. i. 25. 4. The worshipping of Him after a enacting the penalty of the law, may justly be said to false manner, Matt. xv. 8, 9. Because the Lord is a visit the children, for the offence which the father comjealous God, Is. xlii. 8; and a severe punisher of idola- mitted. The meaning of this part of the commandment ters, Deut. viii. 19. In the same Commandment are is this: God had, in general, promised to the Jews temenjoined these duties : 1. That God only be religiously poral blessings, to encourage their obedience; and had worshipped, Matt. iv. 10. 2. That He be worshipped, denounced present evils against them, to keep them from both in body and spirit, Ps. xcv. 6; John iv. 23. And to sinning. But to set a particular mark of his indigsuch worshippers, who thus love and obey the Lord, nation on the sin of idolatry, He thought fit to declare, He hath promised his especial mercy, John ix. 31. that if they offended in this matter, He would not only Oxford Catechism.
severely punish them Himself, but would deliver them graven image, or any likeness] The Hebrew up into the hands of their enemies, who should oppress word, translated “ graven image," properly signifies a both them and their children after them ; whereas if statue made of wood or stone; that translated "like- they continued firm to his worship, though otherwise ness, means a picture drawn on a wall or flat surface. they should be guilty of many lesser crimes, yet He Bp. Palrick.
would not cast them off from his favour, but on the This Commandment seems to have been framed with contrary would bless both them and their posterity with a view to the worship of Egypt. To any people, who plenty and prosperity all their days. This I take to had not been conversant in that country, it had been have been the literal meaning of the present denunsufficient to say, “Thou shalt make no graven image, ciation; and how exactly it was made good to them, nor frame any similitude of things.” But the Com- their history sufficiently declares to us, 1 Kings xi. 31 mandment is dilated, and the nature of the objects -35; xiv. 22, 23. 25; xv. 29, 30; 2 Kings xxii. 17; pointed out, for the sake of the Israelites. They were xxiv. 3. Compare xxi. 3 ; Lam. v. 7. Abp. Wake. not to make to themselves an “image or likeness of any 6. unto thousands] That is, to the thousandth gething that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth be- neration, as the passage is judiciously rendered by the neath, or that is in the water under the earth ;” nor Syriack version and Chaldee paraphrase ; supported by were they to “bow down to, or worship them,” either the parallel passages, Deut. vii. 9; 1 Chron. xvi. 15. real or represented. By this is intimated, that they Dr. Hales. See note on Deut. vii. 9. were not to make a likeness of the sun, or of the moon; love me, and keep my commandments.] The keepof man, or of beast; of fly, or creeping thing; of fish, or ing of God's commandments is the best argument that of crocodile, “which are in the waters beneath.” How we love Him. Bp. Kidder. prone the Israelites were to this symbolical worship, 7. Thou shalt not take the name &c.] In this third and how necessary it was to give them warning, may be Commandment, which concerns the name of God, are seen by the threat, and by the blessings which imme- forbidden these sins: 1. Irreverent thoughts of God, diately follow. Bryant. See the note on Deut. iv. 18. Job i. 5. 2. Blasphemy, or dishonourable mention of 5. - a jealous God,] Jealous of the honour due to his name, Rev. xiii
. 6. 3. False swearing in avouching Him alone, not bearing any rival or partner in what be- an untruth, Zech. viii. 17. 4. Perjury, or breaking a longs to Him alone. Dr. Wells. I am a jealous God: lawful oath, Matt. v. 33. 5. Causing the name of God, I am so affected to you my people, as a loving husband and our holy profession, to be blasphemed by others, to his wife, whom he cannot endure to set her affections Rom. ii. 24. And such sins God Himself hath especially on another. Bp. Hall. Not jealous for Himself, lest threatened to punish, 2 Sam. xii. 14. In the same He should suffer for the follies of his creatures; that Commandment are enjoined these duties : 1. To think cannot be: but jealous for “his spouse, the church ;” and speak reverently of the names and attributes of lest our notions of his nature and attributes, and con- God, Ps. ciii. 1, 2. 2. To glorify Him in his holy word sequently of the duties which we owe to Him, being and ordinances, that bear his name, Acts xiii. 48. 3. depraved, and our minds darkened with superstitious To use his name with reverence in taking religious persuasions, and fears, and hopes, we should depart from oaths, Deut. vi. 13. 4. To observe such oaths with re
e Gen, 2. 2.
The ten commandments.
The ten commandments. of the LORD thy God in vain; for cattle, nor thy stranger that is within the Lord will not hold him guiltless thy gates : that taketh his name in vain.
11 For ein six days the LORD 8 Remember the sabbath day, to made heaven and earth, the sea, and keep it holy.
all that in them is, and rested the se9 a Six days shalt thou labour, and venth day: wherefore the LORD blessLuke 13. 14. do all thy work :
ed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. 10 But the seventh day is the 12 q 'Honour thy father and thy (Deut. 5. 16. sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it mother : that thy days may be long Ephes. 6. 2. thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor upon the land which the Lord thy thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man- God giveth thee. servant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy 13 & Thou shalt not kill.
d Ch. 23. 12. Ezek. 20. 12.
g Matt. 5. 21.
ligious care and conscience, Heb. vi. 16; Ezek. xvii. 18, verer by Jesus Christ our Lord: who, on the first day 19; Ps. xv. 4. 5. To glorify God by a Christian con of the week, rose from the dead, and thereby put an end versation, 1 Tim. vi. 1. Oxford Catechism.
to the Jewish dispensation. And in testimony of this, the Lord will not hold him guiltless &c.] But we keep the first day of the week for our sabbath, acwill certainly punish him, unless prevented by sincere cording to the practice of the Apostles; and so profess repentance. Dr. Wells. God declares, that He will se- ourselves to be the servants of the true God, through verely punish such sinners as take his name in vain, the covenant which He has been pleased to make with and will not suffer his name to be profaned by them, mankind in Christ Jesus our Lord. Abp. Wake. without bringing upon them some exemplary vengeance 12. Honour thy father and thy mother :] In this Comfor their presumption. If it be asked, How then comes mandment, which is the commandment of relations, are it to pass, that such persons do often escape without enjoined the mutual duties of inferiours and superiours. any such exemplary mark of God's vengeance? we From children to parents is required honour, which imanswer, We are not to call God to account for his plies, 1. Fear, Lev. xix. 3. 2. Reverence, Gen. xxxi. actions. It is enough that He has assured us, that 35. 3. Obedience, Eph. vi. 1, 2. And, 4. Mainten“He will not hold such persons guiltless ;” and that ance, 1 Tim. v. 4. And the contrary vices are fortherefore every such sinner must either repent, in a very bidden, Lev. xx. 9. This Commandment concerns not singular manner, of his offence in taking God's name in only natural Parents, but extends also to Magistrates in vain; or he shall assuredly be punished with an extra- the state, Rom. xii. 1, &c. Ministers in the church, ordinary severity for it, either in this life or in the Heb. xiii
. 17, and Masters in families, 2 Kings v. 13; other. Abp. Wake.
Eph. vi. 5, 6; who are also called fathers. The reci8. Remember the sabbath day,] See the note on procal duties of superiours to inferiours are likewise chap. xvi. 23. In this Commandment, which concerns required in this Commandment ; namely, of natural the sabbath of the Lord, is enjoined an especial attend- Parents, Eph. vi. 4; Magistrates, Ps. Lxxviii. 70, 71; ance upon God's services on that day, such as, 1. Ministers, 1 Pet. v. 2; and Masters, Col. iv. 1. And Prayer, Acts xvi. 13. 2. Dispensing and receiving his the contrary vices are forbidden. And here are also word, Acts xii. 44. 3. Partaking in his sacrament, enjoined the mutual duties of husbands and wives, Acts xx. 7. 4. Relieving of his saints, 1 Cor. xvi. 1, 1 Pet. iii. 1. 7. Oxford Catechism. 2. And, 5. Meditating upon his works of creation that thy days &c.] That God may give thee a and redemption, Ps. xcii. 1, 2; Deut. v. 15. In the long and happy life in this thy, promised land upon same Commandment are forbidden our worldly under- earth; and an eternal life, figured by the other, in that takings and employments on this holy day, Is. Iviï. 13; true land of rest which is above. Bp. Hall. Were but Neh. xiii. 15; excepting such as concern works of piety, all the duties enjoined by this Commandment conscicharity, and necessity, Matt. xii. 5; Luke vi. 9; xiv. 5. entiously observed by all the world, how happy a place Oxford Catechism.
would it be! And whoever will faithfully do their own the sabbath day,] The day of rest. The word part of them, they shall be happy, whether others will “ sabbath means rest.
do their part or not: and this Commandment assures 10. -- thy stranger] Foreigners, who, by being cir- them of it; “ that thy days may be long upon the land circumcised, had embraced the Jewish religion. Bp. Pa- which the Lord thy God giveth thee.” In all probatrick.
bility, if we obey his laws, and that now before us in 11. For in six days &c.] This Commandment is as particular, both longer and more prosperous will our obligatory upon us, as it ever was upon the Jews, days prove in this land of our pilgrimage, in which God though not exactly after the same manner. We wor- has placed us to sojourn : but, without all question, ship, as they did, the God, who “in six days created eternal and infinite shall our felicity be in that land of the heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, promise, the heavenly Canaan ; which He hath apand rested the seventh day;" and in acknowledgment pointed for our inheritance. Abp. Secker. thereof, we stand obliged with them, to keep a seventh 13. Thou shalt not kill.] In this sixth Commandday of rest, after six of labour. But then, as wor-ment, which concerns man's life, are forbidden these shipped this God under the peculiar character of "the sins : 1. Hatred, 1 John iii. 15. 2. Causeless and God, who brought them out of the land of Egypt, out revengeful anger, Matt. v. 21, 22. 3. Grievous reof the house of bondage," so were they directed to take proaches, Ps. Ixiv. 3. 4 Occasion of bloodshed, Deut. that particular day, the seventh of the week, for their xxii. 8. 5. Contrivance of man's death, 2 Sam. xii. 9. sabbath, upon which He completed their deliverance ; | 6. Actual and wilful murder, Exod. xxi. 14. In the and strictly to abstain from all bodily labour upon it. same Commandment is enjoined the preservation of Now in this respect we differ from them. We worship man's life: 1. By a seasonable and moderate use of God, the Creator of the world, under a much higher and God's creatures ordained for that end, Eccles. x. 17; more Divine character; as He is our Father and Deli-. 1 Tim. v. 23. 2. By a prudent avoiding of dangers,
h Rom. 7. 7.
i Hebr. 12. 18.
The ten commandments.
The people are afraid. Before
14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. the noise of the trumpet, and the
mountain smoking: and when the
stood afar off. 17 à Thou shalt not covet thy 19 And they said unto Moses, neighbour's house, thou shalt not Speak thou with us, and we will k Deut. 5. 27. covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his hear: but let not God speak with us, manservant, nor his maidservant, nor lest we die. his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing 20 And Moses said unto the peothat is thy neighbour's.
ple, Fear not: for God is come to 18 9 Ảnd all the people saw the prove you, and that his fear may be thunderings, and the lightnings, and before your faces, that
sin not. Matt. x. 23. 3. By flying all sins; and particularly which are here prohibited. This Commandment theremurder and uncleanness, Ps. lv. 23, which are noted to fore was intended, partly to strengthen the foregoing be especially destructive to the body and soul of him ones; and partly also, to make provision for every perthat commits them, Prov. v. 11; vi. 32. Oxford Cate- son's just character on its own account, as well as for chism. These commands are only short summaries of the sake of consequences. Abp. Secker. our moral duty; under one or more principal instances In this Commandment, which concerns man's good comprehending all other plain particulars of it. Pyle. name, are forbidden these sins: 1. Lies, Eph. iv. 25.
- kill.] Killing in some cases is not murder; 2. Groundless jealousies, 1 Sam. xxii. 13. 3. The nor forbidden by God: such as the execution of justice, raising, taking up, or divulging of false or malicious after a lawful manner, for a suitable offence, and by a reports, Exod. xxii. 1; Ps. xv. 3; Prov. x. 12; Lev. lawful magistrate; the killing of an enemy in a just war; xix. 16. 4. The suborning or encouraging of false witthe killing of another for the necessary defence of a nesses, 1 Kings xxi. 9, 10. In the same Commandment man's own life: to which under the Law were added are enjoined these duties, which maintain veracity and some other cases, with which we are not concerned now charity, Eph. iv. 15. 1. To love and speak the truth, under the Gospel. Abp. Wake.
Zech. viii. 19; Eph. iv. 25. 2. To preserve our own 14. Thou shalt not commit adultery.] In this seventh reputation, Phil. iv. 8. 3. Seasonably to vindicate ourCommandment, which concerns man's chastity, are for- selves, and our innocent neighbours, Acts xxv. 8; Luke bidden adulterous or lascivious thoughts, Matt. v. 27, xxiii. 41; 1 Sam. xix. 4, 5. 4. To cover the infirmities 28 ; looks, 2 Pet. ii. 14; attire, Prov. vii. 10; words, of others, Prov. xvii. 9. Oxford Catechism. Eph. iv. 29; v.3; and acts of adultery and fornication, 17. Thou shalt not covet &c.] In this tenth ComGal. v. 19; as also unlawful marriages, Luke xvi. 18. mandment, which especially concerns man's desires, are Besides these sins more directly against this Command- forbidden: 1. In general, sinful lusts, and the first moment, are herein also forbidden such sins as give occa- tion of general corruption, Col. iii. 5, 6; Gal. v. 17; sion to these : idleness; excess in eating and drinking; Jam. i. 14. 2. In particular, the coveting of our neighand the like. In the same Commandment are enjoined bour's house, wife, servants, and other goods belonging chastity and modesty in thoughts, 1 Thess. iv. 4, 5; be- to him, Mic. ii. 2; Jer. v. 7, 8; Acts xx. 33. In the haviour, 1 Pet. iii. 2; and apparel, 1 Tim. ii. 9; as also same Commandment are enjoined these duties: 1. To sobriety and vigilance, 1 Pet. v. 8. Oxford Catechism. regulate our affections, 1 Cor. ix. 25. 2. To restrain The sin of adultery under the Law was punished with sinful desires, Tit. ii. 12. 3. To be content with our death, Lev. xx. 10; Deut. xxii. 22; and that not only present estate, Heb. xiii
. 5. Oxford Catechism. upon a civil account, as being most injurious to society ; This last Commandment is very important; and is but also typically, to denote what such persons are to indeed the guard and security of all the preceding ones. expect from God in the other world, even death eternal. For our actions will never be right habitually, till our Abp. Wake.
desires are so. Or, if they could, our Maker demands 15. Thou shall not steal.] In this eighth Command the whole man, as He surely well may; nor, till that is ment, which concerns man's goods, are forbidden these devoted to Him, are we “meet to be partakers of the sins: 1. Covetous desires, Ps. cxix. 36. 2. Bribery, inheritance of the saints in light.” Abp. Secker. Is. i. 23. 3. Withholding other men's dues, James v. This Commandment stamps the seal of divinity upon 4. 4. Defrauding, or deceitful stealth, 1 Thess. iv. 6. the Mosaical code, of which the Decalogue is the sum5. Oppression, or violent robbery, Luke_ ii. 14. 6. mary. No such restriction is to be found in the OrdiSacrilege, or robbing of God, Mal. i. 8. In the same nances of Lycurgus, or Solon, the Twelve Tables, or Commandment are enjoined these duties : 1. To give to the institutes of Justinian: because the thoughts and all their dues, Rom. xiii. 7. 2. To live in a lawful call- desires of the heart are not cognizable by human triing, Eph. iv. 28. 3. To be diligent in that calling, 2 bunals. This was a case reserved for Him alone, who Thess. iii. 11, 12. 4. To restore that which hath been both can and will bring every work into judgment, stolen, Ezek. xxxiii. 15. 5. To give charitably to the with every secret thing, whether it be good or evil,” poor, Prov. iii. 27, 28. 6. To avoid the company of Eccles. xii. 14; because He is a discoverer “of the the breakers of this law, Prov. xxix. 24. Oxford Čate- thoughts and intents of the heart,” 1 Sam. xvi. 7; Heb. chism.
iv. 12. The Law therefore “was our schoolmaster to 16. Thou shalt not bear false witness &c.] The ninth bring us to Christ;" who in his Gospel has so finely Commandment is connected with every one of the four commented on the tenth Commandment in particular, which precede it. For neither the duties of superiours Matt. v. 28. 30: and who inculcates obedience to all and inferiours, nor those among equals, could be tole- his laws from an inward principle : requiring us to rably practised; neither the lives of men, nor their “shew the work of the law written in our hearts," happiness in the nearest relation of life, nor their pos- Rom. ii. 15. Dr. Hales. sessions and properties could ever be secure; if they 20. — God is come to prove you,] God intends, by were left exposed to those injuries of a licentious tongue this dreadful appearance, to discover unto yourselves