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b Deut. 11.1 24.
God promiseth to assist Joshua.
The tribes promise obedience. 2 Moses my servant is dead; now 9 Have not I commanded thee? therefore arise, go over this Jordan, Be strong and of a good courage; be thou, and all this people, unto the not afraid, neither be thou dismayed: land which I do give to them, even to for the LORD thy God is with thee the children of Israel.
whithersoever thou goest.
I given unto you, as I said unto 11 Pass through the host, and
command the people, saying, Prepare
12 And to the Reubenites, and
thy life : as I was with Moses, so I 13 Remember f the word which f Numb. 82. c Hebr. 13. 5. will be with thee: I will not fail Moses the servant of the LORD comthee, nor forsake thee.
manded you, saying, The LORD your
land which Moses gave you on this
Moses my servant commanded thee: them;
to the left, that thou mayest || prosper your brethren rest, as he hath given
you, and they also have possessed the
saying, All that thou commandest us
d Deut. 31. 23. || Or, thou shalt cause this people to inherit the land, &c.
& 28. 14. 1. Or, do wisely.
I. Or, do wisely.
four, when, on the present occasion, after Moses' death, Joshua to be strong and courageous,” not only against he was commanded to pass over Jordan and take pos- the heathen, who were his outward enemies, but also in session of the promised land. Dr. Hales.
steadily persevering to obey the Divine commands, and 2. -- this Jordan,] Within sight of which they lay to enforce similar obedience in those who were placed encamped, and which flowed between them and the land under his government. Dr. Wells. of Canaan. Bp. Patrick.
7.- turn not from it &c.] This is a metaphor taken 4. From the wilderness &c.] From the wilderness of from men on a journey, who go straight forward Zin, which was the boundary on the south, and this in the plain highway, and turn not aside into bymountain, Lebanon, (so high that the top of it was seen paths, which lead they know not whither. Bp. Pafrom the place where they then were,) which was the trick. boundary on the north, to the river Euphrates, which 11.- within three days] The Hebrew word may be bounded the extent of the dominions of the Israelites rendered, and ought to be rendered, after three days, on the east, (which afterwards came to pass in the days for it is evident from chap. iii. 2, that the Israelites of David and Solomon,) and to the Mediterranean sea, passed not over Jordan till after three days, namely, the which bounded it on the west, or towards the going next day after. Dr. Wells. down of the sun. Dr. Wells.
14. — all the mighty men] It appears that Joshua the. Hittites,] As these were a very powerful picked out the ablesť warriours ; for it is evident they people inhabiting the country, some of which were of did not all go over, but only 40,000 of them. See Josh. the race of the giants ; they are therefore particularly iv. 13. The rest, though fit for war, were left to defend mentioned, to shew that the most terrible people should their wives, children, and flocks, while those mighty not stand before Joshua. Bp. Patrick.
men of valour went to help their brethren. Bp. 6. Be strong and of a good courage :] He commands Patrick.
a Hebr. 11.
Rahab receiveth the two spies
CHAP. I, II.
sent out from Shittim.
came into an harlot's house, named
of Israel to search out the country.
4 And the woman took the two
men, and hid them, and said thus, CHAP. II.
There came men unto me, but I wist
spies sent from Shittim. 8 The covenant be 5 And it came to pass about the time
dark, that the men went out: whither
Chap. II. ver. 1. And Joshua-sent out of Shittim] Lord of heaven and earth had given that land to IsRather, hud sent, before the directions given to the offi- rael
, and she acted under a full persuasion of it; which cers, as mentioned in the last chapter. This best agrees faith of her’s is that commended at Heb. xi. Therefore, with ver. 22 of this chapter, and with the rest of the not doubting but that the God of the universe had an narrative. Shittim was in the plains of Moab, where uncontrollable right to set up, or to pull down; and to the Israelites now lay encamped, and where they had dispose of all kingdoms and countries, according to his remained about two months, ever since the conquest of good pleasure, she judged it reasonable to obey God Sihon and Og Bp. Patrick.
rather than man; and therefore she endeavoured, as - into an harlot's house, named Rahab,] Rahab much as in her lay, to deliver up the land to the true probably kept a publick house or inn, for the enter- owners, to those whom God had made the rightful protainment of strangers, by going into which the spies prietors. She would have been treacherous both to thought that they would be less suspected of any design. God and to them, if she had not done it, when she Bp. Patrick. She is called harlot, either because per- knew, as she expressly says, that the Lord had given sons who kept publick houses in those days often made them the land. Dr. Waterland. On the supposition their persons as common as their houses, or because that Rahab acted on this occasion in conformity with Rahab had formerly been of this description, although the intimation she had received of God's design towards she was now converted to better sentiments. Pyle. °It the inhabitants of Canaan, her whole conduct will not cannot be denied, that in ancient times there was great only stand clear of every criminal imputation, but be affinity between the business of an hostess and a highly commendable, and justly deserve a rank among harlot'; for this reason perhaps it is, that in the Hebrew those illustrious patterns which the Apostle proposes tongue the same word đenotes persons of both profes- to our imitation, as being a person justified not only by sions. For the same reason, the Septuagint, or Greek her faith, but also by her works, James ii. 25. Stacktranslators, have given Rahab the appellation of a har- house. lot; and the two Apostles, St. Paul and St. James, It is probable that Rahab was informed by an express (Heb. xi. 31, and James ii. 25,) make use of the same revelation of the will of God on this occasion, and acted expression, from this translation. It is to be observed in obedience to it, or she could not have been an inhowever, that, as the expression is capable of another stance of the faith, which the inspired writer mentions sense, the Chaldee paraphrast calls her by a word which in the Epistle to the Hebrews. If she had proceeded signifies a woman who keeps a publick house, without any only on a general report respecting the people, who mark of infamy. Therefore, charity should incline us were invading the land, being raised up and supported to think the best of a person, whom both these Apos- by the miraculous power of God, her conduct would tles have ranked with Abraham, the father of the faith- not have been justified; her concealment of the spies ful, and propounded as an example of faith and good would have been treachery to her country, and might works. Rahab was afterwards married to Salmon, a at last have proved an unavailing as well as a wicked prince of Judah ; and king David descended from her : action. But, on the other hand, if the design of God so that Jesus Christ did not disdain to reckon this towards the inhabitants of Canaan had been made known Canaanitish woman among his ancestors. Stackhouse. to the king and people of Jericho; and he and they,
4.- I wist not whence they were:] In judging of though sufficiently warned to save themselves from deRahab's conduct on this occasion in telling an untruth, struction, refused to be guided by the warning, while we should remember, that she had sufficient intimations Rahab on their refusal believed, and obediently acted of what God intended for his people Israel ; and she according to what was required of her, her whole beexpressed her faith in Him, by saying, “The Lord your haviour will then stand clear of every imputation, and God, he is God in heaven above, and in earth beneath.” her faith will be such as the Apostle might justly comSee ver. 11. She was deeply sensible, that the high mend. Shuckford.
The covenant between
Rahab and the spies. 6 But she had brought them up to 1 13 And that
they have, and deliver our lives from
when the LORD hath given us the
15 Then she let them down by a
fallen upon us, and that all the in 16 And she said unto them, Get + Heb. melt. habitants of the land + faint because you to the mountain, lest the pur
suers meet you; and hide yourselves io For we have heard how the there three days, until the pursuers » Exod. 14. Lord dried up the water of the Red be returned: and afterward may ye
when ye came out of go your way;
two kings of the Amorites, that were We will be blameless of this thine oath c Numb. 21. on the other side Jordan, · Sihon and which thou hast made us swear.
Og, whom ye utterly destroyed. 18 Behold, when we come into the
11 And as soon as we had heard land, thou shalt bind this line of these things, our hearts did melt, nei- scarlet thread in the window which ther t did there remain any more thou didst let us down by: and thou courage in any man, because of you; shalt + bring thy father, and thy mo- + Heb. gather. for the Lord your God, he is God ther, and thy brethren, and all thy in heaven above, and in earth be- father's houshold, home unto thee. neath.
19 And it shall be, that whosoever 12 Now therefore, I pray you, shall go out of the doors of thy house swear unto me by the Lord, since I into the street, his blood shall be upon have shewed you kindness, that ye his head, and we will be guiltless : will also shew kindness unto my fa- and whosoever shall be with thee in ther's house, and give me a true the house, his blood shall be on our token :
head, if any hand be
+ Heb. тозе ир.
6. – to the roof of the house,] The houses in Eastern He rules and governs all things according to his pleacountries had flat roofs, so that men might walk or lie sure. This is her faith, celebrated by the Apostle to upon them. The stalks of flax were either newly cut the Hebrews, which moved her to entertain the spies, and laid upon the roof of the house to be dried by the and to preserve them with the danger of her own life, sun, till they were fit to be peeled; or they had been if she had been discovered. Bp. Patrick. cut the year before, and were now made use of by 14.- Our life for your's,] They here pledge their Rahab to make the king's officers think that nobody lives for her's (swearing to her, as appears from ver. had gone upon the roof where the stalks were. Bp. 17,) and wish they might perish themselves if they perPatrick. In the East, they still use the roofs of their formed not what she desired; provided, on the other houses for drying raisins, flowers, &c. Harmer. hand, she and her kindred did not make known the
9. I know that the Lord &c.] She here tells them business they came about, and the agreement they had the reasons for which she had ventured on an action made with her. Dr. Wells. so contrary to the common interests of her native coun 15. — she dwelt upon the wall.] The meaning protry, and to the duties of a subject towards her prince; bably is, that the apartment she reserved to herself was namely, that in reality she was a servant of the same next to the wall, and built upon it; the rest of her one Almighty God with themselves : for that the plain house towards the street being kept for strangers. This and evident demonstrations of his power and justice gave her the fair opportunity, without any noise, to let in the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, &c. them down. Bp. Patrick. had fully convinced her that the same irresistible arm 17. – We will be blameless] Meaning, that the fault would undoubtedly give the whole country into the should not be their's, if this oath were not duly kept. hands of his chosen people, as a punishment on the Bp. Patrick. sins of these Canaanitish nations. Pyle.
18. — scarlet thread] It is probable that this was 11.- is God in heaven] This is a plain confession of something more than a mere thread or line, as it was the true God, the Creator of heaven and earth ; wherein distinguished from a distance when hung in a window,
+ Heb. since
Numb. 11. 18.
Joshua cometh to Jordan.
CHAP. II, III.
The Lord encourageth him. 20 And if thou utter this our busi- then ye shall remove from your place, ness, then we will be quit of thine and go after it. oath which thou hast made us to 4 Yet there shall be a space beswear.
and it, about two thousand
5 And Joshua said unto the peo- the third day.
covenant, and pass over before the
Joshua, This day will I begin to
the inhabitants of the country do 8 And thou shalt command the + Heb. melt. + faint because of us.
priests that bear the ark of the coveCHAP. III.
nant, saying, When ye are come to
the brink of the water of Jordan, ye
struct the people for the passage. 7 The
the words of the LORD
ND Joshua rose early in the 10 And Joshua said, Hereby, ye
morning; and they removed shall know that the living God 'is from Shittim, and came to Jordan, among you, and that he will without he and all the children of Israel, and fail drive out from before you the lodged there before they passed over. Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the
2 And it came to pass after three Hivites, and the Perizzites, and the
and as it was used for lowering the men. Le Clerc would ner as the cloud of glory (which had now left them) translate it, “this tissue of scarlet thread.” Script. used to do; and, as the cloud was wont to keep at illust.
some distance before the camp, so it was now ordered,
that the ark should be followed at the distance of 2000 Chap. III. ver. 1. — early in the morning :] The cubits, (about 800 or 1000 yards,) as the only remainmorning of the last of the three days mentioned at chap. ing symbol of the Divine guidance through the unknown i. 11.
passages of the river. Pyle. The distance from Shittim to Jordan is, according to 5. — Sanctify yourselves :] They were commanded most opinions, seven miles. Bp. Patrick.
to prepare themselves, by the means of sanctification, 3.- priests the Levites] Those of the tribe of Levi, usual on extraordinary occasions, (see Numb. xi. 18; who were priests. The Kohathites had generally the Exod. xix. 10,) for receiving the Divine benefits with charge of the ark, Numb. iii. 28; iv. 15; but now, on proper feelings and meditations. Bp: Patrick. this occasion, the priests are appointed to it. Bp. 10. — Hereby ye shall know that the living God &c.] Patrick, Dr. Wells.
Hereby, that is, by the miraculous passage God is and go after it.] The ark, which in their former about to make for you through Jordan, ye shall know marches was generally wont to go in the middle of the that the living God, that is, the only true God, who camp, Numb. ii. 17, &c. is now appointed to go in has life of Himself, and is the Fountain or Giver of life front, to lead and direct their course, in the same man- to all things, is among you. Dr. Wells.
The waters of Jordan divide.
Twelve stones are set up
ark of the covenant of the LORD stood
1 Twelve men are appointed to take twelve
stones for a memorial out of Jordan. 9 14 ( And it came to pass, when Twelve other stones are set up in the midst the people removed from their tents, of Jordan, 10, 19 The people pass over,
to pass over Jordan, and the priests 14 God magnifieth Joshua. 20 The twelve d Acts 7. 45. bearing the dark of the covenant be
stones are pitched in Gilgal.
people were clean passed a over a Deut. 27. 2.
b Chap. 3. 12. dipped in the brim of the water, (for 2 Take
twelve men out of the e 1 Chron. 12. • Jordan overfloweth all his banks all people, out of every tribe a man, Ecclus.24.26. the time of harvest,)
3 And command ye them, saying, 16 That the waters which came Take you hence out of the midst of down from above stood and rose up Jordan, out of the place where the upon an heap very far from the city priests' feet stood firm, twelve stones, Adam, that is beside Zaretan: and and ye shall carry them over with those that came down toward the sea you, and leave them in the lodging of the plain, even the salt sea, failed, place, where ye shall lodge this night. and were cut off: and the people 4 Then Joshua called the twelve passed over right against Jericho. men, whom he had prepared of the
13.- it shall come to pass,] He tells them of the was done in the noonday, in the face of the sun, and in miracle beforehand, that they might not attribute it to the presence, we may be sure, of the neighbouring inany accidental cause, but solely to God's providence habitants; and struck terrour into the kings of the and power. Dr. S. Clarke.
Amorites and Canaanites, westwards of the river, whose 15. harvest,)] This is meant of barley harvest, “heart melted, neither was there spirit in them any which began about the passover: the snows now melted more, because of the children of Israel,” Josh. v. i. from the neighbouring mountains, particularly of Le- Dr. Hales. banon, at the
foot of which are the springs of Jordan. It requires no argument to prove that this fact was By this overflowing of the river, the miracle was in- miraculous : it was not accidental, or it could not have creased. Bp. Patrick. No modern traveller has seen been foreseen, ver. 5. 10, &c. : it was not natural, for the Jordan in its state of overflowing. Mr. Maundrell the river was at its height, ver. 15; and the waters, that observed that this river has two banks, the first and had been descending, stood on an heap, ver. 16: it outermost of which appears to be that to which the was not the effect of art, for any artificial alteration of overflow reaches. He says, that, after having descended the channel the people must have known; and besides, the outermost bank, they had to go about a furlong on the effect could not have been instantaneous. Dr. the level strand, before they came to the immediate Graves. bank of the river. Now, as the river certainly formed Adam,-Zaretan:] The waters rose in a heap the outermost bank by its inundation, this bank is a “very far from the city Adam,” which was probably lasting testimony that it sometimes overflows. As each situated at a short distance above the place where the ark bank is about a furlong from the bed of the river, and was. As this was but a small place, its situation is the river about twenty yards across, we thus get the further described by adding, “that is beside Zaretan," breadth of water crossed by the Israelites. In propor- being a place of greater note. Dr. Wells. The place tion as the swelling of Jordan was rare, and the security where the Israelites passed the Jordan was called Bethaof the Canaanites increased by it, the passage of the bara, or “the place of passage,” in our Saviour's time, river by the Israelites was a more illustrious instance of John i. 28. Bp. Patrick. Divine interposition. Script. illust.
16. — rose up upon an heap] The waters above were Chap. IV. ver. 3. Take you—out of the midst of made to stand still, rising in a heap, as if they were Jordan,--twelve stones,] It appears that the Jordan congealed. Bp. Patrick. As it is usual for waters to do continued perfectly dry for some time after the Israelites when they are stopt by any common dam. Dr. Wells. had passed over ; that is, till the priests removed from The passage of this deep and rapid, though not wide the place where they stood. They were to take twelve river, at the most unfavourable season, was more ma- stones-great stones, as the Hebrew word imports, as nifestly miraculous, if possible, than that of the “Red big as they could well lift, and carry them to their sea.” It seems therefore to have been providentially lodging-place, that is, to Gilgal, the place where they designed to silence cavils respecting the former; and it lodged that night. Bp. Patrick,