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a man :
1 Heb. to morrow.
in the midst of Jordan.
The people pass over. children of Israel, out of every tribe 11 And it came to pass, when all
the people were clean passed over, 5 And Joshua said unto them, that the ark of the LORD passed over, Pass over before the ark of the LORD and the priests, in the presence of the your God into the midst of Jordan, people, and take you up every man of you a 12 And the children of Reuben, c Numb. 32. stone upon his shoulder, according and the children of Gad, and half unto the number of the tribes of the the tribe of Manasseh, passed over children of Israel :
armed before the children of Israel,
7 Then ye shall answer them, 14 f On that day the LORD magni-
the ark of the testimony, that they
twelve stones out of the midst of the priests, saying, Come ye up out
of the priests' feet were + lifted up Heb.
10 q For the priests which bare of Jordan on the tenth day of the
9. - set up twelve stones in the midst of Jordan,] By 18. --flowed over all his banks,] All this is so paraltering a letter in the Hebrew text, this verse may ticularly taken notice of, to shew that the passage of be rendered, agreeably to some ancient translations, the Israelites was purely owing to the miraculous power “Joshua set up twelve stones from out of the midst of of God; and that the miracle was the greater, on acJordan, from under the place, &c.” Josephus seems count of the passage being made when the river was in to have had no notion of any more than one monument this state. Dr. Wells. set up on this occasion. Shuckford.
19. — the tenth day of the month,] In which same and they are there unto this day.] The stones month they came out of Egypt, on the fifteenth day: so remained until the time when this book was written, that there wanted just five days of forty years since their that is, till a short time before Joshua's death, when he coming from thence, Bp. Patrick. is thought to have composed it. Dr. Wells. Many a 20. And those twelve stones,—did Joshua pitch in great work had God done for Israel which was now for- Gilgal.] We find many publick memorials of the most gotten. Joshua therefore will have monuments of God's signal miracles, which are recorded in the Jewish hismercy, that future ages might be both witnesses and tory, not only in the names given to the places where applauders of the great works of their God. Bp. Hall. they had been wrought, from the event, and at the time,
12.- Reuben, &c.] They were the first that passed but in sensible objects and monuments, set up at the over (according to their engagement, Numb. xxxii. 20, moment the miracles had taken place, and constantly 21. 27, of which Joshua put them in mind, Josh. i. preserved with the most religious reverence. Thus the 13,) ready to encounter any enemy that might have tables of stone in the ark were a monument of the opposed their landing. Bp. Patrick.
miraculous deliverance of the Law at Sinai : the vessel
+ Heb. tomorrow.
Joshua speaketh to the children of Israel. JOSHUA.
The Canaanites are afraid.
An Angel appeareth to Joshua.
kings of the Amorites, which
which were by the sea, heard that the 23 For the Lord your God dried Lord had dried up the waters of Jorup the waters of Jordan from before dan from before the children of Israel, you, until ye were passed over, as the until we were passed over, that their LORD
your God did to the Red sea, heart melted, neither was there spirit d which he dried up from before us, in them any more, because of the until we were gone over :
children of Israel. 24 That all the people of the 2 1 At that time the Lord said earth might know the hand of the unto Joshua, Make thee a || sharp a Exod. 4. 25. LORD, that it is mighty: that ye knives, and circumcise again the chil- of flints.
might fear the LORD your God + for dren of Israel the second time. days.
3 And Joshua made him sharp CHAP. V.
knives, and circumcised the children i The Canaanites are afraid. 2 Joshua re
of Israel at || the hill of the fore- ! Or, Gibeah neweth circumcision. 10 The passover is skins.
d Exod. 14. 21.
+ Heb. all
of manna, of the miraculous food in the wilderness: have taken them at an advantage, as appears from the Aaron's rod that budded, and the censer of Korah and story of the Shechemites, Gen. xxxiv. 25. Bp. Patrick. his company, formed into large plates for covering the - until we were passed over,] The use of the word altar, as a memorial to the children of Israel of their “we” proves that this book was written by Joshua, or offence, and miraculous punishment. The brasen ser- by some one else alive at the time. Bp. Tomline. pent, by looking on which God ordered the people 2. — Muke thee sharp knives, and circumcise again &c.] should be healed of the bites inflicted by the serpents in Make to thee knives of flints, literally: at this day they the wilderness, was preserved even to the days of king circumcise in the East with knives made of stone. The Hezekiah. Thus also twelve stones were taken out of great number of stone hatchets and knives found in the midst of Jordan, at the time of the miraculous Britain leaves no room to doubt that stones may be passage over it, and set up by Joshua at Gilgal, as a sharpened to answer all the purposes of metal; and that memorial unto the children of Israel for ever. The stone knives, similar to those in the East, were formerly setting up of these stones at the very time of the per- used in our own country. Script. illust. See the note formance of the miracle, and the ordinance to the people on Exod. iv. 25. Circumcise again,” that is, renew to teach their children from age to age, and to instruct the rite of circumcision. This does not imply that those them in the meaning of this monument, are an incon- who had been already circumcised were now to be cirtestable proof of the reality of the fact, which the monu- cumcised again, but that another general circumcision ment was raised to commemorate. Leslie, Dr. Graves. was to be held of those, on whom the rite had been
23. — which he dried up from before us,] His use of omitted. It is probable that the first general circumthe word "us" is remarkable; he means himself and cision had been held at mount Sinai, in the first month Caleb, the only two who were now alive of those who of the second year, after they came out from Egypt, passed the Red sea. Dr. Wells.
when they kept the passover, Numb. ix. 1–3. The 24. That all the people of the earth &c.] These two reason of the omission of this rite during the last forty great miracles were wrought by God, that all the nations years, is given at ver. 6. As they were then in a wanround about might acknowledge the power of the God dering condition, and wholly uncertain at what time of Israel, and that the people of Israel especially, for the removal of the cloud would summon them to prowhom these wonders were wrought, might fear, that is, ceed on their journey, they would have endangered their religiously worship and serve Him for ever. Bp. Patrick, lives by submitting to an operation which rendered them Dr. Wells.
incapable of moving immediately with safety. Bp. Pa
trick. The Israelites, on the present occasion, gave a Chap. V. ver. 1.- Amorites, - Canaanites,] Under signal proof of their faith, in submitting to this painful the Amorites and Canaanites are here included the several operation in the face of their enemies, relying on the other nations of Canaan, as the Hittites, Hivites, &c. Divine protection till they were healed; for Gilgal was these two being the most powerful nations. The Amo- only two miles from Jericho. Dr. Hales. rites on the side of Jordan “westward” are distinguished 3. And Joshua-circumcised the children of Israel] from the Amorites eastward of Jordan, whom the Israel. No person, left to himself, could have acted as Joshua ites had subdued already. The Canaanites " by the sea, did. He was arrived in an enemy's country, and it was that is, by the Mediterranean sea, are the nation more necessary for him to keep the people upon their guard, properly called by this name, of which, however, there as they had powerful nations to encounter. What then were colonies in other parts. In the consternation, or was his first action when he came among them? He "melting of hearts," of this people, here mentioned, the made the whole army undergo an operation, which renprovidence of God is very discernible, since, by this dered every person in it incapable of acting. The peomeans, the Israelites were securely circumcised, (as is ple of the next hamlet might have cut them to pieces ; now to be related;) whereas, if the people of Canaan had see Gen. xxxiv. 25. The history tells us, that it was by been at this time courageous and vigilant, they might Divine appointment, and so it must necessarily have
|| That is,
Joshua reneweth circumcision.
The manna ceaseth, 4 And this is the cause why Joshua 9 And the Lord said unto Joshua, did circumcise : All the people that This day have I rolled away the recame out of Egypt, that were males, proach of Egypt from off you. Whereeven all the men of war, died in the fore the name of the place is called wilderness by the way, after they || Gilgal unto this day. came out of Egypt.
10 I And the children of Israel rolling.
corn of the land on the morrow after
voice of the LORD: unto whom the the children of Israel manna any b Numb. 14. LORD sware that he would not shew more; but they did eat of the fruit of
them the land, which the LORD sware the land of Canaan that year.
eyes and looked, and, behold, 7 And their children, whom he there stood a man over against him raised
in their stead, them Joshua with his sword drawn in his hand : 23. circumcised: for they were uncir- and Joshua went unto him, and said cumcised, because they had not unto him, Art thou for us, or for our circumcised them by the way.
adversaries? + Heb. when 8 And it came to pass, + when they 14 And he said, Nay; but as || cap- 11 Or, prince. made an end had done circumcising all the people, tain of the host of the Lord am I
that they abode in their places in the now come. And Joshua fell on his
face to the earth, and did worship,
c Exod. 23.
to be circumcised.
been. The God, who insisted upon this instance of 10. — and kept the passover] The Israelites, having obedience and faith, would certainly preserve them for become circumcised, were now qualified to celebrate the the confidence and duty which they shewed. But this passover, which had been omitted from the second time was not in the power of their leader: the same conduct of their observance of that rite at Sinai, in consequence in him would have been madness. Bryant.
of their rebellions; (Dr. Hales ;) and also on account - at the hill of the foreskins.) Some understand of the want of unleavened bread, and other things rethe Hebrew words thus translated, Gibeah-haaraloth, to quired for the proper celebration of it. Stackhouse. be the name by which the place where they were cir 11.— they did eat of the old corn &c.] “Old corn;" cumcised was afterwards called. Bp. Patrick.
that which the inhabitants left in their barns when they 4.- All the people that came out] Namely, all that filed into Jericho and other strong holds. Bp. Patrick. were then twenty years of age; for such only were re- Or the Hebrew word may signify, the ripe corn then puted men of war, and were guilty of the sedition men- standing on the ground. Shuckford. tioned at Numb. xiv. for which they were doomed to 12. And the manna ceased] Now that the Israelites had perish in the wilderness. Bp. Patrick.
arrived in a country where was a sufficient supply of 9. — have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from of natural food, God ceased to supply them with manna, you.] I have rolled away that which you esteemed the which had been their constant food for forty years, reproach of all other nations, and more particularly of wanting about a month. Pyle. We are supplied by the the people of Egypt, among whom you lived, namely, example here afforded with a proof that God, in his uncircumcision. Shuckford, Dr. Wells.. I have taken dispensations to his creatures, vouchsafes not miracles away from you that your uncircumcision, which you and extraordinary means, when ordinary means are sufhave kept all this while, out of that irreligious careless- ficient. Although the manna had been daily showered ness, which your fathers brought with you out of Egypt. from heaven during their long sojourning in a barren Bp. Hall
. The reproach of Egypt is supposed by some and dry wilderness, yet from the day they ate of the old to relate to the reproaches which the Egyptians cast corn of Canaan, that is, when they began to enjoy comupon the Israelites during their wanderings in the wil- mon sustenance, and were enabled, by their own care derness, from which God now delivered them by the and industry, to provide themselves with it for the future, assurance conveyed in the renewal of circumcision. But their feeding on a daily miracle ceased together with that the most common opinion is, that by the reproach of necessity which called for it. Dean Stanhope. Egypt is meant nothing else but uncircumcision, with 13. – - a man] One whom he took to be a man. Bp. which the Israelites'always upbraided other people, and Patrick. particularly the Egyptians, with whom they had lived 14. — captain of the host of the Lord] By “host of long, and were best acquainted. Stackhouse.
the Lord” may be denoted the angels of heaven, and
Acts 7. 33.
Jericho is shut up.
JOSHUA. Joshua instructed how to besiege it. and said unto him, What saith my about the city once. Thus shalt lord unto his servant ?
thou do six days.
shoe from off thy foot; for the place rams' horns: and the seventh day
and the priests shall blow with the
trumpets. CH AP. VI.
5 And it shall come to pass, that
Joshua how to besiege it. 12 The city is ram's horn, and when ye hear the
The walls fall down. 22 Rahab is saved. shall shout with a great shout; and
the wall of the city shall fall down OW Jericho + was straitly shut + flat, and the people shall ascend up .Heb. under was shut up.
up because of the children of every man straight before him. Israel: none went out, and none 67 And Joshua the son of Nun
called the priests, and said unto them,
+ Heb. did shut up, and
also the whole body of the Jewish people, whom God And most signally did He fight, for Israel ; 1st, In led forth from Egypt. Dr. Wells, Bp. Patrick. Com- the miraculous downfall of the walls of Jericho, chap. vi. mentators have not been agreed who this person was, 20. 2ndly, In destroying the confederated southern nathat appeared to Joshua. Some have supposed him to tions with hailstones in their flight, chap. x. 11. 3rdly, be a created angel; but there are several reasons for In prolonging the day of battle to an unusual length, at believing him to be a divine, and not a created being. Joshua's petition, by making the sun and moon stand For, besides his assuming the title of the “captain of still about a whole day, chap. x. 12—27. And 4thly, By the host of the Lord,” he is called directly Jehovah or driving out some of the northern nations by the hornet the Lord at ver. 2 of the next chapter, allowing that or gad-fly, chap. xxiv. 12, as foretold by Moses, Exod. text to refer to the same Divine appearance; and Joshua's xxiii. 28; Deut. vii. 20. Dr. Hales. falling down and worshipping him, not only without being reproved for doing him too much honour, but, on Chap. VI. ver. 2. And the Lord said] This seems to the contrary, with a command to do him more, by loosing be the same Divine Person who is called in the foregohis shoe from his foot, ver. 15, (which was the highest ing chapter, the captain of the Lord's host, and is here acknowledgment of a Divine presence customary among called the Lord or Jehovah ; (Bp. Patrick ;) at the same Eastern nations,) is a circumstance which affords the place of interview ; (Pyle ;) while Joshua was standing surest evidence of the divinity of his person. Stackhouse. barefoot. Dr. Wells. That he who thus appeared as a warriour, and called 3. And ye shall compass &c.] Instead of a formal himself captain of the Lord's host, was no other than siege they are commanded only to use some particular "the Word,” was plainly the sense of the ancient Jewish circumstances and forms, which might shew the more church. Dean Allix. It was the Son of God, it is con- plainly the subversion of that idolatrous place to be from ceived, who appeared to Joshua, as captain of the Lord's the miraculous hand of God. Pyle. We must suppose host, whom Joshua worshipped with the most profound that the people of Jericho had previously refused offers prostrations, and who made the ground holy, whereon of peace, which God had directed to be made by the Ishe stood. Dr. Woodward.
raelites to their enemies, Deut. xx. 10. Bp. Patrick. The design of this appearance was to assure Joshua, 4. - trumpets of rams' horns :] The inside of the that the same God, who had appeared to Moses, ordering ram's horn is by no means hard, and may easily be him to pull off his shoes, because he stood on holy taken out, except about four or five inches at the point, ground, had now appeared to him: and to serve as an which was to be sawed off, in order to proportion the encouragement to him in the war, in which he was about aperture to the mouth ; after which the rest is easily to engage with many nations; as a confirmation of his pierced. Trumpets thus made are used by the shepfaith; and as a lesson to him to obey in all things the herds in the south of Germany. Universal History. commands of God, and to give the glory of his conquests 5. - shall fall-flat,] Or fall under it, as it is in the to the Author of them, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Hebrew; which seems to signify, that the foundations Jacob. Bp. Watson.
of the wall were subverted, so that it sunk and fell into Joshua was now encouraged by the appearance of the the ditch. The whole wall did not fall, as afterwards “captain of the Lord's host,” with a drawn sword in his appears, ver. 22 ; for Rahab's house stood, which was hand, the same who appeared to Moses in the bush at upon
the wall; but such wide breaches were made every Horeb; as appears to follow from the sameness of the where round about, that the Israelites went straight forinjunction, “Loose thy shoe from off thy foot; for the ward, and found an easy entrance into the city. Bp. place whereon thou standest is holy,” ver. 13-15. Patrick.
your voice to be heard.
Jericho is compassed.
CH AP. VÍ.
The walls fall down. let him that is armed pass on before with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the ark of the LORD.
the people, Shout; for the LORD 8 9 And it came to pass, when hath given you the city. Joshua had spoken unto the people, 17 1 And the city shall be || ac- || Or, devoted. that the seven priests bearing the cursed, even it, and all that are thereseven trumpets of rams' horns passed in, to the Lord: only Rahab the on before the LORD, and blew with harlot shall live, she and all that are the trumpets: and the ark of the with her in the house, because a she a Chap. 2. 4. covenant of the Lord followed them. hid the messengers that we sent.
9 | And the armed men went be 18 And ye, in any wise keep your
fore the priests that blew with the selves from the accursed thing, lest ye + Heb. trumpets, and the trereward came make yourselves accursed, when ye
after the ark, the priests going on, take of the accursed thing, and make
10 And Joshua had commanded the ble it.
people, saying, Ye shall not shout, 19 But all the silver, and gold, + Heb. make nor + make any noise with your voice, and vessels of brass and iron, are neither shall
апу word proceed out of + consecrated unto the Lord: they + Heb.
heard the sound of the trumpet, and
the people went up into the city, Heb. under 13 And seven priests bearing seven every man straight before him, and it. trumpets of rams' horns before the they took the city. ark of the Lord went on continually, 21 And they utterly destroyed all and blew with the trumpets: and the that was in the city, both man and armed men went before them; but woman, young and old, and ox, and the rereward came after the ark of sheep, and ass, with the edge of the the Lord, the priests going on, and sword. blowing with the trumpets.
22 But Joshua had said unto the 14 Ănd the second day they com- two men that had spied out the counpassed the city once, and returned try, Go into the harlot's house, and into the camp: so they did six days. bring out thence the woman, and all
15 And it came to pass on the that she hath, as ye sware unto Chap. 2. 14. seventh day, that they rose early her. about the dawning of the day, and 23 And the young men that were compassed the city after the same spies went in, and brought out Rahab, manner seven times: only on that and her father, and her mother, and day they compassed the city seven her brethren, and all that she had; times.
and they brought out all her + kin- + Heb. 16 And it came to pass at the dred, and left them without the camp seventh time, when the priests blew of Israel.
Hebr. 11. 31.
9.- the rereward came after] That is, such of the heed lest you meddle with any of the spoils which are people as attended unarmed; old men, women, and chil- devoted to God, and appropriate them to your own use, dren, who came in the rear of the ark. Dr. Wells. lest you bring yourselves under the same sentence of
17.- the city shall be accursed,] Shall be devoted to being devoted to destruction, and, more than that, lest perpetual destruction. Dr. Wells. This word cherem, ye expose the camp to the same danger. Bp. Patrick. (which we translate accursed,) signifies sometimes the 20. – the wall fell down] This stupendous miracle, gift itself which is devoted to God for his uses, Levit. at the beginning of the war, was well calculated to terxxvii
. 28; sometimes that which is devoted to perpetual rify the devoted nations, and to encourage the Israelites, destruction, by the right which God has to punish capital by shewing that the loftiest walls and the strongest barenmities to Him, as here in this place. Bp. Patrick. The riers afforded no protection against the Almighty God city shall be devoted to an absolute destruction, and all of Israel. Dr. Hales. the living creatures that are in it; and sequestered to a 23. - left them without the camp] It was not lawful revenge and extirpation from the Lord. Bp. Hall. to bring them into the camp, as it was rendered holy by
18. And ye, in any wise keep yourselves &c.] Take the special presence or ark of the Lord, till they had ab