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Before CHRIST about 1056.
+ Heb. What is his
CHAP. XXVIII. Saul, hearing his ruin, fainteth. CHRIST
and the woman spake to Saul, saying, thine hand, and given it to thy neighabout 1056. Why hast thou deceived me? for bour, even to David : thou art Saul.
18 Because thou obeyedst not the 13 And the king said unto her, voice of the LORD, nor executedst his Be not afraid : for what sawest thou? fierce wrath upon Amalek, therefore And the woman said unto Saul, I saw hath the LORD done this thing unto gods ascending out of the earth.
thee this day.
form is he of? And she said, An old deliver Israel with thee into the hand
fulness of his I am sore distressed; for the Philis- muel: and there was no strength in stature. tines make war against me, and God him ; for he had eaten no bread all
is departed from me, and answereth the day, nor all the night.
called thee, that thou mayest make bled, and said unto him, Behold,
16 Then said Samuel, Wherefore voice, and I have put my life in my
22 Now therefore, I pray thee, himself. 17 And the Lord hath done || to hearken thou also unto the voice of
him, bas he spake by me: for the thine handmaid, and let me set a haneb mine Lord hath rent the kingdom out of morsel of bread before thee; and eat,
| Or, for
b Chap. 15. 28.
feated. The woman was herself terrified at a real ap- to such a degree, as to be entirely abandoned by God, pearance, when probably she designed a deception, and and to have the best friend in the world become his was preparing her incantations. Dr. Gray. The gra- enemy. There is no condition so disconsolate, so devity and suitableness of the answer shew that it was the plorable, as that is ; there is no expedient that can help spirit of Samuel himself: and the event shews that it him, when so circumstanced, no contrivance that will was from God. Bp. Wilson.
not turn against him, and increase his misery instead The son of Sirach, who seems to have had as much of relieving it. What could unhappy Saul do, under wisdom, penetration, and piety as any critick that came his pressing difficulties ? God would not assist him, and after him, is clearly of opinion with the sacred historian no one else could. He might think of his court-flatthat it was Samuel himself who foretold the fate of Saul terers, and of his ablest counsellors, and of his troops and his house, ver. 19, in this interview : and it is no and armies; but nothing in this world could give him unfair presumption, that such was also the judgment comfort or afford him relief. Then he thought of deof the Jewish Church in his time. It should be well ceased Samuel, whom he had often slighted and desobserved, that whereas it has been made a question pised, when alive; and was even foolish enough to whether the Jews believed the existence of the soul after imagine, that he could steal a favour from God's servant death; this history affords a full decision on this point; Samuel, when he could not obtain one from God Himand perhaps the establishment of that truth on sensible self. Let this sad example convince every man who evidence was one of the purposes of Samuel's appear- attends to it, how impossible, how impracticable it is, ance on this occasion. Dr. Delaney.
to lay any scheme of happiness that shall at all answer, 13. — I saw gods ascending] The Hebrew word Elo- without first taking care to make God his friend. Withhim (here translated gods) is often taken in the singular out this, every toil and endeavour must come to nothing. a god, or a great person ; and so it should have been What can any man do, when God becomes his enemy, rendered here. Dr. Wall. Others translate the words, or but ceases to be his friend? Though he search the I saw a judge. Bp. Patrick, Locke. A person like a whole universe for a moment's protection, yet all is to judge. Dr. Wells. Or, if the plural be retained, we no purpose : for all is in God's hands: to Him all creamust suppose that, in order to raise Saul's attention, tures bow, and every element submits to his will and and his opinion of her art and power, she pretends that pleasure. Dr. Waterland. she saw " gods” rising out of the earth, as if she had 19. -- to morrow shalt thou &c.] “ To morrow," that brought up several ghosts by her enchantments. Dr. is, not the next day, but very shortly, shalt thou and thy Chandler.
sons be as I am, or amongst the dead. Bp. Patrick. 15. — and God is departed from me,] We should well 21. - I have put my life in my hand,] I have exposed observe, from the history now before us, how miserable, my life to hazard, by letting thee know I practise arts how melancholy a thing it is, for a man to have sinned of divination. Dr. Wells.
& 21. 11.
art not good
The Philistines are jealous of David. I. SAMUEL. Achish commends and dismisses him.
that thou mayest have strength, when | he may go again to his place which about 1056. thou goest on thy way.
thou hast appointed him, and let him about 1056. 23 But he refused, and said, I will not go down with us to battle, lest in not eat. But his servants, together the battle he be an adversary to us : with the woman, compelled him; and for wherewith should he reconcile he hearkened unto their voice. So himself unto his master ? should it he arose from the earth, and sat upon not be with the heads of these men ? the bed.
5 Is not this David, of whom they 24 And the woman had a fat calf in sang one to another in dances, saying, the house; and she hasted, and killed Saul slew his thousands, and David 5 Chap. 18.7. it, and took flour, and kneaded it, his ten thousands? and did bake unleavened bread there 6 Then Achish called David, of:
and said unto him, Surely, as the 25 And she brought it before Saul, Lord liveth, thou hast been upright, and before his servants; and they did and thy going out and thy coming in eat. Then they rose up, and went with me in the host is good in my away that night.
sight : for I have not found evil in
thee since the day of thy coming unto CHAP. XXIX.
me unto this day: nevertheless + the + Heb. thou 1 David marching with the Philistines, 3 is lords favour thee not.
in the eyes of disallowed by their princes. 6 Achish dis 7 Wherefore now return, and go misseth him, with commendations of his in peace, that thou + displease not the + Heb. do not fidelity.
lords of the Philistines. TOW the Philistines gathered to 8 And David said unto Achish, lords.
gether all their armies to Aphek: But what have I done? and what and the Israelites pitched by a foun- hast thou found in thy servant so tain which is in Jezreel.
long as I have been + with thee unto + Heb. before
9 And Achish answered and said
soon as ye be up early in the morn-
11 So David and his men rose up
evil in the eyes of the
a I Chron. 12, 19.
Chap. XXIX. ver. 1.-to Aphek :] There were three 8. — But what have I done ? &c.] David's answer places of this name: that in the tribe of Judah seems was a prudent one, and such as became the circumhere meant. Dr. Wells.
stances in which he was placed; for he promised nothing, pitched by a fountain] It is related by William and laid himself under no sort of engagement: he neither of Tyre, that the Christian kings of Jerusalem used to denied what the Philistines suspected, that he would assemble their forces at a fountain between Nazareth fall off to Saul in the battle, nor made the least mention and Sephoris, which was greatly celebrated on that ac- of his readiness to fight with the Philistines against the count. He mentions also another fountain, near a town Hebrews. He merely asked why he should be recalled Little Gerinum, which he says was the ancient fused to fight against the enemies of the king. Dr. Jezreel. Near this fountain Saladine pitched his camp, Chandler. for the benefit of its waters; while Baldwin king of Je 9. -- as an angel of God:) Meaning, that he looked rusalem had, as usual, assembled his army at the first upon David as a man sent down to him from heaven. mentioned place. This solicitude in the princes of these Bp. Patrick. sultry climates to encamp near fountains, and parti 11. So David and his men] We may easily apprecularly the mention of one near Jezreel, serve to give hend to what straits David was reduced, on Achish inan excellent illustration of the passage before us. Har- sisting that he must go with him against Saul. He was
now under the necessity of warring against his country,
The Amalekites spoil Ziklag. CHAP. XXIX, XXX. David is encouraged by God.
And the Philistines went up to Jez 7 And David said to Abiathar the about 1056. reel.
priest, Abimelech's son, I pray thee, about 1056,
bring me hither the ephod. And
Abiathar brought thither the ephod
8 And David enquired at the Lord,
and his men were come to Zik- hundred men that were with him, and
hundred men: for two hundred abode
vid, and gave him bread, and he did
spirit came again to him : for he had
whom belongest thou ? and whence art
three days agone I fell sick.
because the soul of all the people was the coast which belongeth to Judah, + Heb. bitter. † grieved, every man for his sons and and upon the south of Caleb; and we
for his daughters: but David encou- burned Ziklag with fire.
or betraying his benefactor. The alternative was indeed greatly superiour in number to David's forces : the route distressful : to Achish he owed allegiance ; for protec- which they had taken was uncertain, and the chance of tion exacts allegiance—but to Saul he owed more. Dr. recovering the booty they had taken very small; still Delaney. What peculiar Providence was here, that David the oracle was positive, full, and express, and the sucshould be delivered out of his great strait, of either being cess was answerable. Dr. Chandler. false to his patron, or fighting against Saul and his own 12. — a cake of figs, and two clusters of raisins :] In nation. Bp. Wilson.
the history of the piratical states of Barbary, it is said,
concerning an expedition of some of the natives, “Their Chap. XXX. ver. 8. And David enquired at the Lord] temperance is admirable : some meal, a few figs and David on this occasion shewed his piety in consulting raisins, which they carry in a goat's skin, serve them a the Lord to know what he was to do. And God having seven or eight days' journey." This is similar to the ordered him to pursue the Amalekites, he recovered account here given by the sacred writer, of the proviall that they had taken away, delivered his wives, and sions carried by David and his men in their expedition took from them a considerable booty. By these means against the Amalekites, as appears by what they gave the evil that befell David turned to his advantage, and to the poor famished Egyptian. 'l'he bread of the Israelites his greater glory; and thus, those who in their troubles answers to the meal of Barbary; and the figs and raisins make the will of God their rule and guide, never fail are what the Moors carry at this day. Harmer. to experience his favour and protection. Ostervald. 14. — the south of Caleb ;] We read no where else
Pursue : for thou shalt surely overtake] At the of this land: it means, probably, the south part of time when this answer was given, the accomplishment Judah, which was given to Caleb. Josh. xiv. 13. Bp. of it was highly improbable ; for the Amalekites were Patrick.
David recovereth all the spoil,
I. SAMUEL. and sendeth presents to his friends. thou bring me down to this company ? Ipany that came against us into our And he said, Swear unto me by God, hand. that thou wilt neither kill me, nor de 24 For who will hearken unto you liver me into the hands of my master, in this matter ? but as his part is that and I will bring thee down to this goeth down to the battle, so shall his company.
part be that tarrieth by the stuff : 16 q And when he had brought they shall part alike. him down, behold, they were spread 25 And it was so from that day abroad upon all the earth, eating and + forward, that he made it a statute t Heb. drinking, and dancing, because of all and an ordinance for Israel unto this and forward. the great spoil that they had taken day. out of the land of the Philistines, and 26 9 And when David came to out of the land of Judah.
Ziklag, he sent of the spoil unto the 17 And David smote them from elders of Judah, even his friends,
the twilight even unto the evening of saying, Behold a + present for you Heb. + Heb. their † the next day: and there escaped of the spoil of the enemies of the blessing.
not a man of them, save four hundred LORD;
and to them which were in south Ra-
19 And there was nothing lacking and to them which were in Siphmoth,
nor daughters, neither 29 And to them which were in Ra-
20 And David took all the flocks which were in the cities of the Ken-
mah, and to them which were in Chor-
CHA P. XXXI.
them. they did.
slain, he and his armourbearer kill them. 22 Then answered all the wicked selves. 7 The Philistines possess the formen and men of Belial, of + those
saken towns of the Israelites. 8 They trithat went with David, and said, Be
umph over the dead carcases. 11 They of
Jabesh-gilead, recovering the bodies by
fought a 1 Chron.
23 Then said David, Ye shall not and fell down || slain in mount Gilboa. . Or,
preserved us, and delivered the com- the Philistines slew Jonathan, and 23. Ye shall not do so, my brethren,] The humanity we have reason to believe that it lasted after this, as and justice of David are here displayed to great advan- long as the Jewish polity continued, and was restored tage, in his equitable distribution of the booty taken with it: and it is generally understood to have been from the enemy, by ordering, that those who were dis- practised by the Maccabees, 2 Mac. viii. Dr. Delaney. abled from actual fighting should share equally with the rest. Dr. Chandler. This determination of David's Chap. XXXI. ver. 2. - slew Jonathan,] It was cerbecame a law among the Israelites from that day, ver. tainly no small grief to David, to hear of Jonathan's 25, till the time when this history was written and death, as well as a trial of his patience and resignation
+ Heb. men.
1056. 10. 1.
Before CHRIST about 1056,
Before CHRIST about 1056.
men with bons.
Heb. found archers.
b Jer. 34. 5.
Saul killeth himself.
The Philistines triumph. Abinadab, and Melchi-shua, Saul's and Aled; and the Philistines came
and dwelt in them.
and his three sons fallen in mount
circumcised come and thrust me the land of the Philistines round | Or mock
through, and || abuse me. But his about, to publish it in the house of
10 And they put his armour in the
house of Ashtaroth : and they fastened 5 And when his armourbearer saw his body to the wall of Beth-shan. that Saul was dead, he fell likewise 11 | And when the inhabitants of upon his sword, and died with him.
Jabesh-gilead heard || of that which | Or, con6 So Saul died, and his three sons, the Philistines had done to Saul;
cerning him. and his armourbearer, and all his men, 12 All the valiant men arose, and that same day together.
went all night, and took the body of 7 And when the men of Israel Saul and the bodies of his sons from that were on the other side of the the wall of Beth-shan, and came to valley, and they that were on the other Jabesh, and burnt them there. side Jordan, saw that the men of Is 13 And they took their bones, and rael fled, and that Saul and his sons buried them under a tree at Jabesh, c 2 Sam. 2. 4.
were dead, they forsook the cities, and fasted seven days. to the Divine will; yet still there seems to be a direction - unto his armourbearer,] It is the constant traof Providence in suffering him to be slain, that David dition of the Jews, that this armourbearer was Doeg. might more easily come to the throne. For, though Dr. Delaney. Jonathan might have made a voluntary surrender of the lest these uncircumcised come &c.]. He was throne, yet, as he was the people's favourite, there might afraid they might put him to some ignominious death, have been some who would not allow of it. Stackhouse. or make sport with him as they did with Samson.
Bp. In the story of Jonathan and David, we see an in- Patrick. stance of friendship properly founded, and animated 6. So Saul died,] There is nothing to commend in with warmth and tenderness : conducted too with pru- the manner of Saul's death. He died, not gallantly dence as well as warmth. Jonathan saw enough, in fighting, but by his own hand: he died, not as a hero, the virtues and distresses of David, to excite his love but as a deserter. Self-murder is manifestly the effect and pity; yet he conducted himself not only with a of cowardice, and it is as irrational and iniquitous as it friendly regard to the merits and distresses of David, is base. God, whose creatures we are, is the sole Arbibut with a filial regard to him who was the author of ter, as He is the sole Author of life: our lives are his that distress. He followed the call of friendship, but property, and He has given us our country, our family, not beyond the call of allegiance to his father. We and our friends : thus, besides the injury done to our hear little more of Jonathan, after his separation from fellow-creatures in a variety of relation, the act of selfDavid when in exile ; but it is easy to conclude, that, murder incurs the heavy guilt of desertion of the post by remaining with his father, he had more opportunities assigned to us by God, and of rebellious disobedience of serving him than if he had followed him into exile. to his commands. Dr. Delaney. If he had gone to David, he must have struggled, not 9. — in the house of their idols,] That they might only with the envy of a jealous king, but with the re- give thanks to their gods for the victory they had obsentment of an injured father; and would have lost the tained. Bp. Patrick. merit of his friendship in the guilt of rebellion against 10. — in the house of Ashtaroth :] The custom of his father. By remaining at home, he could watch his dedicating to the gods the spoils of a conquered enemy, father's heart, improve every favourable sentiment he and placing them in their temples as a trophy of victory, saw rise within it, and soften, if not suppress the ma is extremely ancient. Frequent instances of it are menlignant ones. In short, Jonathan chose, not only the tioned in the Greek and Roman writers. See note at most honourable, but the most important post of friend- chap. xxi. 9. ship, from whence he could dispense the several benefits and they fastened his body] To expose it to which flow from the united character of a great man, a publick shame and reproach, as we do the bodies of true subject, and a faithful friend. Dr. H. Stebbing. great malefactors. Bp. Patrick. Who can fail to drop a tear over the faithful, the amiable, Beth-shan.] A city in the tribe of Manasseh : the excellent Jonathan! There are few characters among to this place the people of Jabesh might march (ver. men more amiable or more extraordinary: he was en 12.) in the course of a night. Bp. Patrick. dowed with fortitude, fidelity, magnanimity, a soul sus 13. — fasted seven days.] As a token and expression ceptible of the most refined friendship, yet superiour to of great sorrow. Bp. Patrick. all the temptations of ambition and vanity; and all these T'he death of Saul is well deserving of our serious crowned with the most resigned submission to the will of attention. This prince, who had been chosen by God God. Dr. Delaney.
to the throne, and who began his reign so well, made a