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Jerusalem is saved.
Araunah's generous offer. chelorst upon Israel from the morning even the king and his servants coming on
to the time appointed: and there died toward him : and Araunah went out,
16 And when the angel stretched 21 And Araunah said, Wherefore
out his hand upon Jerusalem to de- is my lord the king come to his sera 1 Sam. 15. stroy it, * the LORD repented him of vant? And David said, To buy the
the evil, and said to the angel that threshingfloor of thee, to build an
Let my lord the king take and offer
LORD thy God accept thee.
19 And David, according to the God of that which doth cost me
ingfloor and the oxen for fifty shekels 20 And Araunah looked, and saw of silver.
ment threatened by God, for the violation of this statute, -the angel-was by the threshingplace] That is, concerning the numbering the people, Exod. xxx. 12. the pestilence had spread in Jerusalem to this point. It Dr. Chandler.
is agreed by the learned, that this threshingfloor was It is easy to understand, on what account the pesti- situated upon mount Moriah, whereon Abraham was lence is called more properly " the hand of God” for commanded to sacrifice Isaac, and whereon Solomon war and many other calamities proceed from causes afterwards built the temple. Dr. Wells. visible to all men; whereas none sees or knows whence of Araunah the Jebusite.] As Araunah is called the pestilence proceeds; no perceptible alteration is a Jebusite, it thus appears that all the Jebusites were made in any of the elements which surround us; and not at this time expelled from Jerusalem. Dr. Wall. it therefore is referred more peculiarly to the immediate 17. — but these sheep,] A noble example of the teninterference of the Deity. Bp. Patrick.
derness which kings should have for their subjects. 15. – to the time appointed :] Not to the end of the Bp. Wilson. How sensibly was David affected with his three days; for, ver. 16, “the Lord repented him of people's sufferings under that pestilence which his imthe evil:" it means, probably, the appointed time of prudence and their neglect had brought upon them! evening prayer, that is, about the ninth hour of the How tenderly and affectionately does he plead with day; according to which sense the plague lasted nine God in their behalf! What a noble instance of publick hours. Bp. Patrick.
spirit, and generous concern for the safety of his people, there died-seventy thousand men.] If it should does this moving and pathetick expostulation manifest! be thought strange that God should destroy 70,000 men Here is the real language and spirit of a genuine shepof Israel for David's fault, it should be recollected that herd of his people, willing to devote himself and his God has an absolute right over the lives of all his family to God, for the preservation of his subjects. Dr. creatures, and that, if ever He does any thing seem- Chandler. Although David, like a true patriot king ingly hard, He knows how to make them ample amends. and most affectionate father, intercedes for his people
, But the anger of the Lord was (also) kindled against and desires to receive in his own person and family the Israel,” ver. 1; the people themselves had sins many stroke that was ready to descend on them, yet it should and great, which deserved punishment, and for which seem that the people were by no means without fault ; they would probably have been before punished, had it for (as was noted at ver. 1,) * the anger of the Lord was not been for God's favour towards David, who would kindled against Israel ;” and, as a consequence of this, have suffered in common with them : now, therefore, David was excited to number the people. The offences when both king and people had deserved a correction of the people called for punishment; and, on the numor judgment, God was pleased to let loose his anger bering the people, an opportunity was taken to inflict it. against both. Dr. Waterland.
Bp. Horne. 16. — the Lord repented him] God did not change - did Araunah, as a king, give] As a king; that his mind, but only revoked that which He had decreed is, in a bountiful and royal manner. Bp. Hall. on a certain condition: which was, that three days' pes 24. — bought-for fifiy shekels of silver.] Here again tilence should come upon the country, unless David and this book differs from that of Chronicles, 1 Chron. xxi. his people repented. Bp. Patrick.
25, where it is said, that David bought the threshing
So from Israel.
floor, &c. for six hundred shekels of gold, instead of far from them the evil day, living as if they should never fifty shekels of silver. It is generally supposed that, in the die, and should never appear before God to give an ac. whole, David made two purchases ; first, he bought the count of all their works. Reading. threshingfloor and oxen, for which he paid fifty shekels David's crime in numbering the people appears to have of silver; and afterwards he bought all the ground consisted in a want of confidence in God." "Had he acted about it, (out of which the courts of the temple were in the true spirit of a king of Israel, he would have been made,) which cost him six hundred shekels of gold. less solicitous about the number of his forces, and would Bp. Patrick
have trusted God with the work which He had underThe conduct of David on this occasion should be a taken, and which He had constantly, and in David's warning to all men, to keep their hearts with all dili- case, in a very particular manner, discharged faithfully. gence, so that they be not overcome with pride, and the Read the promise in the law; "When thou goest out love of worldly things. For, if these sinful affections to battle against thine enemies, and seest horses, and could break into the heart of such a holy man as David, chariots, and a people more than thou, be not afraid what victories will they be apt to gain over others, who of them: for the Lord thy God is with thee.” And are not so vigilant! Too often, alas, do they alienate consider, what but distrust in God could tempt David men from the love of God, and provoke him to punish to number his forces ? Happy had it been for him them with the want of even necessary things ; for the and the people, had he then reflected, that “God hath case of David is the case of too many amongst mankind. no pleasure in the strength of an horse, neither deWhen they are exalted to honours, they forget them- lighteth he in any man's legs.” He ought to have selves, and grow proud and insolent. When riches remembered what his own experience had taught him, increase, their sensual lusts and corrupt manners com- that God wanted not the assistance of horse and foot monly increase in the same proportion. When they to execute the designs of his providence. Bp. Sherdwell securely in full peace and health, they put away lock.
The following Chapters from the second Book of Samuel are appointed for Proper Lessons on
Sundays and Holydays :
THE FIRST BOOK OF
THE THIRD BOOK OF THE KINGS.
THE two books of Kings formed only one in the Hebrew canon. They cannot be positively ascribed to any
particular author: some have ascribed them to Jeremiah, some to Isaiah; and some, again, with more probability, suppose them to have been compiled by Ezra, from the records which were regularly kept, both in Jerusalem and Samaria, of all publick transactions. These records appear to have been made by the contemporary Prophets, and frequently derived their names from the kings whose history they contain. They are mentioned in many parts of Scripture: thus, in the first book of Kings, we read of the Book of the Acts of Solomon, which is supposed to have been written by Nathan, Ahijah, and Iddo. We elsewhere read, that Shemaiah the prophet, and Iddo the seer, wrote the acts of Rehoboam ; that Jehu wrote the acts of Jehoshaphat, and Isaiah those of Uzziah and Hezekiah. We may therefore conclude, that from these publick records, and other authentick documents, were composed the two books of Kings; and the uniformity of their style
favours the opinion of their being put into their present shape by the same person. Bp. Tomline. The first book of Kings comprises a period of 126 years, from the death of David, in the year of the world 2989,
to that of Jehoshaphat. After the description of the decay and death of David, we are presented with the most striking history of the reign of Solomon; of his wisdom and magnificence; of the building of the temple; of his extended commerce to Ophir; and of the visit of the queen of Sheba. To this succeeds an account of the miserable dotage and apostasy of Solomon; and of his death, preceded by a prospect of that threatened rending of the kingdom which should take place under his son. Afterwards are related the accession of Rehoboam; his rash and impolitick conduct, and the consequent separation of the ten tribes, which happened about the year of the world 3020. This is followed by a concise sketch of the history of the two kingdoms, in which particular periods are characterized by very animated relations; as that of the disobedient Prophet; of the widow of Zarephath; of Elijah and the prophets of Baal; of Benhadad's pride and defeat; of Ahab's injustice and punishment. In the course of these events we contemplate the exact accomplishment of God's promises and threats, the wisdom of his dispensations, and the mingled justice and mercy of his government. The book is stamped with the intrinsick marks of inspiration : of the prophecies which it contains, some were speedily completed; but that which foretold that “ Josiah should be born unto the house of David, and slay the priests of the high places," was not fulfilled till above 350 years after it was delivered. Both the books of Kings are
cited as authentick and canonical by our Saviour and his Apostles. Dr. Gray. It is sufficient to establish the authority and just esteem of these books, to consider that we owe them to the
especial providence of God, as designed by Him for our great benefit and instruction; and that, by all circumstances compared together, we find them to have been collected by persons of unsuspected ability, care, and honesty, and handed down to us with as much purity and uncorruptedness in the copies, as the nature of such things could possibly bear. Pyle.
than bringing these news, Adonijah's guests 1 Abishag cherisheth David in his extreme age.
fy. 50 Adonijah, flying to the horns of the 5 Adonijah, David's darling, usurpeth the
altar, upon his good behaviour is dismissed
+ stricken in years; and they + Heb. appointment, being anointed king by Zadok covered him with clothes, but he gat days. aud Nathan, the people triumph. 41 Jona- no heat.
Chap. I. ver. 1. - David was old and stricken in years ;] He was now seventy years old, as we collect from 2 Sam. v. 4, 5. Bp. Patrick.
+ Heb. Let
a cherisher unto him.
may get heat.
+ Heb. his words were with Joab.
Adonijah usurpeth the kingdom.
I. KINGS. Nathan's advice to Bath-sheba thereupon. 2 Wherefore his servants said unto 8 But Zadok the priest, and Benhim, + Let there be sought for my aiah the son of Jehoiada, and Nathan lord the king + a young virgin: and the prophet, and Shimei, and Rei,
let her stand before the king, and let and the mighty men which belonged a damsel, her + cherish him, and let her lie in to David, were not with Adonijah. a virgin. + Heb. be thy bosom, that my lord the king 9 And Adonijah slew sheep and
oxen and fat cattle by the stone of 3 So they sought for a fair damsel Zoheleth, which is by || En-rogel, Or, the well
Rogel. throughout all the coasts of Israel, and called all his brethren the king's and found Abishag a Shunammite, sons, and all the men of Judah the and brought her to the king. king's servants :
4 And the damsel was very fair, 10 But Nathan the prophet, and and cherished the king, and ministered Benaiah, and the mighty men, and to him: but the king knew her not. Solomon his brother, he called not.
5 ( Then Adonijah the son of 11 q Wherefore Nathan spake unto Haggith exalted himself
, saying, 1 Bath-sheba the mother of Solomon, + Heb. reign. will † be king: and he prepared him saying, Hast thou not heard that
chariots and horsemen, and fifty men Adonijah the son of a Haggith doth a 2 Sam. 3. 4. to run before him.
reign, and David our lord knoweth it 6 And his father had not displeased not ? | Heb. from him + at any time in saying, Why 12 Now therefore let
come, his days.
the life of thy son Solomon.
the son of Zeruiah, and with Abiathar David, and say unto him, Didst not + Heb. the priest: and they + following Ado- thou, my lord, O king, swear unto Adonijah." nijah helped him.
thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly 2.- let her cherish him, &c.] Interpreters are much conduct of his son. It was his own excessive indulgence divided in opinion whether Abishag was the wife of which led to this extravagance. Strange weakness in David or not: some maintaining that she was truly his parents and cruelty to their children, to suffer them to lawful wife; and others, that she was nothing more become incorrigible in errour, or inveterate in vice, than a servant, or at most a concubine wife. Calmet. rather than restrain them, while correction is kindness!
5. Then Adonijah—exalted himself,] This attempt of Dr. Delaney. Adonijah was another trial for David. Providence suf 9. — which is by En-rogel,] En-rogel lay not far from fered this to happen, whilst David was yet alive, that Jerusalem, to the east or north-east of it. Dr. Wells. Adonijah's party might be ruined and dispersed, and Josephus says, that En-rogel means “the fountain in Solomon established in the kingdom; that so the pro- the king's garden.” Dr. Hales. mises made in favour of Solomon might be accom 11. Wherefore Nathan spake &c.] The word “whereplished, and that the pride, and ambition, and con- fore” is not in the Hebrew; where the words are, “ And spiracy of Adonijah, might only hasten the exaltation Nathan spake.” The insertion of the word “wherefore" of Solomon, and strengthen him in the kingdom. This in our translation has sometimes given birth to a very is one of those examples which prove that God brings unfounded insinuation against Nathan, as if a feeling of down the high looks of the proud, and generally con- resentment for the neglect shewn to him by Adonijah, founds them in their own haughtiness; that nothing as mentioned in the preceding verse, was the cause of can hinder the execution of the designs of Providence; his discovering the plot to David; whereas there can be that whatever men do to prevent them, only serves to no doubt that Zadok and Nathan were actuated by hasten them; and that criminal attempts turn to the loyalty and affection to the king, and by the desire of confusion of the authors. Ostervald.
having the succession to the crown settled by his 6.- his father had not displeased him &c.] It appears appointment and authority. Dr. Chandler. from this expression that Adonijah was a great favourite Nathan was the man by whom God had sent to David with his father, as Absalom had been before, whom
he that message of assurance, that his son Solomon should resembled in ambition and in beauty. Dr. Hales. Ex- reign and prosper : yet now, when Adonijah's plot was traordinary indulgence to his children seems to have on foot, he did not sit still and depend upon the issue been one of David's great faults: he appears to have of God's decree, but bestirred himself in the business, been so fond of them that he overlooked their errours, and consulted with Bath-sheba how at once to save and never chided them for what they did amiss : now their lives, and defeat Adonijah and advance Solomon. in his old age this weakness was more apparent, as he If we would not have God wanting to us, we must not naturally grew more remiss, careless, and sluggish. Bp. be wanting to ourselves. Bp. Hall. Patrick. Adonijah, as well as Absalom, had been the 12.--and the life of thy son Solomon.] For, if Adonidarling of his father. Their father had not displeased jah had succeeded in his treason, Solomon, as being the them from their childhood; therefore they both dis- rival of his throne, would have fallen an immediate pleased him in his age. The excessive indulgence of sacrifice. Dr. Chandler. parents at last pays them home in crosses. Bp. Hall. 13. — Didst not thou-swear unto thine handmaid, &c.] David had nobody to blame but himself for this mis- We read no where else of this oath; but, no doubt,
king Adonijah lire.
Bath-sheba moveth the king.
He reneweth his oath to her. Solomon thy son shall reign after me, reign after me, and he shall sit upon chefirst and he shall sit upon my throne ? my
14 Behold, while thou yet talkest and hath slain oxen and fat cattle and
there with the king, I also will come sheep in abundance, and hath called + Heb. fill up. in after thee, and confirm thy words. all the king's sons, and the captains
15 9 And Bath-sheba went in unto of the host, and Abiathar the priest; the king into the chamber: and the and, behold, they eat and drink beking was very old; and Abishag the fore him, and say, + God save king Heb. Let Shunammite ministered unto the king: Adonijah.
16 And Bath-sheba bowed, and did 26 But me, even me thy servant,
17 And she said unto him, My Solomon, hath he not called.
she came + into the king's presence, Heb.
the Lord God of Israel, saying, As-
31 Then Bath-sheba bowed with
Solomon shall be counted + offenders. 32 | And king David said, Call sinners.
22 9 And, lo, while she yet talked me Zadok the priest, and Nathan the
hoiada. And they came before the
ride upon + mine own mule, and bring Heb. which
before the king.
belongeth to me.
David had solemnly sworn to her, that her son should guilty of death, for aiming at the kingdom. Bp. Pabe made his successor. It appears from 2 Sam. vii. 12, trick. that God had designed him for that honour ; for He 26. But me, even me thy servant,-hath he not called.] there promises to David, by Nathan, to set upon his Nathan's meaning is, that Adonijah had not acquainted throne a son that should proceed from him, which plainly him, Zadok, &c. with his purpose, taken them into his signifies, that none of his sons already born should suc- counsels, nor asked their consent, in order that they ceed him. But more plainly, at 1 Chron. xxii. 8, 9, David might not have an opportunity of frustrating his meadeclares, that God had told him his son Solomon should sures. Dr. Chandler. reign after him and build Him a house. All this, we 27. Is this thing done by my lord the king, &c.] Is this may well suppose, was known to Adonijah, which makes feast of Adonijah, his proclaiming himself king, and his his crime the greater, in setting himself against the de- assumption of the royal authority, done by the king's cree of Heaven, as he himself indeed confesses in the consent and order? Dr. Chandler. next chapter, ver. 15. Bp. Patrick.
33. — cause Solomon my son to ride upon mine own 21. - shall be counted offenders.] Shall be deemed mule,] Maimonides tells us that it was a capital crime to