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Solomon anointed king.
Jonathan bringeth the news.
42 And while he yet spake, be-
43 And Jonathan answered and
him Zadok the priest, and Nathan
45 And Zadok the priest and Na-
39 And Zadok the priest took an the throne of the kingdom.
of Solomon better than thy name,
after him, and the people piped with throne. And the king bowed himself || Or, flutes. || pipes, and rejoiced with great joy, upon the bed.
so that the earth rent with the sound 48 And also thus said the king,
Blessed be the LORD God of Israel,
ride upon the king's ass or mule, to sit upon his throne, necessary to anoint their kings with this holy oil made or to handle his sceptre, without his order: on the con- by Moses. Bp. Patrick. trary, to ride on the king's beast, by his permission, was 42. — for thou art a valiant man,] Rather, "for thou deemed the highest honour among the Persians, as ap- art a virtuous man;" thus the word we here translate pears from the story of Mordecai, Esther vi. 8, &c. Dr. valiant is rendered at Prov. xii. 4. The Chaldee renChandler.
ders it, “Thou art a man that fearest to sin.” Bp. Pa- bring him down to Gihon:] It is not agreed whether trick. this word denotes a hill, or a fountain : some think it 46. — also Solomon sitteth on the throne] That is as was the name of a fountain, and also of an adjoining partner with David; for it does not appear that David hill. Its situation is generally assigned near mount resigned his crown during his life. Bp. Wilson. Zion, and on the west side of it. Dr. Wells.
47. - the king bowed himself upon the bed.] It may 36. answered the king, and said, Amen:] Benaiah appear singular that David at this first anointing of gave his consent, in the name of all the rest, and pro- Solomon should be in his chamber, and on his bed, and mised a ready execution of the decree, with his prayers exceedingly decrepit: and yet, at his second anointing and wishes for all increase of providential blessings on should be in the midst of his princes and counsellors, the new king, and his successors for ever. Pyle. and standing on his feet, i Chron. xxviii. 2. But we
39. — took an horn of oil out of the tabernacle,] Took should consider that David's present infirmity was proa vessel of oil; the vessel being made of the horn of bably not sickness, but the coldness and numbness of an ox, as was usually done. The unction of Solomon old age. He was heart-whole, and head-whole, but old was rendered more solemn, and his person more sacred, and afflicted with palsy. Therefore, though his most by the circumstance of the oil employed being the holy usual and commodious posture was in his chamber on oil, or that “taken out of the tabernacle;” though the his couch, yet, upon such an occasion as the crowning Jews are generally of opinion, that it was by no means of Solomon again before Israel, he was able to come
self a man ;
Adonijah dismissed by Solomon. CHAP. I, II. David giveth a charge to Solomon. Before
with Adonijah were afraid, and rose deprived of the priesthood. 28 Joab fleeing CHRIST
to the horns of the altar is there slain. 35
Benaiah is put in Joab's room, and Zadok
in Abiathar's. 36 Shimei, confined to Jeru-
TOW the days of
of all the earth: be
3 And keep the charge of the LORD
his statutes, and his commandments, earth: but if wickedness shall be
and his judgments, and his testimofound in him, he shall die.
nies, as it is written in the law of
Moses, that thou mayest a || prosper a Deut. 29. 9. brought him down from the altar. And in all that thou doest, and whitherso-yosh,
ever thou turnest thyself:
4 That the Lord may continue his
saying, If thy children take heed to CHAP. II.
their way, to walk before me in truth
3 of religiousness, 5 of Joab, 7 of Barzillai, soul, b there shall not + fail thee (said 1.2 Sam. 7.
5 Moreover thou knowest also what off from thee 26 Abiathar, having his life given him, is Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me,
+ Heb. be cut
forth, and stand upon his feet, and give his advice that greatness could neither exempt from obedience nor respecting future proceedings. Dr. Lightfoot.
privilege sin; as one who knew that the least deviation 50. — caught hold on the horns of the altar.] Con- from the greatest and highest career is more perceived, scious of the crime he had committed, he fled to the and therefore most dangerous. Thus he charges his altar for safety and protection, as that was a privileged son not to look for any prosperity, save only from well place, not by the appointment of the law, but by the doing. That happiness is built upon sand, which is custom of all nations. It is a question to what altar he raised upon any foundation besides virtue. If Solomon, fled; whether to that at the tabernacle in Gibeon, or to when old, had well remembered the counsels of David, that newly built in the threshingfloor of Araunah : the he would not have so foully miscarried. Bp. Hall. latter is most probable, as it was nearest. Bp. Patrick. 5. — thou knowest also what Joab the son of Zeruiah It should be observed, that the Jewish law gave no &c.] David has been censured for betraying a vindicasylum of the altar to those who had become guilty of tive spirit in his dying advice to Solomon respecting a voluntary crime. Wilful murderers might be torn Joab and Shimei ; but his conduct appears to be perfrom the altar in order to be put to death, Exod. xxi. 14. fectly justifiable. In regard to Joab, he does not According to the custom of almost all nations, altars advise Solomon absolutely and unconditionally to put and temples have been considered as asylums. Calmet. him to death, but tells him
to “ do according to his wis
dom;" he says to him, “ Though you have now parChap. II. ver. 1. -- and he charged Solomon his son,] doned Joab through policy, as I was compelled to do Many good counsels had David given to his heir ; now myself by the exigency of the times, and the predomihe sums them up at the end. Dying words are wont nant influence of the sons of Zeruiah ; yet should he to be the weightiest; the soul, when it is entering into offend again, act according to your discretion and then glory, breathes nothing but divine. Bp. Hall. punish him, as a hoary-headed murderer and a con
The exhortations to the fear of God which David gave firmed traitor, with death.” Dr. Hales. to his son Solomon before he died, are a mark of his The advice now given by David cannot be deemed piety, and of his affection for his son. In imitation of inconsistent with true piety, or unworthy of a just and this example, parents ought above all things to recom- religious prince on his death-bed. It is true that formend to their children the fear of the Lord, while they giveness of enemies is a duty; but no man is obliged, are with them, and before they leave this world; which by any law that we know of, so to forgive an ene. is the true way to secure the blessing of God to their my, continuing such, as not to take the proper mefamilies. Ostervald.
thods to guard against the effects of his enmity, and 3. And keep the charge of the Lord thy God,] The to bring him to justice, if no other method will prove best legacy that David leaves to his heir, is the care of effectual. Much less is a prince obliged so to forpiety. Himself had found the sweetness of a good con- give an implacable enemy to his crown and governscience, and now he commends it to his successor. Here ment, and one who is likely to disturb the settlement was the father of a king charging the king his son to of the crown in his successor, as not to advise his keep the statutes of the King of kings: as one who knew successor to be on his guard against him, and to punish
f 2 Sam. 16.
c 2 Sam. 3.
+ Heb. strong.
& 13. 36.
David's charge concerning Shimei. I. KINGS.
His death. and what he did to the two captains 8 And, behold, thou hast with thee of the hosts of Israel, unto • Åbner Shimei the son of Gera, a Benjathe son of Ner, and unto a Amasa the mite of Bahurim, which cursed me son of Jether, whom he slew, and with a tgrievous curse in the day 5
+ shed the blood of war in peace, and when I went to Mahanaim : but he + Heb. put.
put the blood of war upon his girdle came down to meet me at Jordan,
saying, 8 I will not put thee to death g 2 Sam. 19.
guiltless : for thou art a wise man, 7 But shew kindness unto the sons and knowest what thou oughtest to do e 2 Sam. 19. of e Barzillai the Gileadite, and let unto him; but his hoar head bring them be of those that eat at thy table: thou down to the grave
with blood. for so they came to me when I fled 10 So - David slept with his fathers, h Acts 2. 29.
because of Absalom thy brother. and was buried in the city of David. him when guilty, according to his demerits. Such future punishment, if he should deserve it by a fresh precaution as this he owes to his people: and he may offence, as he probably did in Adonijah’s rebellion; for die, as a private person, in charity with all mankind, it was not till after the execution of Adonijah and Joab, and forgive every private injury against himself; and that Solomon sent for Shimei, and ordered him to reside yet as a prince, he may advise what is necessary for the in Jerusalem, and not to quit the city, under pain of publick good, and even the execution of particular per- death on the day that he should pass over the brook Kisons, in case they should, by abusing the lenity of dron, ver. 37. X condition which Shimei thankfully acgovernment and the respite they once obtained, become cepted: “The saying is good: as my lord the king hath guilty of new and capital offences. Dr. Chandler. said, so will thy servant do,” ver. 38. And this measure How would David have been acquitted of the charge of was evidently dictated by David's advice : on the meaninjustice, if he had suffered such publick and crying ing of which, therefore, it forms the best comment: offences to pass wholly unpunished ? He discharges And, behold, thou hast with thee Shimei &c.-now his conscience by the advice which he gives to Solo- therefore hold him not guiltless ;” but guard him as a
Not having been able in his lifetime to complete disaffected and dangerous Benjamite, and keep him with all that justice required of him, he charged his son to thee still, or confine him to Jerusalem, lest he kindle execute what remained. He spoke as a king and as a rebellion among the tribes, by stirring up their minds, judge, whose duty it was to punish crime, not as a pri- like Sheba ; "for thou art a wise man, and knowest what vate individual following the dictates of revenge. Joab thou oughtest to do unto him," as well as to Joab, in had been so powerful a man with the army, that David order to prevent his cabals; and if he offend again, during his lifetime durst not call him to account: but, “bring down his hoar head to the grave with blood," for when Solomon began to reign, the continuance of pro- your own security, and the peace of your kingdom; for found peace had impaired his power, by rendering his his crimes deserve death. services useless. Solomon therefore had no reason to Shimei afterwards transgressed the convention, and dread his influence, and was enabled to bring him to went to Gath, a suspicious quarter, ver. 40; upon which that punishment which justice demanded. Calmet. Solomon, after taxing him with the breach of his oath,
did to me,] Joab had always conducted him- put him to death. “So the kingdom was established self with great insolence to David, especially under his in the hand of Solomon,” ver. 46, after the death or heaviest affliction, 2 Sam. xix. 7, and lately had set up banishment of those foes, who were most dangerous, Adonijah to reign, while he was yet alive. Bp. Patrick from their rank, wisdom, and consequence. Dr. Hales. Also he had stabbed Absalom contrary to David's im 10. So David slept with his fathers,] David appears mediate orders. Dr. Chandler.
to have survived the coronation of Solomon half a year; put the blood of war upon his girdle] The plain for though he reigned seven years and six months over meaning is, that he stained his clothes and armour with Judah, and thirty-three years over all Israel, yet his the blood of Abner and Amasa, his own countrymen reign is reckoned only forty years, 2 Sam. v. 4, 5; and fellow-soldiers. Pyle.
i Chron. xxix. 27. This interval he seems to have em7. - shew kindness unto the sons of Barzillai] David's ployed in the publick acts and regulations contained in gratitude to Barzillai is very remarkable, which ex- the five last chapters of the first book of Chronicles. tended itself to his sons as well as to himself. Bp. Patrick. Dr. Hales.
9. Now therefore hold him not guiltless :] It has been was buried in the city of David.] Was buried in asserted, that the advice here given to Solomon respect that part of the city of Jerusalem which he himself had ing Shimei was a breach of the oath which he formerly taken from the Jebusites, and called after his own name. took respecting him. This however was by no means The sepulchre of David was always held in great venethe case.
When Abishai asked for permission to put ration by the Jews. It remained in St. Peter's time, for Shimei to death, 2 Sam. xix. 23," the king said unto so he tells the people, Acts ii. 29. St. Jerome relates, Shimei, Thou shalt not die; and the king sware unto that he himself used frequently to go and pray at it. It him :” meaning, that he should not die on that day, as is however somewhat unaccountable that the place of appears from the context: and when David here says, this prince's sepulchre, which both the Chaldeans and ver. 8, “I sware to him by the Lord, saying, I will not the Romans, when they took Jerusalem, thought proper put thee to death with the sword,” he means, by the to spare, should now be so entirely lost, that modern sword of Abishai, who wanted immediately to kill him. travellers cannot find the least remains of it. Stackhouse, The oath therefore, in strictness, was nothing more than Calmet, a respite from death that day, and did not preclude his David, as Josephus says, was a most excellent person,
i 2 Sam. 5. 4.
k 2 Chron. 29. 23.
Adonijah sueth for Abishag. 11 And the days that David 15 And he said, Thou knowest that i reigned over Israel were forty years: the kingdom was mine, and that all
seven years reigned he in Hebron, Israel set their faces on me, that I 1 Chron. 29." and thirty and three years reigned he should reign : howbeit the kingdom in Jerusalem.
is turned about, and is become my
13 4 And Adonijah the son of Hag- thee, t deny me not. And she said + Heb. turn
will not say thee nay,) that he give 14 He said moreover, I have some me Abishag the Shunammite to wife. what to say unto thee. And she said, 18 And Bath-sheba said, Well; I Say on.
will speak for thee unto the king.
not away my
and possessed every virtue that became a king, and one the infidel it is matter of unspeakable triumph, that “the who had the welfare of so many nations committed to man after God's own heart” should have been betrayed him. He was eminently distinguished for his valour ; into such dreadful crimes; but to the Christian it must in all his wars on behalf of his subjects, he himself be a subject of most serious concern and alarm, to obrushed into dangers; and, by undergoing all the diffi- serve so striking a proof of the frailty and weakness of culties of warfare, encouraged his soldiers to noble ac- human nature, even when strengthened by mature years tions rather than commanded them as a sovereign. He and confirmed by early habits of virtue and religion. had an excellent faculty of considering and discerning But above all things let us beware of perverting the exhow to provide for future events, and of managing those ample of David to our own ruin, and of considering his that were actually present. He was sober, mild, kind deviations from duty, not, as they truly are, a warning to to those in distress, just, and humane. As king of Israel us against danger, but as an encouragement to us to tread he administered justice and judgment to all his people, in the same unhallowed paths of vice. Let us not flatter was a prince of courage, and great military, prudence ourselves, that because he, so devout, so religious, so disand conduct. Though his crimes were heinous and tinguished by the favour of Heaven, was once most fatally highly aggravated, in the affairs of Uriah and Bath- seduced into sin, we may therefore commit the same, or sheba, he patiently endured reproof, humbly submitted similar crimes, with impunity: On the contrary, if these to the punishment appointed him, atoned for his sins, crimes appear so odious and detestable, even in a Jewish as far as he could, by a sincere repentance, and obtained | monarch, who had to plead in his excuse (though all mercy and forgiveness from God, though not without excuse was vain) the temptations of a court, the manners some severe marks of his displeasure, for the grievous of the times, the peculiarity of his own circumstances, offences of which he had been guilty: he professed the and the liberties too often taken by men in his situation; greatest regard for every appearance of virtue and holi- they must assume a much more frightful aspect in a ness, and gave the most indisputable and shining proofs private Christian, who has none of those mitigating pleas of an undissembled reverence for, and sincere piety to, to offer, who lives in much more enlightened and civiGod; ever obeying the direction of his Prophets, wor- lized times, has much stricter rules of moral conduct shipping Him alone throughout the whole of his life, presented to him in the Gospel, is called to a much and making the wisest settlement to perpetuate the wor- higher degree of purity and holíness, has far more powership of the same God, throughout all succeeding genera- ful aid from Heaven to support him in his duty, more tions. Such was the man after God's own heart;" terrible punishments to work upon his fears, and more whom God Himself called to be king over Israel; who glorious rewards to animate his hopes. Bp. Porteus. faithfully answered the purposes for which God raised 12. Then sat Solomon &c.] The age of Solomon at him ; in whose family He established the throne; with his accession to the crown is not noticed in Scripture; whom He made an everlasting covenant, and who was but, that he was then twenty years of age, neither more the great progenitor of the Messiah Himself, who now nor less, may be collected from several incidental cirreigns over all, and “must reign, till he hath put all cumstances. Dr. Hales. enemies under his feet.” Dr. Chandler,
13. - Comest thou peaceably ?] She had some reason David had, as his inimitable writings abundantly tes- to distrust him, because she had been the means of his tify, a most ardent spirit of devotion, and a boundless losing the kingdom. Bp. Patrick. zeal for the honour of God, and the interests of his 15. - the kingdom was mine,] He means, that the religion; and the general tenour of his conduct, when kingdom was his by right of primogeniture; and he left to its own natural course, very clearly evinces, that pretends that the kingdom was also his by the inclinahe was upon the whole a conscientious observer, and a tion of the generality of the people towards him, as strenuous asserter of the Divine laws; a most disinte- successor to David. Bp. Patrick. rested and active patriot; the tenderest of parents, and 18. - I will speak for thee unto the king.] It would the most affectionate of friends. At the same time seem that both Adonijah and Bath-sheba thought that, however, that we do justice to the virtues of king David, because David's marriage with Abishag was not conwe must acknowledge and lament his faults, which were summated, therefore she was not to be looked upon as undoubtedly great; and in one flagrant instance, more his wife ; for they could not be ignorant that it was unespecially, justly subject him to the severest reproach. lawful for any one to marry his father's wife. It appears But while we censure him on this account, as he deserves, also that Bath-sheba did not perceive the drift of Ado. it will be our wisdom to look well also to ourselves. To nijah's request. Dr. Wells. See the note on ver. 22,
1 2 Sam. 7. 12, 13.
will not say
put to death.
26 | And unto Abiathar the priest
thou barest the ark of the LORD God
my father was afflicted.
though he turned not after Absalom.
that Joab was fled unto the tabernacle
19. - for the king's mother,] The title of "king's keep him on his good behaviour: and he is induced mother” seems to have been a title of dignity in itself, thus to spare him, because he had been faithful to David like the title of queen dowager. Fragments to Calmet. in the rebellion of Absalom, when he brought out the
she sat on his right hand.] The highest mark of ark from Jerusalem to accompany him, (2 Sam. xv. 24,) dignity which the Eastern monarchs conferred on the and because he underwent all the hardships that David person, whom they esteemed and favoured most, was endured, during the whole time of his exile under Saul, placing him, on occasions of solemnity, at their right 1 Sam. xxii. 20. Bp. Patrick. Or perhaps this was a hand; the second in honour was next to the royal per- younger Abiathar than he who fled to David under son, on the other side; and the rest of the court suc- Saul's persecution, and then the affliction here alluded ceeded in the same order. Thus king Solomon caused to refers to the rebellion of Absalom. Dr. Wall. a seat to be set for his mother, “and she sat on his He was “worthy of death" for being concerned in right hand.” And wnen the sons of Zebedee had by the rebellion with Adonijah, (chap. i.) and it was an inmistake imagined the kingdom of our Saviour to be stance of merciful kindness in Solomon to change his like one of this world, their petition was, " that they punishment into banishment; and this shews the respect might sit, the one on his right hand, and the other on he had for the priest of God. Bp. Wilson. the left in his kingdom,” Matt. xx. 21. Abp. Secker. 28. — caught hold on the horns of the altar.] It is
22,- ask for him the kingdom also ;] Solomon gently declared at Exod. xxi. 14, that if a man committed a reprehends her ignorance; but his answer means, Do presumptuous murder, he should be taken even from you call this a small petition? You might as well ask the altar and put to death. It is therefore a question the kingdom for him. For the laws and constitution of how Joab could think to find shelter there, being a wilthe government made it illegal for any one, besides the ful murderer. The Jews conjecture, that he hoped king and his successors, to take to himself any of the thereby to save his estate, which would have been otherroyal widows, concubines, servants, or any thing else wise forfeited; others, that he hoped to obtain burial by appropriated to the prince. Solomon therefore consi- this means. Bp. Patrick. Perhaps he hoped to obtain dered this as a new scheme on which Adonijah had been a pardon, as Abiathar had done, by consecrating himself put by Joab, in order to carry on again his designs to God and his service, which he did by this solemn against himself and his government. Pyle.
ceremony. Dr. Lightfoot. 26.— to Anathoth,] This was one of the cities of the Joab now takes sanctuary in the tabernacle of God, priests, (Josh. xxi. 18,) distant, as Eusebius and St. and places all his hopes of defence in the horns of the Jerome say, only three miles from Jerusalem to the altar. If he had formerly sought for counsel from the north. Dr. Wells.
tabernacle, he would not now have needed to fly to it - I will not at this time put thee to death,] Solomon for refuge. If his devotions had not been wanting seems only to reprieve him for the present, that he might to that altar, he would not have needed it for å