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taught; he glorified his Father by the miracles which he wrought, by the unspotted innocency of his life, and by his unparalleled sufferings at his death"; by his victorious resurrection from the grave, and by his triumphant ascension into heaven.
29 The people therefore that stood by and heard it, said that it thundered : others said, An angel spake to him. 30 Jesus answered and said, This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes. 31 Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. 32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. 33 This he said, signifying what death he should die.
Observe here, I. The way of God in speaking to his people: by a voice in thunder, for the greater declaration of his glory and majesty. Thunderings and lightnings usually attended the voice of God, even in consolations, and when he spake comfortably to bis own servants. Oh! how dreadful and terrible then must the voice of God be to his enemies, when he shall come in flaming fire, to render vengeance to them! If there was such dread and terror, such thunderings and lightnings, at the giving of the law; Lord I what will there be another day, when thou coraest to punish the violation of that law! Observe, 2. The end why God the Father now spake with an audible voice to Christ his son: it was for his consolation, and the people's confirmation. His soul being troubled, he stood in need, as Mediator, of comfort from his Father; and the people had here a farther and fuller confirmation of his being the promised and true Messias, that so they might believe in him. This voice came not because of me; that is, not only or chiefly because of me, but to confirm your faith in the belief of this great truth, that 1 am the Son of God, by whom the Father hath glorified, and will farther glorify his name. Observe, 3. Our Saviour declares a double effect and fruit of his death and passion. 1. The judgment of this world: Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out. That is, my death shall be the devil's overthrow: will bring down sin, and deliver the world from the tyranny and dominion of sin and Satan. Thence
learn, 1. That Satan is the prince and ruler of all those who live in sin; not a prince by legal right, but by tyrannical usurpation. 2. That this usurper, Satan, will not quit his possession, unless he be cast out. 3. That Christ by his death has oast out Satan, dethroned him, deprived him of his tyrannical usurpation. Now is the prince of this world cast out: that is, I will shortly by my death deliver the world from the slavery of sin, and dominion of Satan, and particularly from that idolatry, which the greatest part of the world were then in slavery under. The second effect and fruit of Christ's death which is here declared, is his drawing all men unto him: When I am lifted up from the earth, 1 will draw alt men unto me. There is a two-fold lifting up of Christ: the first ignominious, when he was hung upon the cross: the second glorious, in the preaching of the gospel: by this he draws all men unto him; that is, by the preaching of the gospel he calls and invites all persons to himself; he offers the benefits of his death to all, and gathers a church to himself out of the Gentile as well as the Jewish world. Learn, 1. That all persons are naturally unwilling to come to Christ, they must be drawn. 2. That Christ meritoriously by his death, and instrumentally by the preaching of the gospel, draws sinners unto himself. 3. That it is not a few, or a small number, but a very great number, consisting both of Jews and Gentiles, bond and free, persons of all nations, sexes, ages, and conditions, whom Christ draweth: Not that all are effectually drawn to Christ, so as savingly to believe in him: but, by the preaching of the gospel, they are called and invited to him, and the benefits of his death are offered to them. Thus Christ being lifted up upon his cross, and on the pole of his gospel, draws all men unto him; that is, doth what is sufficient to prevail with all men to believe on him, and to render those that do not so everlastingly inexcusable.
34 The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man I 35 Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you:
for he that walketh in darkness knowelh not whither he goeth. 36 While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light. These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them.
Observe here, 1. The objection which the Jews made against our Saviour's being the true Messias. Their argument runs thus: " It was foretold under the law, that Christ, or the Messias, ahideth for ever; but thou sayest, the Son of Man must be lifted up and die. How then canst thou be the promised Messias?" The answer is, "In his state of humiliation unto death, he was lifted up; but, in his state of exaltation, he ahideth for ever." Learn hence, That Christ's lifting up by death, and his ahiding for ever, do very well consist together; for both are true of him, the one in his state of humiliation, the other in his state of exaltation. Observe, 2. Our Saviour returns no answer to their cavilling objection, nor doth he undertake to demonstrate how his sufferings and his ahiding for ever are consistent; but gives them intimations that he was the light of the world; and advises them, whilst they had the light with them, to prize it highly, and improve it faithfully. Yd a little while is the light -with you: walk whilst ye have light, lest darkness come upon you. Note here, 1. A choice and singular privilege enjoyed: the light is with you, a personal light, Christ; a doctrinal light, the gospel: both these brought with them a light of knowledge, answering our darkness of ignorance; a light of grace and holiness, answering our darkness of sin, which we had brought upon ourselves; and a light of joy and comfort, answering the darkness of misery and horror, which we lay under by reason of our guilt. Note, 2. The time of enjoying this privilege limited: Yet a little while is the light with you. The time of a people's enjoying the light and liberty of the gospel, it is a limited time, it is a short time. Note, 3. A duty enjoined by Christ answerable to the privilege enjoyed by us: Walk whilst ye have the light. An uniform and constant course of holy walking, according to the rule of the gospel, is tlie indispensable duty and obligation of all those that enjoy the light and liberty of the gospel; namely, to walk according to the precepts and commands of the gospel, an
swerable to the privileges and prerogatives of the gospel, answerable to the helps and supplies of grace which the gospel adonis, and answerable to the glorious hope and expectation which the gospel raises us unto. Note, 4. A danger threatened to the neglecters of this duty: Lest darkness come upon you. Namely, a darkness of ignorance and judicial blindness, a darkness ol error and seduction, a darkness of horror and despair, and the fatal and final darkness of death and hell: for all contemners of gospel-light, there is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever; where sin and torment run parallel, where torment makes them sin, and their sin feeds their torment.
37 But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him: 38 That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed X 39 Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, 40 He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and i should heal them. 41 These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him.
The place which our evangelist alludes to, is, Isa. vi. 3. Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory. From whence a clear argument for Christ's divinity may be thus drawn. He whom Isaiah saw environed with seraphim, and praised as most holy by them, was the true and eternal God; for such acclamations belong to none but the great Jehovah, God blessed for evermore, But, says St. John, it was the glory of Christ that Isaiah saw in his vision, it was Christ whom he called, Holy, holy, holy Lord God of hosts: therefore Christ is undoubtedly God blessed for evermore. For the evangelist was not speaking of the Father, but the Son, and cites these words out of Isaiah; so that it was the glory of the second Person that Isaiah saw and spake of, if the words of the evangelist be of any credit. Besides, the angels are too holy to give acclamations, belonging to God, to any but him that is God.
Observe here, 1. The astonishing infidelity and unbelief of the Jews, who heard our Saviour's doctrine, and were eye-witnesses of his miracles: Though he had dene to many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him. Let not the faithful ministers of Christ be discouraged, and overmuch dejected, at their want of success in dispensing of the gospel, when tbey observe and consider the small success of our Saviour's own ministry in the hearts and lives of his hearers; yea, though his ministry was accompanied with miracles, and though his miracles were many in number, mighty in nature, clear and obvious to sense, being wrought before their eyes, yet his ministry succeeded not and his miracles prevailed not. Lord, what little success has the offer of Christ in the gospel met with, from the first original tender to this day! Obstinate infidelity, and cursed hypocrisy, draw more souls to hell than all the devils in hclI. Observe, 2. How the present infidelity of these unbelieving Jews was long before foretold and prophesied of by the prophet Esaias, chap. liii. 1. Lord, -wh» hath believed our report? that is, our preaching. Where note, That Isaiah's complaint of the small success of his preaching, was a prophecy and prediction of the like success that Christ and his ministers should have under the gospel. Learn hence, That the gospel in all ages has met with more that have rejected it by unbelief than have savingly entertained it by faith. Isaiah complained before Christ, and his apostles and ministers in every age since, that few have believed their reports. Observe, 3. That though the present unbelief of the obstinate Jews was long foretold by the prophets of God, yet the prophets' prediction was no cause of their unbelief, or that which laid them under an impossibility of believing; but the fault lay in their own obstinate will, with respect to which, by the just judgment of God, they were blinded and hardened, for their contempt of Christ, the promised Messias. When men close their eyes wilfully, and say they will not see, it is just with God to close their eyes judicially, and say they shall not see, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their hearts, Src. Learn hence, That the infidelity of the people is to be resolved into the perverseness of their own wills, and the evil dispositions of their own hearts, not to any judicial blindness or obduration wrought by God upon them antecedent to their own sin. me, but on him that sent me. 45 And he that seeth me, seeth him that sent me. 46 I am eome a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness. 47 And if any man hear my words, aud believe not, 1 judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 48 He that rejectcth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.
God's act of hardening was consequential upon their sinning.
42 Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue: 43 For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God.
Observe here, 1. That though the generality of the Jews were thus hardened under Christ's ministry and miracles, yet there were some, and those of the chief rank, even rulers, that did believe on him; that is, they were under strong and powerful convictions, that he was the true and expected Messias. Even in times and places where ohstinacy and infidelity most prevail, the ministry of the word shall not be altogether without its fruit; Christ here had some, and those of the rulers too, who believed on him, when others under the same word were hardened: Nevertheless, among the chief rulers also, many believed on him. Observe, 2. That though many of the chief rulers had a secret belief, or an inward persuasion, that Christ was the promised and expected Messias, yet it was not sufficient to make them openly own, confess, and avow him to be such, for fear of excom munication from the Pharisees: They did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue. Slavish fear of men, and suffering by them, has hindered many from believing on Christ, and kept more from an open owning and confessing of him: Because of the Pharisees they did not confess him. Observe, 3. As the fear of suffering on the one hand, so the love of reputation on the other, kept them from owning and confessing Jesus to be the Christ: They loved the praise of men more than the praise of God; that is, they valued honour and applause from men, more than God's honouring and approving them. There is no greater snare to draw persons from their duty, than inordinate love and affection to their own credit and reputation O! how often is the applause and commendation of men preferred before the testimony and approbation of God! Here was their snare, They loved the praise of men, more than the praise of God.
44 Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on
49 Fori have not spoken of myself: but the Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak.
50 And 1 know that his commandment is life everlasting: whatsoever i speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak.
In these verses we have our blessed Saviour's farewell sermon to the Jews, concerning his person, office, and doctrine; as touching his person, he acquaints them with his divine nature, his oneness and equality with the Father; and accordingly challenges not only the assent but also the obedience and adoration of their faith: Jesus cried, saying. He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. That is. he that believeth on me, doth not believe on a mere man, but on him that is truly and really God, as well as man; and therefore he being true God, one in essence, and equal in power and glory with the Father, their believing in him was believing in God the Father that sent him. Observe, 2. The argument which our Saviour uses to prove that believers in Christ do believe in the Father: He that seeth me, seeth him that sent me. That is, " He that seeth me spiritually, and by faith, seeth my Father to be one with me in essence, though not in person: and he that seeth me in my miraculous works which I do, seeth him also that sent ine, by whom I do these mighty works." Learn hence, That we do not see Christ aright with the eye of our faith, unless we see him and believe him to be truly and really God; one with, and equal to, the Father: He that seeth me, seeth in me him that sent me. Learn, 2. That the Father is not to be seen but in the Son; nor can
believers know what the Father is, but by seeing what the Son is; and what they see the Son to be, that the Father is in him: For he that seeth me, seeth him that sent me. Observe, 3. The dreadful judgment which Christ denounces against all unbelievers, and such as reject him, by rejecting of his gospel; for though, at Christ's first coming, his errand was not to judge the world, but to save the world, that is, to offer the tenders of salvation to lost sinners; yet at his second coming he would judge them at the last day, when the word preached to them, and rejected by them, will give a judicial testimony against them. Learn hence, 1. That Christ and his doctrine are inseparable; to receive his doctrine is to receive him; and to reject his doctrine is to reject him. 2. That such rejecters of Christ and the doctrine of the gospel, shall not escape the judgment of Christ at the great day. 3. That at the great day, were there no other witness against the rejecters of Christ and his gospel but the word preached, yet that alone will be sufficient both for their conviction and condemnation: The word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him at the last day. The word is now the rule of living, and it shall be hereafter the rule of judging: now it is the rule by which we must live to Christ, then it shall be the rule by which we shall be judged of Christ Observe, 4. The argument and reason which our Saviour produces, to prove that tlie word of God, and the doctrine of the gospel, shghted and rejected, should condemn sinners at the great day. Namely, From the divine authority of his doctrine; for albeit bis doctrine was his own, as he was true God, yet as man, and as mediator, it was not his own, but the Father's which sent him; so that his word and doctrine being divine. and the Father's as well as his, (for he did not speak of himself, that is, of himself alone and without the Father,) it is sufficient to judge and condemn all the rejecters and despisersof it. Learn thence, 1. That though the doctrine of the gospel be Christ's own as he is truly and really God, yet it was not his own as mere man exclusive of the Father, who is one God with him, and who gave him a commission and instruction, as Mediator, to preach and publish the glad tidings of the gospel; For (says he) I have not spoken of myself, bat the Father which sent me gave me a commandment. 2. That the doctrine which Christ delivered by command from the Father, doth point out the way to eternal life, and will bring lost sinners thereunto, if they sincerely believe it and obey it: / kiw-w that his commandment is life everlasting. 3. That therefore sinners who reject the doctrine of Christ contained in the gospel, do highly dishonour, offend, and affront, both the Father, and the Son, and bring upon themselves a just and righteous judgment; and expose themselves to unutterable and inevitable condemnation: The word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.
CHAP. XIII. XTOW before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that the hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the cod. 2 And supper being ended, (the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him,) 3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God;
In this chapter is recorded the history of our Saviour's washing his disciples' feet; an action full of humility and condescension, and propounded to his followers' imitation. The circumstance of the time is here noted, when this act was done; namely, at the feast of the passover, when the time of our Saviour's departure was at hand ; and having constantly and immutably loved his own, he expresses the permanency of his love towards them to the end, by this action of his, in washing their feet.—Here note, How Christ chose the time of the Jewish passover to suffer in, that he might prove himself to be the substance of that type; that he was the true Paschal Lamb, who by the sacrifice of his death did atone divine displeasure, and taketh away the sins of the world. Observe, 2. The means which the wisdom of God permitted, to bring the Lord of life to his ignominious death : and that was, the treason and perfidiousness of one of his own disciples, Judas Iscariot. Where observe, 1. The person betraying, Judas; Judas a professor and a preacher; Judas an apostle, being one of the twelve, whom Christ had chosen out of all the world lo be his dearest friends. Can we won
dcr to find friends unfriendly, or unfaithful towards us, when our Saviour had a traitor in his own house? Observe, 2. The heinousness of Judas's sin in betraying Christ; he betrayed Christ Jesus a Man, Christ Jesus his Master, Christ Jesus his Maker; the first was murder, the second treason. Lord, it is no strange and uncommon thing, for the vilest of sins, and most horrid impieties, to be acted by persons making the most eminent profession of thy holy religion! Observe, 3. What hand the devil had in the sufferings of our Saviour: he put it into Judas's heart to betray Christ, that is, he did suggest and inject such thoughts into his mind, which Judas instantly closed with. The devil being a spirit, has a quick access to spirits, and can instil his suggestions into them. As Christ did breathe upon his disciples, and they received the Holy Ghost, and were filled with the Spirit; so Satan breathes filthy suggestions into the spirits of men, and fills them with all manner of wickedness, even with the spirit of hell itself: The devil put into the heart of Judas to betray him.
4 He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments ; and took a towel, and girded himself: 5 After that, he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded.
Observe here, The admirable humility and great self-denial of our Lord and Master: he arises from supper, whilst his disciples sat still, and he that came in the form of a servant, performs all the offices of the meanest servant to his disciples: he lays aside his upper garments, he girds himself with a towel, pours water into a bason, and begins to wash and wipe their feet, which lay out behind them, as they leaned at the table; all which was a most servile employment. Learn hence, That the wonderful humility of Jesus Christ inclined hint to do the meanest offices of service unto his people, even lo become a servant to them in the day of his humiliation; and though now glorified in heaven, he retains the same compassionate heart towards them as when here on earth: hereby instructing us, that it is our duty, in whatever station providence shall place us in the world, to stoop to the lowest offices of love and service towards our fellow-brethren. Lord, thou hast left the most amazing instance of self-denial for our encouragement and ex