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cruel lacerations. In all this, we admit the utter heedlessness of pain; but we are fot sure if even yet there be aught so hellishly revolting as any positive gratification in the pain itself—or whether, even in the lowest walks of blackguardism in society, it do not also hold, that when sufferings, even unto death are fully in sight, the pain of these sufferings is as fully out of mind. But the term science, so strangely applied as it has been in the example now quoted, reminds us of another variety in this most afflicting detail. Evenin the purely academic walk we read or hear of the most appalling cruelties; and the interest of that philosophy wherewith they have been associated, has been plead in mitigation of them. And just as the moral debasement incurred by an act of thest is somewhat redeemed, if done by one of Science's enamoured worshippers, when, overcome by the mere passion of connoisseurship, he puts forth his hand on some choice specimen of most tempting and irresistible peculiarity—even so has a like indulgence been extended to certain perpetrators of stoutest and most resolved cruelty; and that just because of the halo wherewith the glories of intellect and of proud discovery have enshrined them. And thus it is, that, bent on the scrutiny of nature's laws, there are some of our race who have hardihood enough to explore and elicit them at the expense of dreadest suffering—who can make some quaking, some quivering animal, the subject of their hapless experiment—who can institute a questionary process by which to draw out the secrets of its constitution, and, like inquisitors of old, extract, every reply by an instrument of torture—who can probe their unfaltering way among the vitalities of a system which shrinks, and palpitates, and gives forth, at every movement of their steadfast hand, the pulsations of deepest agony; and all, perhaps, to ascertain and to classify the phenomena of sensation, or to measure the tenacity of animal life, by the power and exquisiteness of animal endurance. And still, it is not because of all this wretchedness, but in spite of it, that they pursue their barbarous occupation. Even here it is possible, that there is nought so absolutely Satanic as delight in those sufserings of which themselves are the inflicters. That law of emotion by which the sight of pain calls forth sympathy, may not be reversed into an opposite law, by which the sight of pain would call forth satisfaction or pleasure. The emotion is not reversed— it is only overborne, in the play of other emotions, called forth by other objects. He is intent on the science of those phenomena which he investigates, and bethinks not himself of the suffering which they involve to the unhappy animal. So far from the sympathies of his nature being reversed, or even annihilated, there is in most cases an

effort, and of great strenuousness, to k them down; and his heart is differently af. sected from that of other men, just because the regards of his mental eye are differently pointed from those of other men. The whole bent and engagement of his faculties are similar to those of another operator who is busied with the treatment of a piece of inanimate matter, and may almost be said to subject it to the torture, when he puts it in the intensely heated crucible, or applies to it the test, and the various searching operations of a laboratory. The one watches every change of hue in the substance upon which he o and waits for the response which is given forth by a spark, or an effervescence, or an explosion; and the other, precisely similar to him, watches every change of aspect in the suffering or dying creature that is before him, and marks every symptom of its exhaustion, or sorer distress, every throb of renewed anguish, every cry, and every look of that pain which it can feel, though not articulate; marks and considers these in no other light than as the exponents of its variously affected physiology. But still, could merely the same interesting phenomena have been evolved without pain, he would like it better. Only he will not be repelled from the study of them by pain. Even he would have had more comfort in the study of a complex automaton, that gave out the same results on the same application. Only, he will not shrink from the necessary incisions, and openings, and separation of parts, although, instead of a lifeless automaton, it should be a sentient and sorely agonized animal. So that there is not even with him any reversal of the law of sympathy. There may be the feebleness, or there may be the negation of it. Certain it is, that it has given way to other laws of superior sorce in his constitution. And, without imputing to him aught so monstrous as the positive love of suffering, we may even admit for him a hatred of suffering, but that the love of science had overborne it. In the views that we have now given, and which we deem of advantage for the right practical treatment of our question, it may be conceived that we palliate the atrocious. ness of cruelty. It is forgotten, that a charge of foulest delinquency may be made up al. together of wants or of negatives; and, jus; as the human face, by the mere want 9 some of its features, although there sho not be any inversion of them, might bean object of utter loathsomeness to beholders so the human character, by the mere or sence of certain habits, or certain sensibili. ties, which belong ordinarily and consti", tionally to our species, may be an object utter abomination in society. The want natural affection forms one article of to: Apostle's indictment against our world;

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certain it is, that the total want of it were stigma enough for the designation of a monster. The mere want of religion, or irreligion, is enough to make man an outcast from his God. Even to the most barbarous of our kind you apply, not the term of antihumanity, but of inhumanity—not the term of antisensibility: and you hold it enough for the purpose of branding him for general execration, that you convicted him of complete and total insensibility. He is regaled, it is true, by a spectacle of agony—but not because of the agony. It is something else, therewith associated, which regales him. But still he is rightfully the subject of most emphatic denunciation, not because regaled by, but because regardless of the agony. We do not feel ourselves to be vindicating the cruel man, when we affirm it to be not altogether certain, whether he rejoices in the extinction of life; for we count it a deep atrocity, that, unlike to the righteous man of our text, he simply does not regard the life of a beast. You may perhaps have been accustomed to look upon the negatives of

character, as making up a sort of neutral or

midway innocence. But this is a mistake. Unseeling is but a negative quality; and yet, we speak of an unfeeling monster. It is thus that even the profound experimentalist, whose delight is not in the torture which he inflicts, but in the truth which he elicits thereby, may become an object of keenest reprobation: not because he was pleased with suffering, but simply because he did not pity it—not because the object of pain, if dwelt upon by him, would be followed up by any other emotion than that which is experienced by other men, but because, intent on the prosecution of another object, it was not so dwelt upon. It is found that the eclat even of brilliant discovery does not shield him from the execrations of a public, who can yet convict him of nothing nore than simply of negatives—of heedlessness, of heartlessness, of looking upon the agonies of a sentient creature without regard, and therefore without sensibility. The true principle of his condemnation is, that he ought to have regarded. It is not that, in virtue of a different organic structure, he secls differently from others, when the same simple object is brought to bear upon him. But it is, that he resolutely kept that object at a distance from his attention, or rather, that he steadily kept his attention away from the object; and that, in opposisition to all the weight of remonstrance which lics in the tremours, and the writhings, and the piteous outcries of agonized Nature. Had we obtained for these the regards of his mind, the relentings of his heart night have followed. His is not an anomalous heart; and the only way in which he can brace it into sternness, is by barricading the avenue which leads to it. That sa

the safety-valve.

culty of attention, which might have opened the door, through which suffering without finds its way to sympathy within, is otherwise engaged; and the precise charge, on which either morality can rightfully condemn, or humanity be offended, is, that he wills to have it so. It may be illustrated by that competition of speed which is held, with busy appliance of whip and of spur, betwixt animals. A similar competition can be imagined between steam-carriages, when, either to preserve the distance which has been gained, or to recover the distance which has been lost, the respective guides would keep up an incessant appliance to the furnace, and Now, the sport and the excitement are the same, whether this appliance of force be to a dead or a living mechanism; and the enormity of the latter does not lie in any direct pleasure which is felt in the exhaustion, or the soreness, or, finally, in the death of the over-driven animal. If these awake any feeling at all in the barbarous rider, it is that of pain; and it is either the want or the weakness of this latter feeling, and not the presence of its opposite, which constitutes him a barbarian. He does not rejoice in animal suffering—but it is enough to bring down upon him the charge of barbarity, that he does not regard it. But these introductory remarks, although they lead, I do think, to some most important suggestions for the management of the evil, yet they serve not to abate its appalling magnitude. Man is the direct agent of a wide and continual distress to the lower animals, and the question is, Can any method be devised for its alleviation ? On this subject that scriptural image is strikingly realized, “The whole inferior creation groaning and travailing together in pain,” because of him. It signifies not to the substantive amount of the suffering, whether this be prompted by the hardness of his heart, or only permitted through the hecdlessness of his mind. In either way it holds true, not only that the arch-devourer man stands pre-eminent over the fiercest children of the wilderness as an animal of prey, but that for his lordly and luxurious appetite, as well as for his service or merest curiosity and amusement, Nature must be ransacked throughout all her elements. Rather than forego the veriest gratifications of vanity, he will wring them from the anguish of wretched and illfated creatures; and whether for the indulgence of his barbaric sensuality, or barbaric splendour, can stalk paramount over, the sufferings of that prostrate creation which has been placed beneath his feet. That beauteous domain whereof he has been constituted the terrestrial sovereign, gives out so many blissful and benignant aspects; and whether we look to its peaceful lakes, or its flowery landscapes, or its evening skies, or to all that soft attire which overspreads the hills and the valleys, lighted up by smiles of sweetest sunshine, and where animals disport themselves in all the exuberance of gaiety—this surely were a more befitting scene for the rule of clemency, than for the iron rod of a murderous and remorseless tyrant. But the present is a mysterious world wherein we dwell. It still bears much upon its materialism of the impress of Paradise. But a breath from the air of Pandemonium has gone over its living generations. And so “the fear of man, and the dread of man, is now upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into man's hands are they delivered: every moving thing that liveth is meat for him; yea, even as the green herbs, there have been given to him all things.” Such is the extent of his jurisdiction, and with most full and wanton license has he revelled among its privileges. The whole earth labours and is in violence because of his cruelties; and, from the amphitheatre of sentient Nature, there sounds in fancy's ear the bleat of one wide and universal suffering, a dreadful homage to the power of Nature's constituted lord. These sufferings are really felt. The beasts of the field are not so many automata without sensation, and just so constructed as to give forth all the natural signs and expressions of it. Nature has not practised this universal deception upon our species. These poor animals just look, and tremble,

and give forth the very indications of suf-|

sering that we do. Theirs is the distinct cry of pain. Theirs is the unequivocal physiognomy of pain. They put on the same aspect of terror on the demonstrations of a menacing blow. They exhibit the same distortions of agony after the infliction of it. The bruise, or the burn, or the fracture, or the deep incision, or the fierce encounter with one of equal or superior strength, just affects them similarly to ourselves. Their blood circulates as ours. They have pulsations in various parts of the body like ours. They sicken, and they grow feeble with age, and, finally, they die just as we do. They possess the same feelings; and what exposes them to like suffering from another quarter, they possess the same instincts with our own species. The lioness robbed of her whelps causes the wilderness to ring aloud with the proclamation of her wrongs; or the bird whose little household has been stolen, fills and saddens all the grove with melodies of deepest pathos. All this is palpable even to the general and unlearned eye; and when the physiologist lays open the recesses of their system by means of that scalpel, under whose operation they

subject of our own species, there stands forth to view the same sentient apparatus, and furnished with the same conductors for the transmission of feeling to every minut. est pore upon the surface. Theirs is unmixed and unmitigated pain—the agonies of martyrdom, without the alleviation of the hopes and the sentiments, whereof they are incapable. When they lay them down to die, their only fellowship is with suffer. ing, for in the prison-house of their beset and bounded faculties, there can no relief be afforded by communion with other interests or other things. The attention does not lighten their distress as it does that of man, by carrying off his spirit from that existing pungency and pressure which might else be overwhelming. There is but room in their mysterious economy for one inmate; and that is, the absorbing sense of their own single and concentrated anguish. And so in that bed of torment, whereon the wounded animal lingers and expires, there is an unexplored depth and intensity of suffering which the poor dumb animal itself cannot tell, and against which it can offer no remonstrance; an untold and unknown amount of wretchedness, of which no articulate voice gives utterance. But there is an eloquence in its silence; and the very shroud which disguises it, only serves to aggravate its horrors. We now come to the practical treatment of this question—to the right method of which, we hold the views that are now offered to be directly and obviously subservient. First, then, upon this subject, we should hold no doubtful casuistry. We should advance no pragmatic or controversial doc. trine. We should carefully abstain from all such ambiguous or questionable posttions, as the unlawfulness of animal food, or the unlawfulness of animal experiments. We should not even deem it the right taetics for this moral warfare, to take up the position of the unlawfulness of field-sports or yet the unlawfulness of those compettions, whether of strength or of speed which at one time on the turf, and at an: other in the ring, are held forth to the view of assembled spectators. We are aware that some of these positions are not so ques. tionable, yet we should refrain from the elaboration of them; for we hold, that this is not she way by which we shall most of fectually make head against the existing cruelties of our land. The moral sorce by which our cause is to be advanced, doesn'" lie even in the soundest categories of on ethical jurisprudence—and far less in dogmata of any paltry sectarianism. Wo have almost as little inclination for the co" troversy which respects animal food, as" have for the controversy about the Cato;

just shrink and are convulsed as any living

of blood; and this, we repeat, is not "" w

way by which the claims of the inferior animals are practically to be carried. To obtain the regards of man's heart in behalf

of the lower animals, we should strive to draw the regards of his mind towards them. We should avail ourselves of the close alliance that obtains between the regards of his attention, and those of his sympathy. For this purpose, we should importunately ply him with the objects of

suffering, and thus call up its respondent emotion of sympathy, that among the other objects which have hitherto engrossed his attention, and the other desires or emotions which have hitherto lorded it over the compassion of his nature and overpowered it, this last may at length be restored to its legitimate play, and reinstated

in all its legitimate pre-eminence over the other affections or appetites which belong to him. It affords a hopeful view of our cause, that so much can be done by the - mere obtrusive presentation of the object to the notice of society. It is a comfort to know, that in this benevolent warfare we have to make head, not so much against the cruelty of the public, as against the heedlessness of the public; that to hold forth a right view, is the way to call forth a right sensibility; and, that to assail the seat of any emotion, our likeliest process is to make constant and conspicuous exhibition of the object which is fitted to awaken it. Our text, taken from the profoundest book of experimental wisdom in the world, keeps clear of every questionable or casuistical dogma; and rests the whole cause of the inferior animals on one moral element, which is, in respect of principle, and on one practical method, which is, in respect of efficacy, unquestionable: “A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast.” Let a man be but righteous in the general and obvious sense of the word, and let the regard of his attention be but directed to the case of the inferior animals, and then the regard of his sympathy will be awakened to the full extent at which it is either duteous or desirable. Still it may be asked to what extent will the duty go? and our reply is, that we had rather push the duty forward than be called upon to define the extreme termination of it. Yet we do not hesitate to say, that we foresee not aught so very extreme as the abolition of animal food; but we do foresee the indefinite abridgement of all that cruelty which subserves the gratifications of a base and selfish epicurism. We think that a Christian and humanized society will at length lift their prevalent voice, for the least possible expense of suffering to all the Victims of a necessary slaughter—sor a business of utmost horror being also a business of utmost despatch—sor the blow, in short, of an instant extermination, that

not one moment might elapse between a state of pleasurable existence and a state of profound unconsciousness. Again, we do not foresee, but with the perfecting of the two sciences of anatomy and physiology, the abolition of animal experiments; but we do foresee a gradual, and, at length, a complete abandonment of the experiments of illustration, which are at present a thousand-sold more numerous than the experiments of humane discovery. As to field-sports, we for the present, abstain from all prophecy, in regard, either to their growing disuse, or to the conclusive extinction of them. We are quite sure, in the mean time, that casuistry upon this subject would be altogether powerless; and nothing could be imagined more keenly, or more energetically contemptuous, than the impatient, the impetuous disdain wherewith the enamoured votaries of this gay and glorious adventure would listen to any demonstration of its unlawfulness. We shall therefore make no attempt to dogmatise them but of that fond and favourite amusement which they prosecute with all the intensity of a passion. It is not thus that the fascination will be dissipated. And, therefore, for the present, we should be inclined to subject the lovers of the chase, and the lovers of the prize-fight, to the same treatment, even as there exists between them, we are afraid, the affinity of a certain common or kindred character. There is, we have often thought, a kind of professional cast, a family likeness, by which the devotees of game, and of all sorts of stirring or hazardous enterprise admit of being recognized; the hue of a certain assimilating quality, although of various gradations, from the noted champions of the hunt, to the noted champions of the ring or of the racing-course; a certain dash of moral outlawry, if I may use the expression, among all those children of high and heated adventure, that bespeaks them a distinct class in society,+a set of wild and wayward humourists, who have broken them loose from the dull regularities of life, and formed themselves into so many trusty and sworn brotherhoods, wholly given over to frolic, and excitement, and excess, in all their varieties. They compose a separate and outstanding public among o: selves, nearly arrayed in the same pietoresque habiliments—bearing most distinctly upon their countenance the same air of recklessness and hardihood—admiring the same feats of dexterity or danger—indulging the same tastes, even to their very literature–members of the same Sporting society—readers of the same sporting magaziné, whose strange medley of anecdotes gives impressive exhibition of that one and pervading characteristic for which we are contending; anecdotes of the chase, and anecdotes of the high-breathed or bloody contest, and anecdotes of the gaming-table, and, lastly, anecdotes of the high-way. We do not just affirm a precise identity between all the specimens or species in this very peculiar department of moral history. But, to borrow a phrase from natural history, we affirm, that there are transition processes, by which the one melts, and demoralises, and graduates insensibly into the other. What we have now to do with, is the cruelty of their respective entertainments—a cruelty, however, upon which we could not assert, even of the very worst and most worthless among them, that they rejoice in pain, but that they are regardless of pain. It is not by the force of a mere ethical dictum, in itself, perhaps, unquestionable, that they will be restrained from their pursuits. But when transformed by the operation of unquestionable principle, into righteous and regardsul men, they will spontaneously abandon them. Meanwhile, we try to help forward our cause, by forcing upon general regard, those sufferings which are now so unheeded and unthought of. And we look forward to its final triumph, as one of those results that will historically ensue, in the train of an awakened and a moralized society, - The institution of a yearly sermon against cruelty to animals, is of itself a likely enough expedient, that might at least be of some auxiliary operation, along with other and more general causes, towards such an awakening. It is not by one, but by many successive appeals, that the cause of justice and mercy to the brute creation will at length be practically carried. On this subject I cannot, within the limits of a single address, pretend to aught like a full or a finished demonstration. This might require not one, but a whole century of sermons; and many therefore are the topics which necessarily I must bequeath to my successors, in this warfare against the listlessness and apathy of the public. And, beside the force and the impression of new topics, if there be any truth in our doctrine, there is a mighty advantage gained upon this subject of all others by the repetition of old topics. It is a subject on which the public do not require so much to be instructed, as to be reminded; to have the regard of their attention directed again and again to the sufferings of poor helpless creatures, that the regard of their sympathy might at length be effectually obtained for them. This then is a cause to which the institution of an anniversary pleading in its favour, is most precisely and peculiarly adapted. And besides, we must confess, in the general, our partiality for a scheme that has originated the Boyle, and the Bampton, and the Warburtonian lectureships of England, with all the valuable authorship which has

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proceeded from them. An endowment for an annual discourse upon a given theme, is, we believe, a novelty in Scotland; though it is to similar institutions that much of the best sacred and theological literature of our sister country is owing. We should rejoice if, in this our comparatively meagre and unbeneficed land, both these themes and these endowments were multiplied. We recommend this as a fit species of charity, for the munificence of wealthy individuals. Whatever their selected argument shall be, whether that of cruelty to animals, or some one evidence of our faith, or the defence and illustration of a doctrine, or any distinct method of Christian philanthropy for the moral regeneration of our species, or aught else of those innumerable topics that lie situated within the reach and ample domain of that revelation which God has made to our world—we feel assured that such a movement must be responded to with beneficial effect, both by the gifted pastors of our Church, and by the aspiring youths of greatest power or greatest promise among its candidates. Such institutions as these would help to quicken the energies of our establishment; and through means of a sustained and reiterated effort, directed to some one great lesson, whether in theology or morals, they might impress, and that more deeply every year, some specific and most salutary amelioration on the principles or the practices of general society. Yet ye are loath to quit our subject without one appeal more in behalf of those poor sufferers, who, unable to advocate their own cause, possess, on that very account, a more imperative claim on the exertions of him who now stands as, their advocate before you. . And first, it may have been felt that, by the way in which we have attempted to resolve cruelty into its elements, we instead of launching rebuke against it, have only devised a palliation for its gross and shocking enormity. But it is not so. It is true, we count the enormity to lie mainly in the heedlessness of pain; but then we charge this foully and flagrantly enormous thing, not on the mere desperadoes and barbarians of our land, but on the men and the women of general, and even of cultivated and highbred society. Instead of stating cruelty to be what it is not, and then confining the imputation of it to the outcast few, we hold it better, and practically far more important, to state what cruelty really is, and then fasten the imputation of it on the commonplace and the companionable many. Those outcasts to whom you would restrict the condemnation, are not at present within the reach of our voice. But you are; and it lies with you to confer a ten-fold greater hoon on the inferior creation, than if all barbarous sports, and all bloody experi

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