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wings which resemble the membranes of a bat, rather than the feathers of a bird. The bite of these creatures produces an intolerably burning sensation in the flesh, and occasions the most intense thirst.

These serpents are not large; they are speckled, or of various colonrs, and are in such great numbers in Arabia, that were they not destructive among themselves, as well as to other creatures, the inhabitants could not subsist for them. They love sweet smells, and frequent spicy trees. The inhabitants therefore, when they go to gather cassia and other fragrant things, burn a nauseous substance, called styrus, that the scent may drive away the serpents, and also clothe themselves with skins, entirely covering all but the eyes.

The Adder, or Asp, is a small serpent, whose poison is of so rapid operation, that it penetrates without a possibility of remedy, and almost instantly kills. It has already been observed, that some of the serpent kind are fascinated by musical sounds, and thus many lives have been preserved, which were in imminent peril from these creatures, if the individual attacked, or those around him, had the presence of mind to make such a noise as should excite the attention of the animal, and then sieze the instant opportunity to knock him on the head. But the asp or adder is said to be too crafty to be thus beguiled; he will abide in the cleft of a rock, look at his enemy, and preserve himself motionless and secure, in spite of every art used to entice him from his hiding-place.

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Some are of opinion, that there is a species of asp really deaf, which is the most dangerous of its kind. The sting of the asp is said to be unattended with pain, and that it lulls to a fatal sleep. Cleopatra, the beautiful, luxurious, and depraved queen of Egypt, applied an asp to her own arm, to procure her death,

The Viper is so called from the circumstance of its bringing forth its young alive; it is not very large, never exceeding a yard in length, and in thickness about an inch its head is flat; the male has only two teeth, but the female several. The poison of the viper is very dangerous, but its flesh is esteemed both nutritious and medicinal.

The Cerastes, or horned serpent, is of the colour of sand, in which it hides itself, and where it watches for its prey. It derives its name from a sort of fleshy horns, or two bunches like grains of barley, over its eyes. It is extremely cunning, both in escaping enemies and seizing its prey; for which purpose it conceals itself in holes adjoining the highway, or in the ruts of wheels, that it may the more readily and unexpectedly spring upon those who pass.

The Cockatrice:-this terrible creature was known to the ancient Hebrews, under the names Tsipha and Tsiphoni, which is in different passages variously rendered by our translators, cockatrice, adder, or basilisk. It is one of the most destructive of the serpent tribe; its wound is incurable, and its powers of destruction so great, that the Chaldeans gave it

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the name of hurman, or the destroyer. Its hissing terrifies and puts to flight all other serpents, and its very breath is pestilential and destructive, destroying the plants, blasting the trees, and corrupting the air. This dreadful snake is not a native of Canaan, but abounds in the miry fields of Egypt, and hence was well known to the Israelites. The young of this creature are brought forth alive, yet enclosed in a skin or egg, which might at first sight easily be mistaken for those of birds, and unwarily used as wholesome food; but which would prove poisonous and fatal. The serpent's eggs hatch only in the open air, and if they be crushed or broken, the little serpents are seen coiled up in a spiral form, and no sooner are they freed from the shell, than they coil themselves into attitudes of attack, and are ready to spring on whatever comes in their way. The basilisk is of a reddish colour, or rather of a beautiful variety of colours, in which the red tinge prevails, and has a crest resembling a crown; it is not entirely prostrate like other serpents, but moves along with its head and half its body erect, the other part sweeping behind.

The Naja, which is also called the Spectacled or Hooded Serpent, excels most of the tribe in the beautiful variety and brilliancy of his colours. Its scales being large and flat, strongly reflect the light, and display the appearance of the most resplendent gold, especially when enlivened by the rays of the sun. On the neck of this serpent is a bending line, which

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