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SCOTS MAGAZIN E.

F E B RU A RY, 1787. *************************************************

C o N I E N T S. Observations on VOLCANOES, and the fore|| HISTORICAL AFFAIRS. Poland and tu

mation of BASALTIC Rocks, &c. 53. I nired Provinces go. Italy pt. France 92, Original Letters of STERNE SS.

Spain and Portugal ib. West Indies and On the PLAGUE in Turky and Egypt 58. America 93. Numerical Board for the BLIND 60.

England: Trials on the fhop-tar 95. ENTERTAINMENT given to FRANCIS I. · Prince of Wales entered a free-mason ib. 60.

Mr Howard refuses the honours offered Ao Etiay on SENSIBILITY concluded os. him 96. Reduction of the national debt ib. SPEAKERS in the House of Commoos os. - Scotland : British Society's queries to A New TRAVELLING MACHINE 6S

landhulders, &c 96. Decision in ihe cause, Singular cure for a DROPS Y OS

the burgeffes of Dumbarton against the ma. PARLIAMENT. Lords on the Scottish Peer giftrates 97. Justiciary trials 98. Action

age 66 Commons on the pavy-fupply yo. for recovery of money sent by a stageMorions relative to the pending treaties ni coach ib. 'Towo-council of Dornoch and Lottery-bill 72. Call of the House ib. prelbytery of Nairn on uniting the Aber Mr Haflings ib.

deen univerfries 99. Trial of J. Reid ib, New Books. Bruce's Elements of Ethics Expedicious answer of a committion by the

conciuded 73 Pinkerton's Ancient Scot. mail.coach ib. Edinburgh poor's-houreib. tish Poems 70 Tales of the twelfth and Stones of the city walls fold ioo. Chamthirteenth centuries 79. Bell's Surgery, ber of Commerce on the Sunday's poft ih. rols. 3. and 4. 81.

Court of fefion cannot augment the slipends Anecdotes of HUNTING 83.

of the ministers of Tiogwall and Cairpey POETRY Hallow-een, by R. Buros 88. || 101.

The Snow-drop 89. Evil company ib. ll Lists. Marriages, Births, &e. 101-104.

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Observations on VOLCANOES, and the formation of BASALTIC Rocks;

with a Collection of curious recent Phenomena. SIR,

Edinburgh, Feb. 15. inhabit has undergone great and astonishY T is often no less useful than enter. ing revolutions. It is certain that the

taining, to collect facts which might land we now occupy has once been cootherwise pass unnoticed, and to vered by the sea, for the highest moun

present them to observation in one tains are replete with marine produce cooneded view. Such a plan may fre. tions. quently lead to research and inveftiga. That many of the rocks and mountains tion, which scattered facts faintly remem- which we fee, must have been occalionbered would not have suggelted. Some ed by subterraneous fire, no person can years ago we had in your paper a curious doubt. For instance, the balaliic cocollection of facts respecting the progress lumns of the Giants causeway, the island of society, trade, and manners in Edin. of Staffa, the rocks at the harbour of burgh from 1763 10 1783 ; and might not Dunbar, the hills of Arthur's Seat and a collection of tacts be also made, from Craiglockhart, and many others, too tetime to time, refpecting the phyfical dious to mention. There are only named Korld as well as the moral and political? as being more immediately under obserIt is obvious that this globe which we vation, VOL. XLIX.

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Nothing

Nothing can account for the regular fog had been observed to rest over the form which these rocks have taken, but illaod when not diffipaled by the winds; their being produced by fire, and this is this fog, at times, was (pread all over supported by experiment. It has lately Europe. The year before this eruption, been found, that when similar substances and a tew months before the earthquakes are brought into fusion, and allowed to in Calabria, the influenza (a disorder hi. cool gradually, they assume the same re. therto unaccounted for) spread througla gular shape as there columns of rock. Europe. This volcanic eruption in IceSome time ago, a furnace of flint-glass land, is perhaps the moft remarkable yet having been by accident allowed to cool, recorded in hiltory. One Itream of burnthe matter was found to have taken the ing lava extended 40 miles in length, and form of basaltic columns. The residuum 16 i11 breadth, and was in some places in the furnaces for cast iron is also found between 4 and soo feet deep! to be formed in the same manner.

Upon the 18th of August 1783-A re. The great procefies of nature, and the markable meteor or ball of fire was seen tremendous changes that have taken to pass from north to fouti, about half place in this globe, we have but very past eight in the evening. This meteor Jittle knowledge of, owing to the remote was seen all over Britain, and in mang antiquity of the events, or the short pe- places upon the continent of Europe. riod and imperfection of our records. This phænomenon happened much about • We now know of volcanoes as far to the time of the termination of the volca. the North and South Poles as land has nic eruprion in Iceland ; and it is re. been discovered ; and through the inter markable, that this ineteor was first feen vening latitudes from pole to pole. It to the north-west of the Shetland and would hence appear, that there is a great Orkney ifands, in the quarter of Icebody of active fire within the bowels of land. this earth; and we know the effects of it Upon the 12th of September 1784-A often appear at immenfe distances, and very extraordinary phænomenon was obthat it acts in a manner which cannot, or served at Loch Tay. The air was per-, has not yet been accounted for. Volca- fectly calm, not a breath of wind stirring. noes, we also know, have disappeared in About nine o'clock in the morning, the one place, and have burst out in another; waler at the east end of the Loch ebbed and that every part of the globe is fub- about 300 feet, and left the channel dry. ject to such convullions of nature.

It gradually accumulated and rolled on The northern part of this island of about 300 feet farther to the weft ward, Britain has not within the record of his when it met a similar wave rolling in a story been subject to any remarkable contrary direction. When there waves physical change or revolution, although mei, they role to a perpendicular height it is evident that such changes and revo. of five or lix feet, producing a white lutions have happened in it. The fol. foam upon the top. The water then lowing recent facts, however, may not took a lateral direction fouthward, ruth. perhaps be thought unworthy of remark, ing to the thore, and rising upon it four and a few facts are of more value than a feet beyond the higlieit water-mark. It thousand hypotheses.

then returned, and continued to ebb and In 1782, at the time of the dreadful now every foven minutes for two hours, earthquakes in Calabria, the Mercury in the waves gradually diminishing every the barometer in Scotland funk within time they reached the thore, until the a tenth of an inch of the bottom of the whole was quiescent. During the whole fcale; the waters in many of the lochs of that week, at a later hour in the morn. or lakes in the Highlands, were inuching, there was the farne appearance, but agitated.

not with such violence. In 1783-There was an immenfe vol. Upon the irth of March 1785--The canic eruption in the northern island of Tiviot, a large river in the south of Scot. Iceland, which began on the 10th of land, suddenly disappeared, and left the June, and continued till the middle of channel dry for two hours, and then August. A new island was thrown up flowed with its usual fulness.' in the neighbouring sea, and again dif. Upon the 16th of June 1786-A smart appeared.

Mock of an earthquake was telt at White Several months previous to this erup haven, in Cumberland, which extended tion, a beavy dark bluitba fulphureous to the Ife of Man and Dublin, and was

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