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naar is the word, also, for the mercy-seat, or the cover of the ark of the covenant, Exod. xxv. 17, which is rendered by the Septuagint, inasmpson. Upon this mercy-seat of pure gold, God dwelt in the Shekinah, and from it he communed with his covenant people from between the Cherubim, as a reconciled God. The apostle Paul explains this mystery. Jesus Christ is the mercy-seat in whom God is reconciled. Rom. iii. 25. Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, (inasagsor, through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins. In Christ we have the mos, the propitiation, the atonement for the remission of sins. To cover sin, is, therefore, to pardon it—to remove the offence for reconciliation. Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered. Psalm xxxii. 1.
The Hebrew word, in all instances in which it is applied to denote the effect produced by the piacular oblations required by the law, and in which our translators render it by the word-Atonement, bears its primary signification to cover, in a moral acceptation *. It signifies covering the offence of sin for the purpose of establishing a perfect reconciliation. The verb is, accordingly, translated to make Atonement, Exod. xxx. 15, to make Reconciliation, Lev. viii. 15, to appease, Gen. xxxii. 20, to be merciful, Deut. xxi. 8, and to forgive, Jer. xvii. 23. And the noun is rendered Ransom, Exod. xxx. 12, Satisfaction, Num. xxxv. 31, and Atonement, Exod. xxix. 36:
As we are convinced that important results in the investigation of Scripture doctrines depend on this criticism, we deem it proper further to add, that
* Num. xxix. 11, Lev. i. 4. and v. 6. &c. &c.
this idea is included in every application of this word to the moral relations of man with man. The person whose ox had, through neglect, killed a man or woman, was permitted by the law of Moses to redeem his life by a sum of money. This sum covered the transgression, and established friendship. It was called 703. Exod. xxi. 30. · The punishment of a murderer, was, in no case, to be remitted. Nothing therefore could remove his offence, or reconcile society to him. Ye shall take no satisfaction, (copher,) for the life of a mur. derer *. Even a bribe which by corrupting a judge, covers transgression, is called by the same name t.
From this examination it abundantly appears, that the Scriptures of the Old Testament support our definition ; that Atonement is but another name for Satisfaction, Propitiation, or Redemption; and that it is inseparable from Reconciliation, the forgiveness of sin, or a participation in the mercy and friendship of God."
ANECDOTE. - IT is much to be regretted that the works of the illustrious Calvin are so little read in the present day. Every person who is acquainted with the writings of our inost eminent reformers, both in England and Scotland, such as Hooker, Craniner, Knox, &c. knows that no man was held in higher C
estimation by those distinguished characters than John Calvin, and no human compositions were more read and adınired by them than his. Nor was it only by persons of the above description that Calvin's writings were esteemed. The depth and ingenuity of his thoughts, the strength and accuracy of his reasoning, and the purity and elegance of his diction, have led many who had no relish for the Gospel to peruse his works.
The celebrated infidel, Lord Bolingbroke, was a remarkable instance of this; and the following anecdote, in proof of it, may be depended on. One day a Clergyman of his Lordship's acquaintance, (Mr.
h , who died Vicar of Battersea,) happened to call for him, when he was reading in Calvin's Institutes. “ You have found me,” said his Lordship, " reading John Calvin. He was indeed a man of “ great parts, profound sense, and vast learning. He " handles the doctrines of grace in a very masterly “ manner.”_" Doctrines of grace!" replied the Clergyman, “ the doctrines of grace have set all " mankind together by the ears." "I am surprised “ to hear you say so," answered Lord Bolingbroke, “ you who profess to believe and to preach Christi6 anity. Those doctrines are certainly the doctrines “ of the Bible; and, if I believed the Bible, I must %5 believe them. And, let me seriously tell you, " that I think the greatest miracle in the world is, " the subsistence of Christianity, and its continued es preservation as a religion, when the preaching of 6* it is committed to the care of such unchristian “ gentlemen as you.”
by the ears » grace bawled the
STATE OF RELIGION IN HOLLAND IN 1806.
D Y the new Constitution, (the regal,) every religious sect is equal in the eye of the law; and their respective ministers are all equally excluded from any of the functions dependent on the government. The provincial Synods are 9 in number, forming a total of 53 classes, to which are attached 1570 preachers. The Roman Catholics have 300 churches, which are attended by 400 priests, without including the conquered countries. The Arminians are spread throughout the provinces of Guelderland, Holland, Utrecht, and Friesland This society consists of 34 communities, at the head of which are 43 preachers. The other sects chiefly tolerated in Holland, are the Lutherans, the Anabaptists, the Moravian brethren, distinguished by the name of the Evangelical Fraternity; the Greeks, Armenian Christians, Quakers, and the Jews. Of all the states in Europe, Holland is the one where the Jews have for a long time back been admitted to a civil existence. They are divided, as elsewhere, into German and Portuguese Jews. The latter are the richest : their manners are more polished, and they are further removed than the Germans, from the vices and customs with which this nation is reproached in certain parts of Europe. By a decree, passed in 1796, the Jews, like the Catholics, have acquired certain polis tical rights. Amsterdam owes a great part of its flourisbing situation to the Portuguese Jews: they are looked upon as the most enlightened of the Israelites. Sketches of Holland, under King Louis Napoleon, 1806, contained in The Monthly Niagazine, Ap. 1809.
STATE OF RELIGION
WITHIN THE BOUNDS OF THE SYNOD OF NEW-YORK, AND NEW-JERSEY,
OCTOBER, 1809. The Synod, having heard from each of their members a detailed account of the state of religion within their bounds, find, that although there are some things that give just cause for mutual congratulations and unseigned gratitude to Almighty God, yet there are others that call for mourning and deep humiliation.
Throughout our bounds there appears to be an increasing attention to that important part of ministerial duty, the catechetical instruction of children. The ordinances of the gospel have been in general well attended during the past year; and some of our congregations have experienced times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord. A pleasing revival of religion has taken place in the county of Suffolk, on Long-Island. The revival here has progressed with great silence, and generally free from every appearance of extravagance. Although this revival has not been confined to persons of any particular age or condition in life, yet it is worthy of remark, that a more than usual number of aged persons have become the subjects of it ;-in some instances, persons between eighty and ninety years of age, have been awakened and hopefully couverted. Many of the black people also, have been made the subjects of this work; and it appears, that more than three hundred persons have been added to the church in the year past, in congregations under the jurisdiction of the Presbytery of Long-Island, in the county of Suffolk. The effects of this revival have been apparent in checking the progress of vice and immorality, and in a more strict and conscientious observation of the Sabbath day.
The revival of religion that heretofore has taken place within the bounds of the Presbytery of New-York, ap