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the university to which they belong is situated. In Utrecht, the city alone bears the expense of the university and professors.

The office of ininisters of the word is very laborious, and, in most places, the income which they receive but small. They must preach two or three times a week, besides meeting once a week with the consistories, and attending in their turn the Classes and Synods--keep catechetical schools, visit their congregations, especially in times of sickness, and previous to the administration of the Lord's Supper, which happens every three, and in some places, every two months. They are also bound to visit such as are imprisoned for capital crimes, and to accompany them to the place of execution. For all these services they receive in Amsterdam, where their salary is greatest, 2,200 guilders, and some

few presents from the East-India Company. When • they accompany the army they receive fifty guilders 'additional to their regular salary, for the expense of travelling. The ministers of towns in SouthHolland, besides a parsonage, receive 650 guilders :

-in North-Holland 600 guilders a-year. In most of the other provinces they receive much less; and in some places their salary is uncertain, as it consists of the tenth of some farms. The salaries of ministers are paid, in a great degree, out of the income of church property. Whenever they are disabled by age, or otherwise, from performing their duties, they in general still retain their salary; and after their death an annuity is settled on their widows. No one can undertake the ministry, unless he be lawfully called ; and no unlettered person may be licensed, who does not possess singular

** A guilder is 21 pence sterling, or 37


natural talents. In the cities of Holland, which have a voice in the Assembly of the States, and in the Hague, whenever vacancies occur, the ministers to fill them must be twenty-seven years of age at least-in Amsterdam they must be thirty-two-in small cities twenty-five-and in towns twenty-two. The Walloon churches in Holland, call candidates to the ministry who have just reached their twentysecond year. The manner of calling is this : Whenever there is a vacancy, the Consistory request the permission of the magistrates to fill it. Then the Consistory and the Deacons proceed to nominate as many candidates as every one of the members think proper. - This nomination is reduced to three, out of which number, if approved by the magistracy, one is chosen by a majority of votes, who is proposed to the magistracy for their approbation; which, if not granted, a new election must be made.. Though this be the ordinary mode, yet in someplaces it is different. In Dordrecht the magistracy name four of their number, who, in conjunction with two ministers and two elders, make the choice. In a certain town of Delfland, which is called the Woud, the congregation possess the right of; choose ing their minister by a majority of votes. This is also the case in Zevenhoven, in the Island of Texel, and other places. In some places the nomination is made by the ruling Consistory alone, or in conCurrence with those who have at any previous time been members of the Consistory. The election is made by the votes of the male members of the congregation.

When the election is properly made, according to the established mode in any place, notice thereof is given to the Classis with which the called minister or candidate for the ministry is connected.

The latter having passed the “Examen præparatoire," or preparatory Examination, is admitted to preach the word; but not to administer the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper. The Classis to which he is called, having examined his election, and found it orderly, proceed, in presence of the Deputati Synodi, or Delegates of Synod, to what is called the Examén peremptoir, or concluding Examination. After this the election is confirmed, of which notice must be given to the congregation for three Lord's days successively, publicly in church; that if any are dissatisfied they may have the opportunity of making it known. When the time" appointed for ordination is come, one of the ministers of the Classis preaches a sermon on the occasion; and then reads the form of ordination to the candidate, requiring his answer to the questions proposed. This done, he comes down from the pulpit, and causes the candidate to kneel, when putting his hands on him and praying for the divine blessing, he ordains him to the work of the holy ministry. In case more ministers are present, they join in the imposition of hands. If the person chosen is already ordained, the examination and ordination is omitted: but the other ceremonies are performed. The candidates and ministers must declare under oath that they have given, and will give nothing, in any way, for any call; this practice being prohibited as Simony. They are, by several statutes of the supreme authority, forbidden to introduce state matters in the pulpit ; but must exhort their people to obey the magistracy four times a-year, at the ordinary meetings of the States of Holland; the delegates of the Synods of Holland have liberty to deliver into them a written memorial, through the pensionary. Both ministers and candidates

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are required to sign the canons, &c. of the Synod of Dort. Among the ininisters there is no other precedence or inequality in rank than what age gives. Whenever any of them is disabled by years or weakness from doing duty, he is declared emeritus. In Guelderland, and elsewhere, the old and weak ministers at their request have assistants procured for them. These are settled as if they were called to a vacancy, and succeed the ministers with whom they are associated.

There are many manors in the Netherlands, whose owners or lords possess the right of patronage in the church; that is, the right of proposing a minister to the congregation. Others have a right of approving or rejecting the choice made by the Consistory. The States General have steadily resisted every attempt made by the Synod to destroy or impair this right of patronage. The appointment of a chorister and sexton belongs also to the right of patronage.

The elders are chosen by a majority of votes of the Consistory, without the cognizance of the magistracy. In Enkhuysen the election of elders and deacons is made from a nomination of the Consistory of double the number needed, by a majority of votes of the congregation. The votes are collected by a minister and an elder. In Delft and Rotterdam these officers are also chosen by the congregations. The election when finished is published for three successive Lord's days in the church, after which, if no objection is brought against their walk and conversation, they are ordained. Their duty is, in connexion with the ministers, to take care that discipline is properly exercised over all the members of the congregation. They are also bound to have regard unto the conversation and doctrine of the ministers, that they discharge their duty aright. They accompany the ministers in their visitations of the flock, especially previous to the administration of the Lord's Supper. They remain in office two years : and every year new ones are chosen to supply the places of those whose time expires.

The deacons are also chosen yearly as the elders, and serve as long as they do. Their office consists in diligently collecting, and faithfully distributing, the alms of the congregation to the poor. The collection of the alins is made publicly in the church, and also at the houses of the members of the congregations. In some places, application is made to the benevolent members of other denominations, who cheerfully aid the deacons. The deacons have, moreover, the management of the real estate of the poor, and take care that they regularly receive their income. Every year they render an account of their receipts and expenditures to the Consistory, in the presence of such of the congregation as choose to be present. In many large cities, the deacons constitute a distinct body from the minister and Consistory ; but, in small places, they make together but one and the deacons do nothing without consulting the minister and Consistory. Neither elders nor deacons receive any compensation for their services.

The preservation and repair of the churches and monuments in them, are committed in the cities to certain persons, appointed for that purpose by the magistracy, called Church Masters; whose business also it is to take care that the revenue appropriated for that purpose be paid.

In addition to the care which the deacons take of the poor, there are erected in the cities, and

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