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roof is sketched. To have rendered the graphic illustrations complete, there should have been given vertical sections of each edifice, similar in kind, but superior in execution, to those exhibited by Mr. S. Ware, in his · Treatise on Arches and their
Abutment Piers.' These would have been of great use in showing the mechanical science displayed in our cathedrals : and we trust they will not be omitted in the subsequent parts of Mr. Storer's work.
The engravings, however, though in the main extremely good, are by no means the most valuable portion of this undertaking. The sketches of the history and antiquities of the several cathedrals, are extremely interesting, and, with very few exceptions, correct. They not only present a connected account of the progress of each edifice from its original foundation to the present period, interspersed with scientific observations upon the successive modification in the architecture of the middle ages; but they exhibit also a comprehensive, though concise, view of the origin, progress, and actual state of the several episco"al sees including much curious information relative to the introduction of Christianity into the British Isle. The numerous rites, ceremonies, and customis, introduced from time to time, by the Romish, and rejected by the Protestant Church, are no iced as they chronologically occurred, according to the place of their first adoption. The various persecutions either experienced or practised by the clergy, are fairly recorded, and, in most instances, the real virtues and vices of ecclesiastics faithfully portrayed.
It is a novel and striking feature of this work, that it presents complete, and, as far as we have been able to ex.mine, correct lists of Archbishops, Abbots, Bishops, and Deans, who have been connected with the several edifices and sees ; together with brief notices of their several characters. The only inadvertency we have noticed in this part of the work, relates to Dr. Peckard, the late dean of Peterborough, who is said "to be author of the life of Nicholas Ferrar.' That Dr Peckard wrote that memoir, is as notorious as that Blackstone wrote the Commentaries on the “Laws of England." Indeed the Divine, as well as the Lawyer, prelixed his name to his performance.
We shall venture upon a single quotation, but it will be a rather long one. It relates to Theodore, a Greek of Tarsus, in Cilicia, who was the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury; and one who laboured most actively to introduce learning as well as religion into England.
• Theodore was in his sixty-sixth year, and in 668, was consecrated by the pope, He was detained at Romc four months, till his hair
grew to make a crown; for being a Greek he was shaved ; the pope gave him the tonsure, and consecrated him ; but so jealous was Vitalian of his principles, that it is said he sent Adrian as a monitor with him to Britain, lest he should introduce the customs of the Greek church, Hence commenced the prelacy of one of the greatest men which ever graced an episcopal throne. The monks and papists have artfully vilified his memory, some by their praises, others by their censures; but it is to the great Theodore, that Britons have to be grateful for the blessings of the Gospel. He transferred christianity from the lips to the heads and hearts of our countrymen; he introduced no works of supererogation, no idle ceremonies ; but made learning and science, as they always ought to be, and naturally are, the hand. maids of religion : he was neither the slave, nor the fautor of the Greek or Roman church, but the firm adherent of the church of Christ. To diffuse knowledge and piety, to awe the wicked and cherish the good. to exalt religion by enlightening and improving its votaries, to meliorate the condition of his species, to adore and mag, nify the names of his Creator and Saviour, were the chief objects and glory of his advanced life. “ He chinged (says Innet, after “ Bede) the whole face of the Saxon church, and did ore towards “ enlarging the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury than all “ his predecessors.'' He night have added, that he did more to establish christi inity on an immutable basis in this country than any prelate since the apostolic age. Heterodox notions and lax disci. pline prevailing to a dangerous extent, he held a synod at Herutford (Hertford) in 673, where he presented the British bishops with a book of canons, which received their hearty approbation; and by the grandeur of his mind and benignity of his manner, gained the esteem and deference of every pious man in the country. In 680, he held another synod at llaethfield to investigate the Monothelites. In the disputes of Bishop Wilfred he was no less active; and when this bigot appealed to Rome, a thing then equally novel and ludicrous, the court very properly laughed at him, and Theodore treated his Roman authority with the utmost contempt, maintaining the judici. ous decrees of the councils, that “ all controversies should be “ settled in the provinces where they arose, and that the authority “ of the Metropolitans should be final and unappealable.”
"The bishops of Rome, indeed, had not then assumed any supe. rior power; they had never expected nor received any greater respect or authority than what necessarily attached to their reputation for learning and piety; hence the right to appeals was never conceived by them; and when appealed to, their decisions, as in the present instance, passed for nought. Theodore evidently acted and felt himself perfectly independent: he owed no obedience in spiritual matters to any power but that of heaven; loyal to his adopted sovereign, faithful to his conscience, zealous in the diffusion of Divine truth, he ealled synods, deposed inefficient priests, consecrated bishops, and founded schools throughout the kingdom. In the diocese of Wilfred, he conserated bishops Bosa of York, Eata of Hexham, Edhed of Lindsey, Trumberth of Wagulstad, and Cuthbert of Lindistarn; instituted or restored, say Florence and Dicet, the bishoprics of
Worcester, Lichfield, Leogerensem and Dorchester, It has been observed that he had “ a bold and overbearing temper;" but with more truth, that he“ possessed the spirit of government. He instituted schools, we should rather say colleges. in Canterbury, in other parts of Kent, and at Cricklade near Oxford, where he and Abbot Adrian “ drew together large numbers of students, to whom 6 they read lectures on divinity, philosophy, arithmetic, geometry, " astronomy, and sacred music.” Hence, as Birchington observes, he justly received the title Magnus. Such indeed was their extraordinary success in teaching, that the venerable Bede, a cotemporary and most respectable authority, assures us that "many of their scholars “ were able to speak Greek and Latin with the readine s and fluency of “ their m ther tongue." Among their pupils were Tobias bisliop of Rochester, a vir doctissimus, Ostforus or Ostfor, bishop of Worcester, Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne, a poet, and John of Beverley, arehbishop of York. Of Theodore himself, a man no less learned than a friend to learning, there remained of all his writings only his Penitentiale, which has been considered a model of that kind of composition. Being advanced in years, he gave an example of Christian forgiveness, by sending for Wilfred, and offering him his friendship. His life, indeed, was a happy practical illustration of his religious principles : imitating the energy of St. Paul and the benevolent meekness of St. John, he directed our countrymen to the paths of both temporal and eternal happiness. To his memory we owe res. pect and gratitude; he brought into our island a most invaluable lia brary of Greek * and Latin books, with several copies of the Scrip . tures, which happily survived the wreck of ages; he planted among us the language of the gospels, and sowed those seeds both of divine and human learning, which, under the blessing of providence have grown and flourished in our country, have exalted our religion, and consequently our morality, expanded our minds, embellished thein with science, and added to our physical enjoyments the comforts of the arts. Those who unfortunately cannot relish the animated pious effusions of Chrysostom, (which, however, would have equally served religion and virtue, had they been less severe on women,) may at least respect the man who brought the etia mtipo:vra of Homer to our shores.
In the time and by the exertions of Theodore, observes Malmesbury, learning so flourished in our island, that from “ being
a nursery (or nation) of tyrants, it became a peculiar seminary of " philosophy.” The present age bears ample evidence of the benign effects of Theodore's wisdom; the lessons of piety and learning which he left us, may have been suppressed, but were never annihilated.'• The human mind, indeed, is not a plant that buds, flowers, and decays in a summer's sun; it requires the lapse of ages to develop its full powers, to convert the savage into the civilized mau. This should teach us the value of education. Even in our city of Canter
* The copies of Homer, David's Psalms, and Chrysostom's Homilies brought by Theodore, were still extant at the beginning of the last century.'
bury, the disinterested observer will recognise traces of that mellow. maturity, which sufficiently indicates the happy effects of early ci. vilization. For this we are deeply indebted to our good archbishop Theodore, who being old and full of days, expired in his eightyeighth year, on the 19th of September 690.'
. To the illustrious Theodore, the first truly protestant archbishop, we felt bound to pay our grateful tribute, convinced that if St. Paul did not preach the gospel in our island, his townsman extended its influence and identified it with our soil. It is in vain that monks and friars have laboured to make him a papist : his learning and Christian piety, and his religious principles have descended unallayed to Wickliffe, Greathead, Cranmer, and the present day.
We have extracted the preceding passage, not because we admire the style in which it is written, but because it conveys inforination at once interesting and but little knowo, respecting a bright ornament of our early episcopal Church. It would gratify us to see more ample justice done to this active and learned prelate. The requisite materials for his life are by no' means out of reach : and if it be thought reputable for Protestants to draw up memoirs of popes and cardinals, simply because they were patrons of literature, how hostile soever they might have been to true religion or to liberty of conscience ; we cannot but think it would be full as honourable, and far more useful, to trace the benefits resulting from the exertions of a man who was as anxious to promote piety, as learning ; and who resisted papal encroachments with as much constancy and success, as he taught the unlearned how to think, the obdurate how to feel, and the despairing sinner, where to seek for refuge and consolation.
Our readers will perceive that we think well of the volume before us. In truth, we are of opinion that much commendation is due to the spirit of the proprietors, the ingenuity of the artists, and the judgement and research of the different writers. We cordially wish them an ample reward in the liberality of the public.
Art. VI. 1. Astronomie Théorique et Pratique'; Par M. Delamhre,
Trésorier de l'Université de France, Secrétaire perpétuel de l'Institut pour les Sciences Mathématiques, Professeur d'Astronomie au Collége Royal de France, i hevalier de la Légion d'Honneur, &c. 3 gros vol. en 4to. pp Ixiv 1925: avec 29 planches. Paris, Mm., Ve, Courcier, 60 francs. (London, Bossange, Masson,
and Co. 51. 8s.) 1814. 2. Abrégé d'Astronomie, ou Leçons Elémentaires d'Astronomie
Théorique et Pratique; Par M. Delambre, Chevalier de l'Empire, &c. 8vo. pp. xvi. 652: arec 14 planches. Paris, Mme. Ve, Cour.
cier, 10 francs. (London, Bossange, Masson, and Co. 18s.) 1813. THE number and variety of treatises on astronomy, have
been as great during the last thirty years, as the progress of this branch of science has been rapid; yet, before the publication of the voluines now on our table, there were only two works, which could with any sort of propriety be denominated complete treatises on astronomy; we mean the respective performances of M. Lalande, and Professor Vince. The first of these was rich in information, but excessively defective in point of method and arrangement, manifesting in almost every page, the strange gossiping propensities of that singular astronomer, and not less singular man, Lalande. Professor Vince's work also, we mean his “ Complete System,” in three quarto volumes, and not his ill-proportioned dwarfish abridgement of that treatise,-is at once copious, profound, and valuable; exhibiting an extreme variety of methods and investigations; and containing an extensive, correct, and well arranged series of astronomical tables. But, though the variety and excellency of its contents, render it a rich acquisition to every mathematical student, he will, nevertheless, be often tempted to complain, that this treatise also is defective in arrangement; that its author does not seem to have duly appreciated the logical requisites of a good treatise; and that he too generally neglects to reduce the comprehensive materials he has brought together, into the symmetry and order which are so fascinating in a well digested work of science.
There was room, then, even if the science of astronomy had not made some considerable advances since the treatises of Lalande and Vince appeared, for another work on this interesting subject; and we cannot but rejoice that the labour has been undertaken by a philosopher so adequate to the due completion of it as the Chevalier Delambre. This new course of instruction for young astronomers, is constituted principally of the lessons or lectures he gave in the Royal College at Paris, during six years prior to its publication. We cannot better either explain the motives which prompted