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which act prohibited any but Church ministers from

preaching, unless licensed, under rigorous penalties . . 1793 Those societies unanimously desiring the sacrament from their preachers, allowed the privilege . . . .

1793 Resolved, that every preacher desisting from traveling be

considered for four years a supernumerary, then superannuated . . . . .

. . . .

1793 The first general collection for missions :

1793 The 51st conference affectionately entreated all the brethren, in the name of God, to honor the king . .

1794 The ordinances granted to 93 places in England .

n England . . . . 1794 Trustees of two chapels in Bristol forbade Mr. Henry Moore

the right of preaching in them, because they had not appointed him :.

,. . . . . . .1794 The plan of pacification formed .

. . . . . . 1795 Alex. Kilham, being contentious, expelled by the conference 1796 Every circuit recommended to provide the horse or horses

necessary for the preachers . . . . . . . 1796 Second general collection for missions

1796 The exchange of preachers between England and Ireland ceased . . . . . .

. . . 1797 A declaration, expressive of approbation of existing rules,

signed by 145 preachers. Three refused to sign, left the conference, and joined Kilham: and together they formed “ The New Itinerancy.” Many discontented and trouble. sonie members joined them :

1797 Resolved, that chairmen of districts be chosen by the ballot

of conference after the appointments are read; and that superintendents invite the chairmen, on important occa

sions, to their quarterly meetings . . . . . 1797 Trustees of some chapels unfaithfully surrendering them to Kilham's followers, a general collection ordered through the societies for erecting new chapels .

1798 English conference sympathizes with and helps the Irish preachers, suffering from the rebellion . . . . .

1798 The royal assent refused to a law passed in Jersey, banishing all refusing to perform military exercises on the Lord's day . . . . . .

1798 The Preachers' Fund merged into “The Itinerant Methodist

Preachers' Annuity.” [This fund was fed by legacies, donations, annual subscriptions from members or friends, and by admission fees, annual subscriptions, and occasional fines, from preachers. It gave to a supernumerary or superannuated preacher, or his widow, 24 guineas per annum; but to a preacher traveling twenty years, 30 guineas).

1799 “The Preachers' Friend Society” instituted. [This fund was begun and conducted by the people. It originated among some members in London; was designed for the “casual relief of itinerant Methodist preachers, and their families, when in sickness, or otherwise distressed;" was encouraged by many wealthy members throughout Great Britain, and paid, in 1801, to preachers in distress, the sum of 2401.a noble manifestation of the love the British Methodists, i entertained for their ministers, and is like the love the Ga-. latians entertained for St. Paul]

1799 Messrs. Jabez Bunting and Robert Newton admitted on trial 1799 The conference removed the care of the missions from Dr. Coke to themselves . . . . .

• . 1799 An address to the king, on the attempt to shoot him, pre

sented by the conference, August . . . . . 1800 A mission in North Wales appointed . .

1800 The conference, pressed for money, entreat, in their address, the societies for additional aid . . .

1800 The distress of the connection continuing the conference sent

an address to the societies, urging them to raise 6d for each member to pay a debt of 2,0001. [The circuits being deficient in paying the preachers, and the Contingent Fund supplying the deficiencies but partially, caused this debt. The societies generously contributed, and the preachers had their embarrassment removed by 2,6611. 18s. 2 d.] Mr. Wm. Percival, a preacher of 30 years, died. His friends

in different circuits subscribed 5001. for his widow . . 1803 The claim of local preachers to exemption from civil or mi

litary offices condemned by conference . . . . 1803 The first committee for guarding privileges appointed . . 1803 Conference determined that women ought not to preach; but

if any believe they have an extraordinary call, they must address only women

1803 A committee appointed to attend to the business of missions 1804 The victory of Trafalgar led to the “Patriotic Fund,” for widows and children: into which the Methodists threw 2,0001. . . . . . : : . ,.,. ·

1805 State of the connection in the 63d year of Methodism : 217

circuits, 589 preachers, and 149,660 members. The four
collections produced 10,7721. Os. 9d., viz. :-

Kingswood School collection 1.2,676 12 0
Superannuated Preachers' do. 1,922 7 6
Contingent Fund

do. 3,263 16 9
Missionary

do. 2,909 4 6 1806 Mr. Joseph Pawson died, after traveling 43 years . . 1806 Mr. Jos. Cook, for peculiarly explaining the doctrines of

justification and the Spirit's witness, excluded by the conference. In consequence he made a breach in the Rochdale society . . . . . . . . .

1806 The Committee of Privileges ordered to commence a suit

at law for the recovery of chapels in the possession of

Kilham's followers; and they were recovered . . . 1806 A collection for the Bible Society ordered in the principal congregations, which amounted to 12981. 168. . .

1807 Agreed that no preacher shall return to a circuit, unless absent 8 years . . .

1807 Camp meetings judged highly improper for England. . 1807 Mr. Clarke addressed the societies for increased aid to the

Superannuated Preachers' Fund. The Methodists felt his arguments, and the collection was increased more than

5001. All the chapels required to have conveniences for kneeling 1808

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1807

1808 1808

1809

1809

1810

A chapel fund projected . . . . . . .
Mr. Richard Watson admitted on trial

• No preacher to stay more than two years on a circuit, un

less in some special case . . His majesty repealed a persecuting law passed by the assembly of Jamaica

. . . . . . The pecuniary distress of the conference being again great,

they resolved on no collections for chapels, but in lieu thereof collections for paying the public debt. This ex. traordinary call brought 3,4541. 88. 3d. : another proof of

the love of the people for their preachers . . . Superintendents recommended to co-operate with a commit

tee in London in disseminating religious tracts through the

nation . . . . . The conference resolved on having a second school for edu

cating the sons of preachers, and purchased “Woodhouse Grore.The whole expense estimated at 6,0001. [By the next conference the preachers and people had sub

scribed 7,2311. 17s. 2d. . . . . . . . Lord Sidmouth's bill defeated : At this time there were 350 circuits, 852 preachers, and

197,401 members : being an increase of 232 circuits, 533 preachers, and 120,433 members, since Mr. Wesley's death The four collections this year amounted to 15,8461. 14s. . Mr. Wm. Toase and two others preached among the French

prisoners with much success'. . .
The number of Methodist chapels in England was 1,286; in
Wales 85; in Scotland 25; in the British isles 33; and in
Ireland 145 . . . . . .

. .

1811

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1812 1812

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1812

For the Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review, Art. V.-CONSIDERATIONS IN FAVOR OF THE STUDY OF THE

ANCIENT CLASSICS.

BY CHARLES H. LYON, Associate Principal of the Irving Institute, Tarrytown, N. Y. “ Select Orations of Cicero; with an English Commentary, and Historical, Geo

graphical, and Legal Indexes.” By Charles Anthon, LL.D., Jay-Professor of Ancient Literaturo in Columbia College, New-York. Harper & Brothers, 1838.

The name of Charles Anthon is permanently identified with the literature of Greece and Rome. The student of antiquity can scarcely glance at his library without being reminded of his obligations to that distinguished scholar. His labors have contributed more to augment and enrich the stock of ancient lore in this country than those of any other single individual. To the votary of classical literature his criticisms and illustrations are an invaluable treasure, and display a degree of scholarship and research which he alone knows how to prize.

It is too commonly the fate of those who pursue the least frequented walks of literature to fail of receiving the just reward of their efforts. Their works, of whatever degree of merit, are confined within a narrow circle beyond which they are scarcely known and never appreciated. Toiling in a field that is but little cultivated they have but few coworkers, few followers, and few admirers. However successful their efforts, however great their attainments, however able their productions, they win but few golden opinions from the bulk of mankind, and their names are scarcely heard without the limits of their own sphere of action. But what the fame of the scholar wants in diffusion is made up in perpetuity. He has the sympathy and admiration of kindred minds through all succeeding ages.

If the name of our author is not familiar in every circle, if it is not as often heard in the parlor as in the study, his merits as an antiquarian and a critic are not the less known to the general scholar, nor the less appreciated by the lover of classic lore. The volume which we have before us is one of the professor's latest productions, and belongs to his “series of classical works for schools and colleges now in the course of publication.” The series, we understand, will consist of about thirty volumes, of which five are now published and may be regarded as specimens. In addition to these, Professor Anthon has already enriched the classical literature of both hemispheres by other productions of his prolific pen. His edition of L’Emprier's Classical Dictionary has superseded every other work of the kind in this country and in England; the first edi. tion of his Horace (which was subsequently abridged) is the most learned and elaborate American classic that has yet appeared ; and the Greek Grammar of Dr. Valpy derives its chief value from the additions which he has made to it. These and other critical and scholar-like productions attest the patient research and profound erudition of that remarkable man.

If he who vindicates ancient learning by the acuteness of argu. ment or the force of eloquence thereby advances its interest, still more does he who renders that learning more attractive, and facilitates the student's progress in it, by removing the asperities that obstruct his path. If he renders a service to ancient literature who, by showing its importance, persuades men to overcome the obstacles to its attainment, yet more does he who, by diminishing those obstacles, renders the attainment less difficult.' This is the peculiar merit of Professor Anthon. He has conferred a benefit not more upon the ancient classics than upon the cause of sound learning, by facilitating the acquisition of the Greek and Roman tongues, and rendering the wit and wisdom of antiquity more accessible to the many than they have hitherto been.

“ If there be any one cause," he observes in the preface to the work before us," which has tended more powerfully than the rest to bring classical studies into disrepute among us, it is the utter incompetency of many of those who profess to be classical instructors. It is very natural that such preceptors should be strongly averse to bestowing too much assistance upon their pupils; and perhaps it is lucky for the latter that such a state of things should exist; but certainly, for the credit of our common country, it is high time that some change should be effected, and that if the learner cannot obtain from oral instruction the information which ought to be afforded him, he may procure it at least from the notes of his text

book. We may be very sure of one thing, that the style of classical instruction which prevails at the present day in so many of our colleges and seminaries of learning, of translating merely the language of an ancient author, without any attempts whatever at illustration or analysis, will never produce any fruits either of sound learning or intellectual improvement.”

The evil here alluded to is one of no trifling magnitude. That " the style of classical instruction which prevails at the present day” is much less thorough than it ought to be, and is productive of serious injury to the literature of antiquity, is a truth confirmed by too many illustrations. But while Professor Anthon deplores the evil, he is also doing much to cure it. The style of his illustrations and the character of his commentaries, while they render essential aid to the pupil by increasing his interest in, and facilitating his progress through, the ancient writers, are no less calculated to stimulate the instructor to aim at a higher standard of teaching.

The volume before us contains a brief but well written account of the life and writings of Cicero, and a copious commentary, occupying nearly twice the space of the text. Its value is also much enhanced by the addition of indexes illustrating the biography, history, geography, and laws of the republic at the time in which the author lived. “If there be any author," the editor justly observes, “that stands in need of full and copious illustration, it undoubtedly is Cicero, in the orations which have come down to us. The train of thought must be continually laid open to the young scholar, to enable him to appreciate, in their full force and beauty, these brilliant memorials of other days; and the allusions in which the orator is so fond of indulging must be carefully and fully explained. Unless this be done, the speeches of Cicero become a dead letter, and time is only wasted in their perusal.”

The character and writings of Cicero will be studied with intense interest as long as eloquence, philosophy, or literature shall be held in esteem among men. His versatile talents, his untiring zeal in the pursuit of knowledge, his varied attainments, and, above all, the unequalled success with which he cultivated the rhetorical art, have imparted a splendor to his name, and an interest to his biography, which it is the lot of but few to acquire. Whether we estimate his eloquence by the impressions produced upon the minds of his hearers, or by the more deliberate opinion of his countrymen, or by the still more impartial opinion of later posterity, there is but one judgment recorded, and that judgment assigns to the “man of Arpinum" the first place in oratory.

Agreeable as the task would be to analyze the character and productions of such a man, it does not come within our present design. Without, therefore, discussing any farther the merits of either Cicero or his commentator, we pass to a theme possessing for us a still greater interest-the value of the ancient literature. • The considerations favorable to the study of the Greek and Latin tongues will be found, upon reflection, more numerous and weighty than a slight view would lead us to suppose. For the sake of clearness and brevity we shall consider them under two heads:

I. The advantages necessarily resulting from the study of those languages.

II. The treasures of knowledge laid open by an acquaintance with them.

Vol. IX.--July, 1838. 38

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