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Here are two lines.
Or in this manner.
She draws three, four, five, six lines, &c. and then lets him endeavour to find out, himself, lines on different objects near him; for instance, the lines of a square table, a bench, slate, &c.
Children may be thus exercised before they are old enough to attempt using the chalk with advantage themselves. The mother, or elder brothers and sisters, may draw the different lines in different directions, angles, figures, &c. on the slate; and the little pupil may set them out with narrow slips of wood of different lengths, with cubes, wafers, counters, &c. or may represent them by folding pieces of paper. It is indispensable that every opportunity should be taken of employing the hand in union with the head.
When they are capable of trying to represent lines and figures on the slate, it will be advisable to prepare the hand for drawing by some gymnastic exercises: the fingers should be moved in all directions, then the hand by means of the wrist, then the arm from the elbow, afterwards from the shoulder. All these movements may be made without putting any instrument into the pupil's hand. When he takes up the chalk, he must be taught to hold it properly. Attention must also be paid to his mode of standing. Lines should be practised in every way, from the left to the right, from the right to the left, upwards and downwards, &c. in order to render the hand expert in all directions, and should be continued till the pupil can draw lines very correctly, and with freedom and boldness. A point may be made, and they may practise drawing lines till they never miss this point with the straight line. (Large slates, 3, 4, 5 feet square, or larger, will be indispensable.)
The hand having acquired by the practice of straight lines firmness and strength, simple curves may be practised in all directions, till they are drawn with facility and freedom: afterwards both sorts of lines may be combined. For acquiring correctness of eye, lines of equal length may be produced at once, without adding or curtailing: these may be divided into two parts; then into 4, 8,16, &c. Lines of unequal length may be drawn, and the pupil exercised in classing them, &c. &c. *.
Every opportunity should be taken of exercising the coup d'ceil out of doors.
Distinction between Straight and Curve Lines.
The Mother draws this line.
And this next to it, —
and says, this is a straight line, this is a curve line. Can you show me the straight line? Show me the curve line.
Now I will make:
two straight lines. ■ —
* For instructions in drawing, see a work by Mr. Boniface, a disciple of Pestalozzi.
She draws a number of both lines, and tells the child to count the straight and the curve lines.
The mother, throwing several letters on ivory or tin before the child, asks, How manyletters can you find composed of one straight line? How many of two? of three? Show me a letter composed of one straight and one curve line: of one straight and two curve lines: of one curve line only. Where, in this room, do you see straight lines? where curve lines?
Exercises in drawing lines in various
The mother now draws straight lines upwards and downwards, from the left to the right, and from the right to the left: in an oblique direction to the right, to the left, &c. asking the children, after drawing each line, What have I done?
Formation of the Angle.
The mother draws an angle on the slate, and pointing to it, tells him this is an angle. What is this?
She draws a number of angles on the slate, and tells the child to count them.
On what objects in the room do you perceive angles? On the door; on the walls; on the windows; the table, &c.
How many angles do you perceive on this sheet of paper; on that picture-frame; on this pane? this box, &c.
Now run into the four angles of this room.