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Children. The mild spring kindly presents to One joyful inhabitants of the earth.

Mother. What does the spring present? For herbs and flowers, you will surely find a suitable word of quality.

Children. Beautiful, fragrant, sweet, useful.

Mother. Repeat to me the entire sentence.

Children. The mild spring kindly presents to the joyful inhabitants of the earth, useful herbs and sweet flowers.

If the children of the first class should not be able to repeat sentences of this length, the mother should by no means force them; for every forced fruit is unnatural, and scarcely ever retains its full flavour.

Sentences in the active state may be likewise expressed in the passive state, without altering the sense.

Mother. The boy beats the girl.
Children repeat.

Mother. Who is the agent, or active person?
What is he doing?
On whom falls the action?

Who is passive, or the sufferer?
Who then is beaten?
By whom?

You may therefore likewise say, The girl is beaten by the boy. Mother. Although the words of these two sentences are not alike, they express the same thing,

The girl beats the boy.
Children repeat.

Mother. Who is the agent now?
What is she doing?
On whom falls the action?
Who is in the passive state? who is

beaten now?
By whom?

Consequently you may also say, The boy

is beaten by the girl. Wherein are these two sentences alike? Children. In this, that they express the same meaning.

Mother. And wherein do they differ? Children. In the words by which they are expressed.

Mother. The father embraces the child.
Of whom do I say something?
What is the father doing?

On whom is the act of embracing per-
Who is embraced?
By whom?

Consequently you can also say, The child is embraced by the father. Mother. Wherein do both sentences differ, and wherein are they alike?

The child embraces the father.
Who is now the agent?
What is he doing?
On whom is it done?
Who is now embraced?
By whom?

How would you express it otherwise? Children. The father is embraced by the child.

Mother. How many sentences have we spoken?

The mother now gives to the children similar sentences, in which the accusative case, after an active verb, can be made the nominative to the same verb in the passive; but not in the active state, as in the two former sentences, without stating that which is not a fact: for instance.

Mother. The sun warms the earth.

Express this in a different way, but not so as to alter its sense. Children. The earth is warmed by the sun. Mother. Could this be turned, like the two former sentences, by saying, The earth warms the sun?

What would this express? Children. It would express that the sun is warmed by the earth, and that is not the case.

Sentences expressing the different tenses or times of the passive state.

Mother. The nest is built by the bird.
The nest was built by the bird.
The nest has been built by the bird, 8%c.

The children repeat these sentences, first separately, then together.

Mother. Now I will tell you wherein these sentences are alike, and wherein they differ. In each it is said that, on the part of the bird, something is done to the nest, and therein all of them are alike?

Wherein are they alike?

The nest is built by the bird: by this I express that it is done at the present time.

The nest was, has, had been built, expresses that the action was performed in some anterior or past time.

The nest will be built by the bird, means that it will be done at some future time, or time to come.

The sun illuminates the earth.

Of what do I say something?

On what does the action fall?

What is illuminated?

By what?

In what other manner can you express

it? <; • ■

Children. The earth is illuminated by the sun.

Mother. This sentence, representing the earth in a passive state, we will now express through various times.

The earth was illuminated by the sun, 8gc.


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