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Mother. Boy, do you read? Now I have done this; for, in saying, Boy, I address him; and in saying, Do you read? I put a question to him.
She pronounces the sentence again, and after the word "boy," she pauses.
What did you notice, when I repeated this sentence?
Children. You paused at the word *' boy." Mother. If you have paid attention, you will be able to tell me the reason.
Children. Because "boy!" is an address, after which we ought to stop.
Mother. Put now the addressing word last.
Change this into an address and a ques-
Children. Bird! do you sing? or, Do you sing, bird?
Mother. Dog! do you bark? or, Do you bark, dog?
Which of you can manage our three other sentences in the same manner. Caroline. Child! do you play? Fly! do you sip? Parrot! do you talk?
Mother. How do I speak, when I say: The boy reads?
Children. In the affirmative order, or affirmatively.
Mother. And when I say: Does the boy read?
Children. In an interrogative manner, or interrogatively.
Mother. And when I say: Boy, read!
Children. In an address, or imperatively.
Mother. And when I say: Boy! do you read?
Children. In an address joined to a question. Mother. We have hitherto expressed our sentences in a fourfold manner.
3. In an address.
4. In an address joined to a question. Children repeat.
Mother. Now let us express all our sentences in the affirmative order. Children. The boy reads.
The bird sings, fyc.
Express the first sentence in a fourfold
Simple sentences treated as before, but having their subject and predicate in the plural number.
Mother. The boy reads.
Do I now speak of one boy only?
In what do they differ? Children. In the first sentence I say something of one boy only: in the second, I say something of several boys. Mother. The bird sings.
The birds sing.
State the difference.
Express now our three other sentences in a similar manner. Children. The child plays.
The children play. The fly sips. The flies sip. The parrot talks. The parrots talk. Mother. I shall now say something of one object, and you are to express it of many. What am I, and what are you to do? The pane is of glass. Children. The panes are of glass. Mother. The door is of wood. Children. The doors are of wood. Mother. The tree has leaves. Children. The trees have leaves. Mother. The star is brilliant. Children. The stars are brilliant. Mother. Does the boy read?
Do the boys read? In what are these two sentences alike? Children. They both express a question. Mother. In what do they differ? Children. The first sentence contains a question concerning one boy only, and the second concerning more than one, or perhaps many.
Mother. The bird sings.
Turn this into a question.
Do the birds sing?
Do the dogs bark? Mother. In what are these sentences alike, and in what do they differ?
Now change our three other sentences into
Change this sentence into two questions? Children. Is the pane of glass?
Are the panes of glass? Mother. The door is of wood. Children. Is the door of wood?
Are the doors of wood? Mother. The tree has leaves. Children. Has the tree leaves?
Have the trees leaves?