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um. They are wonderful, especially which attracts the greatest crowds to for the drapery, and dispute the this superb temple, is the excellent palm, in this respect, with the Flo- music in the chapel of the elector ; ra Farnese, and with other Greek it will suffice to name a Naumann, works of the first rank. King Au a Schuster, and a Seidelmann, all gustus was so fortunate as to pur- three worthy rivals and masters of chase them for the moderate sum of the chapel, to withhold our astonishsix thousand Saxon crowns.
ment at the concourse of people who The building which is most strik- attend the sacred offices. According to a stranger, as well for its ing to the Court Calendar for this agreeable situation near the bridge, year, the elector keeps in pay no as from the singularity and elegance less than sixty-seven musicians..... of its construction, is the catholic With the exception of Rome and of church, unquestionably one of the Naples, no capital in Europe posfinest temples of Germany, although sesses a church-music comparable the architecture deviates from the to that of Dresden. The author rerules and the form which serve for collects thåt, on his return from Itamodicis in these times. On enter- ly with M. Schuster, assistant in ing the church, through the princi- the church of Dresden, at the exepai door, we are agreeably surprised cution of a piece composed by that with the beautiful ensemble, with the virtuoso, he was perfectly enchanted justhess, the harmony of proportions with the ensemble and the goodness of of all parts of this grand edifice, the orchestra, although he was fully with the agreeable light that illu- taken up with the impressions that mines it, and with the symmetrical the Italian music had made upon him, masses simply decorated, where the Among the different cabinets of eye loves to repose ; but, on advan- curiosities, we particularly distincing some paces, the surprise in- guish that which is designated under creases, and changes to admiration, the name of the Green Chamber; at the sight of the magnificent paint- we may consider it as unique in its ing which adorns the altar-piece.... kind. On entering this enormous it represents the ascension. A do. magazine of toys, you are dazzled zen of personages appear agitated with the magnificence of the differwith different emotions; the ex- ent objects. An enfilade of eight pression is as natural as the con- chambers, almost all inlaid with trasts are happy. Attitudes, dra- marble, presents itself; some partiperies, colours, all is beautiful, all tions are covered with mirrors, is harmonious ; every thing flatters which reflect the most striking obthe eye, satisfies and rivets the mind. jects that are not inclosed under lock The principal figure, noble, and al- and key. You also perceive the most aerial, rises majestically, and equestrian statues and the busts of without effort, as a being superior king Augustus, one of the electors, to humanity, and, so to speak, ho- to whom Dresden owes the greatest mogeneous with the pure ether that part of its treasures, and of its difenvirons it. The angels that ac- ferent embellishments. company the Redeemer, in some The second chamber contains all measure absorbed in the brilliant sorts of works in ivory, such as a vapours of his glory, are exquisitely ship of war completely fitted out; beautiful. This composition places the cordage is of gold, the sails (as Mengs on a par with the greatest thin as fine paper) are of ivory, and masters : it should be seen more the guns (about a finger in length) than once to appreciate it duly. In are of brass. a chapel to the right appears a Cal An immense pile of silver furnivary, which no sensible being can ture, ranged in pyramids against the contemplate without experiencing a walls, the pillars, on the tables, and lively and profound emotion, what. the windows, occupy the third apartever may be his creed. But that ment.
The vases of gold, of vermillion, schools, where children are instruct. the snuff-boxes, watches, &c. make ed gratis, as likewise many other the ornament of the fourth apart. houses of charity. The school foundment. The man of taste will dwell ed by the free masons is one of the with pleasure on a great clock of principal
. The military school has silver gilt, of an exquisite finish; the been established for one hundred cyphers are of diamonds, rubies, and fifty Saxon young gentlemen, emeralds, and sapphires; it strikes who are educated at the expence of every quarter of an hour; there is government. a small ball of crystal, which marks The library is open to the public the minutes by running round the several days in the week, and indidial-plate.
viduals may easily obtain permission The fifth and sixth chambers are to carry home books out of the lienriched with precious stones, por- brary which they want to use for phyry, jasper, agate, calcedony, any length of time. onyx, carnelion, amethyst, lapis-la Among the institutions of eminent zuli, mother of pearls, &c. Here utility, we must not omit that of the are likewise specimens of very beau- veterinary school, where, as well as tiful marbles produced in Saxony, at Vienna, all pupils are obliged to and which scarcely yield to those of attend a course of lectures. Italy. On the tables and windows Dresden has no academy of scishine a quantity of vases, enamelled ences as at Berlin, and no university after the antique, and surpassing as at Vienna; but we must not theregold itself in value, as the art of com- fore infer, that the capital of Saxony posing these enamels is lost. One does not include, among its inhabiof the most valuable pieces, both for tants, a number of men of science the inaterials and workmanship, is and letters. We should expect the the great mogul, placed on his contrary from a city, which is the throne, encircled with courtiers, centre of the graces, and of Germawho bring him presents, and with nic urbanity....it is here that the fine soldiers, officers, and ministers; in arts are cultivated with the greatest the court you see the body-guards, success. The Academy of Painting the elephants, and all the pomp of and Sculpture has a number of diattendants of an Asiatic prince; the rectors and professors of high repuwhole is in gold, silver, or enamel. tation. Another very beautiful production Here are many clubs, but all for of the art is a pyramid of precious the purposes of conviviality, none for stones, of the height of a cubit and a politics. There is also a literary half, in the midst of which rises the musenm, where all sorts of journals bust of Augustus II. The other faces are taken in, and a number of readare adorned with antique busts..... ing rooms, &c. This single piece has been valued at Hospitality towards strangers is . 100,000 crowns.
one of the virtues inherent to every The richest of these chambers is inhabitant of Dresden who lives in the cighth and last....it contains easy circumstances. With so many scarc ly any thing but jewels. establishments favourable to the in
During the last ten years, a ma struction of youth, it may be easily nufactory, or house of industry, has conceived that both the men and the been established at Dresden, where women are distinguished by an aga great number of individuals are reeable cultivated mind; the ladies kept at work, according to their especially are in possession of a lanrespective strength and talents : guage and a pronunciation, which this establishment is on a plan cal- have inexpressible charms for any culated to extirpate mendicity or one that has lived in the southern beggary, and after the models in the parts of Germany; their manners cities of Hamburgh, Kiel, &c. and conversation are replete with
Here are a number of public the most seductive graces, and, al
though great lovers of pleasure, they up an advocate for abolishing the cheerfully and successfully apply slave trade. But, blessings on my themselves to all the occupations of eccentricity, it would not suffer me their sex. The men are, in gene- to see and to think like other men, ral, very well-informed; many speak nor to speak in union with their conwith facility, and even agreeably, tented apathy. several foreign languages.
The horrors of a separation from We shall conclude with remark- the country in which the Africans ing, that, for some years past, an are born, this trade certainly is the air of discontent, a sort of vague dis- parent of. But consider, Mr. Speaktrust, has displayed itself more or er, how unmitigated their horrors less openly, and has gained ground are, how aggravated beyond the exon all classes of society, and indivi- ample of every other exile. duals of all ages. The schemes of The wretched African has no inpolitics, the divers incidents of the terval allotted, previous to his de- . revolution, the scourge of war, and parture, in which he can make a the progress of luxury, combined preparation for his journey, or prowith the still increasing
price of pro- vide a defence against the evils of visions, are the real and unfortunate the way. No tender adieus, no consources to which this temper of the solatory leave-takings set him forpublic mind may be attributed. ward on his road, or beguile the
tediousness of the passage with recollections that soothe while they
pain. Banishment is mercy to his EXTRACTS FROM A SPEECH ON lot. He is not banished; he is liteSLAVE TRADE, SPOKEN rally torn from his country, and from
every thing which it contains that is LEEWARD ISLANDS, MARCH, dear to him. 1798.
Children at play are caught up
by those who steal men. The weary COULD I, like other men, have labourer is bound while asleep, and beheld the wretched Africans expos- awakes tocaptivity from competence ed to sale by hundreds, in our Guinea and freedom. Wives in vain stretch yards, and satisfied myself with say- out their arms after their husbands ; ing, it is so, and it must be so....could and the eyes of the husband in vain I have reflected on the misery which linger for the grief and form of his they suffer, when torn from the coun wife. try where they were born, and the Not that all are free who are greater misery of their passage ac- brought to the West Indies from cross the ocean, which separates Africa. Many are slaves in their them from it for ever....could I have own country. But some are not so; witnessed their deaths, which almost and so susceptible is wretched man glut the grave, after their arrival of misery, that a single free born among us, and the melancholy worse African may realize in his individual than death which mark their path bosom greater woes than all I have to it....could I have witnessed the described. barrenness of our Creole women, I have directed, Mr. Speaker, four whose forms are moulded to fecun- Africans, purchases lately made by dity, the loss of our children at the myself, to be brought here to-day. instant of their birth, the mortality The first is a huge skeleton, who among our ablest slaves, their de- lives in my kitchen, and wallows in cay and death in th time of man- victuals ; but neither plenty nor exhood....could I have witnessed all cess can put an ounce of flesh upon this, and have satisfied myself with his bones. The second has never saying, it is so, and it must be so, I raised his head, or smiled, since I should not on the present day, and purchased him." There he is. Me. in the present meeting, have stood Lancholy has marked him for her VOL. II. NO. VIL
own. The third is a woman....the ing colony upon earth, and gave the sickly victim of obstructions created signal to her mass of blacks to fall during her passage, lest the value of upon and butcher the whites. Inher purchase should be diminished. stantly they set at nought her twenty ....... These, and an experience which thousand militia, bid defiance to her the grave now covers, determine me regular forces, and the shipping in never again to contribute to this hor- her harbours ; ravaged her fields, rid trade. So may the great Father attacked her towns, and left her inof mankind prosper those who are habitants weltering in their blood. dearest to me, so may he bless my Such were the dire effects of the children, as I here swear, I will African trade on St. Domingo : and pot!
in the Leeward Islands, Mr. Speak. The fourth, Mr.Speaker, is a boy: er, it is the same tradle which me his father, who and a numerous off- naces us with the same horrors. For spring, had but little clothes to give it is this trade, with its dangerous them, sold him in exchange for a facility of procuring slaves, and the piece of cloth. Youth, thoughtless- treacherous submission of their deness, the frame of an infant Hercules, meanour, that has multiplied the render him superior to the evils of lurking assassins, till they swarm slavery. If this shocking trade is wherever the planter turns hiseres; still persevered in, it should then be it is this trade, that has excluded confined to children, who are too from his employment, and driven young, and too inconsiderate, to from his society, his white brethren; brood on the reverse which has it is this trade, which has cut him overtaken them. But no, it must be off from succour and from hope, , abolished. Though the father sold when destruction is at hand: when him, who knows the pangs the mo- death stares him in the face, and inther felt at their separation. Chil. dignities worse than death threaten dren leave behind them miseries and to precede it. regret equal to what the grown exile Hear then, thou thoughtless plantcarries with him, and in his bosom. er, these indignities which aggravate This trade must, Mr. Speaker, be the pangs of death, and shudder at abolished, unless every tender fibre the horrid trade which engenders of the human heart is to be explored, them, although thou dost not fear to that torture may be lodged in it. die. For it is true, that heroism,
That the consequences of this nay obstinacy, can endure, despise, trade are such as have been describe and provoke all that savages can inéd we must acknowledge, Mr. fict on ourselves, when they make Speaker, if we connect cffects with a sport of pain. But there are other causes, and trace the calamities sufferings, there are wounds which which the West Indian world has can be inflicted through those we endured, and with which we are love, and have reared, which pierce threatened, to their source.
our noblest principles and most It was the eager and boundless cherished sentiments before they prosecution of the African trade, reach ourselves, and such wounds which, in St. Domingo, filled with agonize beyond endurance. What negroes every situation that ought to hero, nay, what savage, could endure have been occupied with men com- to see the massacre of his children, plexioned like the planter :....that or the dishonour of his wife, to be stationed a conspirator wherever an taunted with, and called on to wito ally ought to have been found : .... ness the foulest of stains, and the that crowded with enemies every most afflicting of cruelties, at the inavenue through which succour could stant that he was expiring. But arrive in time of alarm and danger. such has been frequently, and reIt was in St. Domingo, that the stane cently has been the fate of the West dard of revolt was first uplifted; Indian planter in consequence of the that it waved over the most flourish- African trade, in consequence of his
being encompassed with blacks, soups of the North American sa. whom his African purchases had vages are nothing else than melted gathered round him.
fat, which they swallow so greedily, Let him then abandon this dan- that at almost all their feasts some gerous and horrid trade, if he wishes of them eat themselves to death, not to be crushed by the calamities They are not contented with heighthat hang over him; if he wishes tening the savour of their soup, or not to sink into the grave childless sagamite, with bear's grease, but and dishonoured; if he wishes to die they throw a pound of candles into in peace, and in the arms of his fa- it, whenever they can get them..... mily.
This partiality for fat is as strong in the South American savages, as in the North American. The for
mer not only devour putrid tigerON THE PROPENSITY OF SEVERAL fiesh, which at a great distance NATIONS TO GREASY MEATS would cause an European stomach
to rise by its intolerable stench, but
they even drink the melted fat of ON taking a general view of the that animal. history of the victuals of all nations, This avidity for fat, and greasy we shall find as great a diversity in food, did not first spring up in the the meats and drinks in different Americans on their transplantation countries and parts of the globe, as into their present place of abode, in the provender that nature has al- but they inherited it from their prolotted to the most different classes genitors, and brought it with them of animals ; and from these differ- from the north-eastern parts of ences of food, and their preparation, Asia. The Tunguses, and other we may form as certain conclusions Siberian tribes of Mongolian extracon the criginal difference of nations, tion, eat fat and tallow, without eiand the degree of their innate dig- ther salt or bread, and even the Cal. nity or indignity, as from the differ. mucs are fonder of animal flesh the ences of clothing, habitations, forms fatter it is. of government, manners, and reli All the nations of southern Asia gions. Nations are so much the regard obesity as the height of more brutal and rude, the more vo- beauty, and in order to acquire it racious they are, the more disgust. they drink melted butter, or other ing and nauseous things they live oleaginous liquors. This conceit and upon, the more raw and unprepared taste the Hindoos have adopted from meats or carrion they devour, and, the Mongolian nations of southern lastly, the greater avidity they have Asia. They therefore drink meltfor pure fat or animal oils*,
ed butter, as in Europe we drink The Americans, of all the races Spanish or other strong wines. The of mankind, are, undoubtedly, the other oriental nations do not indeed least elevated above the irrational drink butter, but melted butter is animals, and this near relationship almost the only sauce they take with to the brutes, as in all the other pro- their favourite pilau. They first visions they consume, so likewise in pour off the gravy of the meat, and the prodigious quantity of fat, and then pour melted butter upon the greasy viands they can bear. The dry rice-meal, or make a hole in it,
and fill it up with butter. Lobo * Even among us there are instances likewise affirms of the Abyssinians, of particular persons that have an insa.
that all their dishes swim in butter, tiable liking to fat. The Ephemerides or overflow with fat. Natura Curiosorum adduce the example
The inhabitants of New Zealand of an officer, who had a natural aversion resemble their ancestors of Asia in to bread, and instead of it always ate regard to their taste for fat, and bacon fat,
unctuous liquors. They not only