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tor's window, he heard me talking following this grave was half filled in the room; and, as he found the up ; and he drew out the whole door open, he entered, climbed up cautiously, which exhaled a horrible stairs, and marching in, gave a loud stench, and found, directly under it, burst of joy, to the no small affright little holes in which were four of the family.
beetles of the present species. Dis“I am sorry, in relating such covering at this time nothing but pleasing traits of my good and faith these beetles, he put them into the ful friend Jacquot, when I reflect hollow, and they quickly hid themthat it was myself that first dissolved selves among the earth. He then the sweet friendship; but it was ne replaced the mole as he found it, cessary that I should separate him and having spread a little soft earth by force. Poor Jacquot fancied him over it, left it without looking at it self as free in the best apartments again for the space of six days. On as in his own, and after several ac the 12th of June he again took up cidents of that kind, he was shut up, the same carcase, which he found and I saw him no more. His inqui- in the highest state of corruption, etude lasted above a year, and he swarming with small, thick, whitish died from vexation. He was be- worms, that appeared to be the facome as dry as a bit of wood, as I mily of the beetles. These circumam told, for I would not see him, stances induced him to suppose that and his death was concealed from it was the beetles that had thus me for more than two months after buried the mole, and that they had the event. Were I to recount all done this for the sake of lodging in the friendly incidents between me it their offspring and poor Jacquot, I should not, in Mr. G. then took a glass cucurbit, four days, have done writing. He and half filled it with moist earth; died in the third year of the reign into this he put the four beetles with of friendship, aged seven years and their young, and they immediately two months."
concealed themselves. This cucurbit, covered with a cloth, was placed on the open ground, and in the
course of fifty days the four beetles ACCOUNT OF THE BURYING interred the bodies of four frogs, BEETLE.
three small birds, two grasshoppers,
and one mole, besides the en trails of THIS account of the burying-bettle a fish, and two morsels of the lungs is taken from M. Gleditch, a well- of an ox. known writer on natural history. Of the mode in which they per
This gentlemen had at different formed this very singular operation, times observed, that moles which the following is an account. A linnet had been left upon the ground after that had been dead six hours was they had been killed, very unaccount- placed in the middle of the cucurably disappeared. He therefore was bit ; in a few moments the beetles determined to ascertain by experi- quitted their holes and traversed the ment, if possible, what could be the body. After a few hours, one pair cause of this singular occurrence. of the beetles only was seen about
On the twenty-fifth of May, he the bird, the largest of which was accordingly obtained a dead mole, suspected to be the male. They bewhich he placed on the moist soft gan their work in hollowing out the earth of his garden, and in two days earth from under the bird. They he found it sunk to the depth of four arranged a cavity the size of the fingers' breadth into the earth : it bird, by pushing all around the body was in the same position in which the earth which they removed. To he had placed it, and its grave cor succeed in these efforts, they leaned responded exactly with the length themselves strongly upon their coland breadth of its body. The day lars, and, bending down their heads,
forced out the earth around the bird rampart all round, for the purpose like a kind of rampart. The work of covering. In the evening, the being finished, and the bird having bird was sunk about half a finger's fallen into the hollow, they covered breadth deeper into the earth; and it, and thus closed the grave. the operation was continued for near
It appeared as if the bird moved two days more, when the work obalternately its head, its tail, its wings, tained its final completion. or feet. Every time that any of these A single beetle was put into the movements were observed, the ef- glass cucurbit with the body of a forts that the beetles made to draw mole, and covered, as before, with a the body into the grave, which was fine linen cloth. About seven o'clock now nearly completed, might be re. in the morning, the beetle had drawn marked: in effecting this, they joint- the head of the mole below; and, in ly drew it by its feathers below. pushing the earth backward, had This operation lasted full two hours, formed a pretty high rampart around when the smallest or male beetle, it. The interment was completed, drove away the female from the in this instance, by four o'clock in grave, and would not allow her to the afternoon, a space of time so return, forcing her to enter the hole short, that one could scarcely have as often as she attempted to come imagined possible by so small a creaout of it.
ture, without any assistance, consiThis beetle continued the work dering that the body of the mole must alone for at least five hours, and it have exceeded it in bulk and weight was truly astonishing to observe the at least thirty times. great quantity of earth that he re While engaged in these experimoved in that time: but the surprize ments, a friend who wished to dry a of Mr. G. was much augmented, toad in the shade, fixed it to a stick when he saw the little animal, stif. which he stuck into the ground. fening its collar, and exerting all its When it began to putrisy, the beestrength, lift up the bird, make it tles, allured by the smell, having change its place, turn, and in some loosened the end of the stick that measure arrange it in the grave that was fixed in the earth, brought it to it had prepared, which was so spa- the ground, and they then interred cious, and so far cleared, that he both the toad and the stick together. could perceive exactly under the bird all the movements and all the actions of the beetle.
From time to time the beetle, ACCOUNT OF ROSLIN CASTLE. coming out of its hole, mounted upon the bird, and appeared to tread it
By a Lady. down; then returning to the charge, it drew the bird more and more in ROSLIN! sweet Roslin .....even to the earth, till it was sunk to a though on a gloomy afternoon, and considerable depth. The beetle, in a good deal of rain, I was charmed, consequence of this uninterrupted I was enchanted, with its beauties. labour, appeared to be tired; lean- The chapel was the first thing seen, ing its head upon the earth, it conti. being very near the inn. Its outnued in that position near an hour, side appeared to me like a common without motion, and it then retired looking kirk, with a tiny side door completely under ground.
for an entrance. Certainly a larger Early in the morning, the body one, at the end, must have once exwas drawn entirely under ground to isted, though now walled up. At the depth of two fingers' breadth, in present, there are only two small the sanie position that it had when Gothic doors, opposite each other. laid on the earth; so that this little No sooner had I passed the threscorpse seemed as if it were laid out hold, and entered the side aisle, on à bier, with a small mount or than I was struck with astonish
ment, at the beautiful structure and trouble, the architect did not sucworkmanship of the cieling and pil- ceed, if the apprentice's pillar was lars; which, I suppose, were ori. conformable to the original plan of ginally of a reddish stone, which the edifice; for no other part of the time and weather have changed and work in the chapel resembles it; or softened to a variety of most beauti- the employer did not like the richer ful tints. This chapel was built in and more complicated style of the the purest age of Gothic architec- apprentice's pillar, so well as the ture, by a Sinclair of Caithness, who more simple workmanship of the married the daughter of Robert rest of the chapel. Bruce, king of Scotland. The cha Roslin chapel is not large, but is pel is a good way from the castle reckoned to be a specimen of a very that was Sinclair's residence; which chaste and elegant piece of Gothic in its time must have been a place architecture. It is a ruin, but the of great strength from its situation, most perfect ruin that can be seen. on a point of a rock, inaccessible on From the chapel to the ruined casevery side but one, and that so nar tle is a short quarter of a mile, down row, that it is probable it was only a very steep hill. There is' but a a gateway and drawbridge. The very small part of the castle standchapel of Roslin has been the bury- ing; a middling modern house being-place of the Sinclairs of Caith- ing erected on a part of its wall...... ness for ages; but at present they It is situated, as I have before menhave no property at Roslin.
tioned, upon a small peninsulated As one generally learns the le. promontory of an immense rock, gend of the spot one visits, from high above the surrounding river, some garrulous guide, that of Roslin North Esk, which winds round the chapel must not be forgotten ; but castle, rushing hoarsely over its it was told in language so unintelli- rocky bed, imprisoned by perpendigible, by the good wife who showed cular sides of towering rocks, finely it, that I fear my tale will be but covered with wood ; its noise, and imperfect. An abridgment, how- its romantic beauties increase as it ever, may not be amiss. I shall, rolls down towards Hawthorndean, therefore, only take up her tale and forms a most picturesque view from the apprentice's pillar, which from the turning at the entrance to is certainly very different from all the castle. The walks by the river's the cthers.
side, cut through the rocks and The architect employed to build woods of Roslin, are enchanting bethis chapel could not discover the yond description. It is impossible to intent of the plan given him ; he do justice to the romantic charms of was therefore obliged to go to Rome either Roslin or Hawthorndean ; to learn his lesson. In the mean whose ancient walls rise amidst time his apprentice, having more rocks and wood, hanging over the penetration than his master, disco- opposite side of the river, within vered the design ; and in the ab- sight of the walks of Roslin. Hawsence of the architect, wrought the thorndean belongs to bishop Aberpillar that goes by his name. When nethy Drummond, and was once the the master returned, and found habitation of a [the] poet of the that his lad had more skill than name of Drummond. himself, he struck him a violent
In going through Leswade, from blow upon his temple, which in. Dalkeith to Roslin, we met a counstantly killed him.
try wedding; it was then a very Over what I suppose to have been fine day, and the parties had just the great door, opposite the four quitted the kirk, and mounted their windows over the altar-piece, is horses. The bride and bridegroom carved the broken head of the poor were on the first horse, and a long apprentice, and his mother weeping cavalcade followed them; some for his untimely end. After all bis double op a horse, some single, all
trotting after the happy pair. As to gluttony, beyond all comparison soon as they got down the steep hill exceeded by the Mongolian nations. from the kirk, they scampered I here pass by the oriental nations, through the town as fast as they having already taken notice of them could, in order to escape, as quick- in another dissertation. Neither ly as possible, the gaping curiosity shall I collect together the universal of the town's-folks, who all came testimony of travellers concerning crowding to their doors. This, pro- the gluttony of each particular Sclabably, was a penny wedding. In vonian nation, the Poles, the Illyriformer times, when money was of ans, Moldavians, and Vallachians. I far greater value than it is at pre- confine myself principally to the sent, it was the custom, in some Russians, because I find the most parts of Scotland,when abridegroom express and accurate accounts of was not in circumstances to treat them in writers of the highest credit the guests at his marriage, for all sufficient to convince every one, that who were invited to the wedding to the gluttony of the other not-Sclavopay each one penny, for dinner, nian nations was never so great as dancing, &c. And although a shil- among the common Russians. ling, or more, be now paid on such When the elder Gmelin was on occasions, still they are called pen- his travels through Siberia, between ny weddings. It is no very uncom the years 1733 and 1743, there hapnion thing for the meeting at such pened no religious festival, no civil weddings to be so numerous, as from anniversary, no family entertainthe profits of it to enable the new ment, which was not celebrated by married pair to furnish their house, all who assisted at them by a geneor take a small farm.
ral intoxication. This rage for drinking in the Russians of Siberia, Gmelin knew not how to compare to any thing but a contagious burning fever
that attacked every age and rank NATIONS TO HARD DRINKING. and sex, which, though it had its in
tervals, soon returned, at stated peIT is in general with whole na- riods, with equal or increased fury, tions as with individuals. The more This drinking fever always broke noble and generous they are, so much out more violently and universally the more moderate are they in the on the high festivals, and therefore enjoyments of sense; and, on the con also in the Christmas week. From trary, the more base and ignoble, so Christmas to the Epiphany, and fremuch the more preponderant and quently for a week longer, it was unconquerable is their propensity to extremely rare to see a sober person. sensual pleasures of the grosser The Siberians were not satisfied with hinds. One main branch of sensua- being intoxicated once a day, but the lity is an inclination to intoxicating drinking and the riot continued night or stupefying liquors and drugs; and and day almost incessantly. During this inclination augments, in whole all this time it was not possible, nations, allowing for some particular either by intreaties or bribes, or any exceptions, the causes whereof I other means but open violence, to have elsewhere endeavoured to as- induce artificers and labourers to certain, in equal proportion with the work, and when the travellers ardecline of superior mental powers, rived at any place on this or any the and the disposition to great virtues like drinking-festival, their soldiers and signal exploits. Accordingly, all and the rest of their attendants, notSclavonian nations have ever been, withstanding all the threats they as in general more sensual, so also could employ, got drunk as immodemore intemperate in the use of strong rately and continually as the inha. liquors, than the not-Sclavonian; bitants of the place, and they had and the former are again, in regard nothing to do but to wait there in
ON THE PROPENSITY OF SEVERAL
patience till the paroxysm was over. former the most choice foreign wines Not only men, but women likewise, are served in abundance; but to the frequently drink themselves to death; latter only mead is presented instead and it is affirmed by Bruce, that, in of wine, and yet no merchant goes what is called the Butter-week, sel- away from table without leaving updom a morning passes in Mosco, but on it a half ruble or a ruble for the from ten to twelve persons are found honour of having been feasted at so dead in the streets, who have fallen noble a board, by which custom the down in the night, and been frozen. expences of the entertainment are Of such mortal intoxications we can greatly diminished. At the tables the less doubt, on reading that a sin- of the inferior voivodes the brandy gle boor will frequently drink in one is drunk not out of common wine day brandy to the amount of five ru- glasses, but large stochans or tumbles.
blers, and whoever at such banquets Not less licentious than the Christ. has been the most beastly in his mas week, were the Butter-week, as drinking and in his behaviour, has a it is called, or the week before Lent, rich present sent him the following the Easter week, every saint's day, day. Drunkenness there, at this preevery harvest or threshing feast, sent day, is so little disgraceful, that every consecration of a church, and it is not taken amiss even in ladies of all other solemn occasions. Such the best breeding. It is not long ago, festivals and solemnities often fol- that not only the common people, lowed so close on each other, that but princes and ladies of quality, they were drunk for a whole month when sick, would drink whole gob. together, particularly in October, lets of brandy instead of the water from one festival to another. At prescribed them by the physician. these times, when the Russians of The generality of our readers Siberia were once fallen into this would scarcely believe that the Rusrage, it cost them inexpressible ef- sians can be outdone in drinking by forts to return to their usual way of other nations. But they will think life, and to be completely drunk only quite otherwise when they shall have ence in about every four days. read the following accounts of the
The ordinary liquor for this pur excesses of the Negroes and Ameri. pose used by the Russians of Siberia is bad brandy, and when this is want. All travellers are agreed herein, ing, a sort of beer, which they fre- that, among the Negroes, not only quently render more inebriating by men, but also women and children, infusing a handful of the ephedra mo have an unsurmountable propensity nostachya. This herb has the peculi- to strong liquors. In Africa palmar property of producing such a sur wine, and especially European branprising intoxication, that those who dy, and in the West-Indies rum, are are drunk with it continue singing their favourite drinks. For procurand capering till they fall down to the ing European brandy,kings sell their ground. When the brandy or the subjects, husbands their wives, and beer is all out, they then guzzle down parents their children for slaves to the dregs, as every thing is of a good the Europeans. When they have taste to them that does but fill. obtained this water of life, or fire
The viceroy and governor in great water, as they call it, they seldom towns, and, after their example, the leave it till they have seen the end sub-governor and secretary, let no of it. Thus, a Negro-king continucourt-holiday, and no names-day and ed uninterruptedly drinking for six birth-day in their own family, pass days and nights, without taking any unsolemnized. To such festivities, the least food. The Negroes usually not only the officers, and the higher assemble every afternoon in certain and lower orders of the clergy, but public buildings appropriated to likewise the most considerable per. that purpose, and fuddle themselves sons in trade are invited. To the either in brandy, or for want of it,