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and bestowing testimonials, are among these incidental cases. The last particular is peculiarly important, and has been already mentioned in a former part of this Essay, where the just remonstrances of the Bishops of Durham and Lincoln (now Winchester) on the subject have been cited. The necessity of clerical residence might also be again specified, as it is closely connected with the right discharge of a variety of incidental duties. A resident minister is at hand to advise, to comfort, and to assist his flock: he is able to go through more exertion with less fatigue than if stationed at a distance; he can render his family an example and incitement to his parish; he can be “instant in season and out of season;" he can superintend the religious and charitable institutions of the place, and by a course of zealous and self-denying exertion can make his people feel, in innumerable ways, that the religion which he professes is truly a substantial blessing to mankind. A clergyman has only to trace his life throughout a single week—in his study, his family, his church, his parish, and his intercourse with the world at large-in order to feel how much depends upon a conscientious discharge of the numerous incidental duties which hourly devolve upon him.

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ix. By unanimity among themselves, Here, alas ! the author fears he may be considered as having arrived at the fabled land of Utopia; for though no person can doubt the benefits which would result from union among the clergy, yet who is sanguine enough to hope for such a blessed state of things in the present era of the Christian church: Indeed, à mere nominal coalition of adverse parties, it must be confessed, would be of little or no service. It is a real unaffected union as members of the same church, disciples of the same Master, and partakers of the same Spirit and the same hope, that we so greatly need.

A spirit of disunion is in perfect contrast with the spirit of Christianity, and with the injunctions of its Divine Author. It was the earnest prayer of our blessed Saviour shortly before his sufferings, that all who should believe on him to the end of time, might be one: “ As thou, Father,” said he, “ art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us.” And as it was his prayer, it was also one great end of his cross and passion; for Caiaphas in this respect prophesied truly, that “ Jesus should die for that nation, and not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in

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one the children of God that were scattered abroad."

The union of the church of Christ ought, however, to be not only that mystical union which arises from the connexion of all its members with their common Head; that union which St. Paul describes, when he says, “ We being many, are one body in Christ;” but also that mutual union which should subsist among themselves, and which the same Apostle calls “ Being like-minded one towards another;' “speaking the same thing;" “ being perfectly joined together in the same judgment;" "standing fast in one spirit, with one mind, striving together for the faith of the Gospel.” And such a union was actually exhibited at one time in the early church, when “ the multitude of them that believed were of one heart, and one soul.” But this halcyon period did not last long : the passions and prejudices of human nature soon found their way even into the visible church of Christ; so that the Apostles were obliged in the primitive age itself, to exhort their converts that there should not be “ divisions” among them, but that they should be “ of one accord, of one mind," and that nothing should be done through strife or vain-glory."

In the present day, the spirit of disunion

well as in promoting their religious edification. Thirty-two Psalms and Tunes may indeed seem to some persons a very inadequate supply, and would certainly be so in many cases; but taking our country churches throughout the kingdom, the average, where there are no instruments and no singers, is probably not one half, perhaps not one third, of that number. In many parishes three or four tunes, and just as many Psalms, are repeated as a solo by the clerk year after year in wearisome succession. The author's wish, however, is merely to suggest a plan which may be put in practice without difficulty, and with good effect, in those churches in which the psalmody has been hitherto wholly neglected ; but by no means to speak of such a first step towards congregational singing as the maximum of what is to be wished for, where more can be effected. On this point, each clergyman must judge for himself, according to the circumstances of the case.

In closing the present division of his subject, the author cannot but express his strong and increasing sense of its great relative importance. Attention to the rites, services, and discipline of the church is not indeed necessarily connected with “ a spirit of devotion ;” nor ought " traditions and ceremonies,” which, as the Thirty, third Article affirms, “ have at all times been

divers, and may be changed according to the diversity of countries, times, and men's manners,” to be for a moment put in competi, tion with the irreversible essentials of Christian faith and duty. But, as has been 'already urged in former parts of this. Essay, they are of great importance in their place; and a clergyman especially is bound to pay a conscientious attention to points of this nature. Minute innovations prepare the way for greater ones ; so that if a clergyman, how. ever laudable his motive, once suffer himself to relax in his endeavours to maintain the uni. formity of that institution which from his station in it he is supposed conscientiously anxious to support, he knows not where the effect of his example may end; besides which, his irregularities, to say the least of them, betray an inconsistency highly unbecoming his sacred profession, if not a direct prevarication with the solemn vows which he has voluntarily taken upon him. A minister of the Church of England is in duty bound to exert vigilant care that the books which he recommends, the institutions which he patronizes, the professional assistance which he procures, shall not be of a kind calculated to weaken the attachment of his people for the church of which he professes himself upon principle a

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