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for I never thought it a damnable sin (like our sectarists in England, who call themselves by the soft name of Protestant dissenters) to be acquainted with their ceremonies at saying mass, that, while any part of the gospel was reading, every man drew his sword half way out of its scabbard, to testify his forwardness to defend the Christian faith; which has been a custom put in practice throughout all Poland ever since the reign of king Miecislaus, who was the first of that character in this kingdom who embraced Christianity, in the year of our Lord 964, and was the first sovereign prince of it that renounced paganism.

The next city I promised you an account of is Lowitz, much more populous than the very capital of the palatinate of Rava. And this, in the fifth place, is famous for being the wonted residence of the archbishop of Gnesna and primate of Poland. His palace there is built among the marshes, yet nevertheless consists of several fair piles of building. The church also is a very beautiful structure, and enriched with several noble gifts. It has likewise a great many considerable monasteries, abbeys, &c. but nothing more worthy of notice than a very fair library, replete with books of all kinds, but very rarely turned over, (as I could perceive by the covers,) they being placed there rather for shew and ostentation than any real use or instruction. The keeper of this library is monsieur de St. Piere, a Frenchman, who was likewise cross-bearer to his eminence the cardinal primate, and a person every way qualified for that office. He shewed me several valuable books in all languages, that might have excited the curiosity of one that had not seen that magazine of all useful knowledge, the Bodleian library; but nothing pleased me more than a sight of an inscription on the monument of the last king of Poland but one, voluntarily, in 1668, left his kingdom, and retiring into France, died afterwards at Nevers in 1671. It was written by the librarian's correspondent, father Francis Delfault: which, for the excellency in its kind, I took a transcript of, after the following manner:

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Calvinianorum Fana in

Lithuania excisa:
Sociniani Regno pulsi

Ne Casimirum haberent Regem,
Qui Christum Deum non
Haberent.

Senatus a variis Sectis ad
Catholicæ Fidei Communionem
Adductus,

Ut Ecclesiæ Legibus

Continerentur

Qui Jura Populis dicerent.
Unde illi præclarum
ORTHODOXI NOMEN
Ab Alexandro Septimo

Inditum.

Humanæ denique Gloriæ

Fastigium prætergressus, Cum nihil præclarius agere Posset,

Imperium Sponte abdicavit

ANNO M.D.C.LXVIII.
Tum porro Lachrymæ, quas
Nulli regnans excusserat,
Omnium Oculis manarunt,

Qui abeuntem Regem, non secus
Atque obeuntem Patrem
LUXERE.

Vitæ Reliquum in Pietatis

Officiis cum exegisset,

Tandem auditâ Kameciæ

Expugnatione, ne tantæ Cladi
Superesset,

CHARITATE PATRIÆ

VULNERATUS OCCUBUIT

XVII. Cal. Jan. M. D. C. LXXII.

Regium Cor Monachis hujus Cœnobii, cui Abbas præfuerat, Amoris Pignus reliquit; Quod illi istoc Tumulo

Mærentes condiderunt.

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4. Warsaw is the metropolis of the province of Masovia, defended with a castle, wall, and ditch, seated in a plain in the very centre of the kingdom, and therefore pitched upon for convening of the diet. It is divided into four parts, viz. the old and new town, the suburbs of Cracow and Praag, and adorned with divers stately piles of buildings, particularly a stately palace, built in four squares by king Sigismund III. and much improved by his successor; whereof the present king John, by some foundations of apartments which he has caused to be laid, is not to be the last mentioned in history. Opposite to this, on the other side of the river, stands another royal palace in the middle of delightful groves and gardens, erected by Uladislaus VII. and called by the name of Viasdow, where the states or diet of Poland formerly used to sit and debate the most important affairs of the kingdom. Here is moreover the palace of king John Casimir, a most exquisite piece of architecture; as likewise another, of the same beauty and magnitude, built by count Morstin, great treasurer of Poland: also, within a league of this city, king John Sobieski is now laying the foundations of a neat country palace, which is to be called Villa Nova. The other public edifices are no less remarkable; being the church of St. John Baptist, where secular canons officiate, the arsenal, castle, market-place. And divers kinds of merchandises. are conveyed hither along a river from the neighbouring provinces, and from hence carried to Dantzick, to be transported into foreign countries. In the suburbs of Cracow is a small chapel, built on purpose for the burial of John Demetrius Suski, grand duke of Muscovy, who died prisoner in the castle of Gostinin, together with his two brothers. This city was taken by the Swedes in 1655, but recovered, with other acquisitions in war, by the Poles some time after.

5. Thorn, the second city of the second palatinate of Regal Prussia, is seated upon the banks of the Vistula, by which it is divided into two parts. It lies four Polish miles from Culm, the metropolis, (though of little note, because ruined in a manner by the Swedes) to the south, thirteen

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from Marienburgh, twenty-two from Dantzick, and twentynine from Warsaw. It was heretofore an imperial and free city, but afterwards exempted from the jurisdiction of the empire, and as yet enjoys many privileges. Its name seems to have been taken from the German word thor, signifying a gate, because built by the Teutonick order, as it were for a gate to let forces into Prussia whenever occasion served. Whence its arms are supposed to have been taken, being a castle and gate half open. This city does not stand in the same place where the old one did; that having been seated a mile westward from hence, where are now to be seen the ruins of an ancient castle, and some other monuments that have received great injury from time. However, it is at present the fairest and best built of any town in Royal Prussia; the streets being much broader, and houses more stately, than at Dantzick. It was very much beautified by one of its burgo-masters, Henry Stowband, in the year 1609, who founded a small university here, and endowed it with a considerable revenue. He likewise built an hospital, with a public library, wherein two of Cicero's epistles are preserved, written upon tables of wax, (the greatest rarity that I saw in all this kingdom,) and a townhouse erected in the middle of the market-place. The inhabitants revolted from the knights of the Teutonick order in the year 1454, and put themselves under the protection of Poland. But this city is for nothing more famous than the birth of that great astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, whose name, without any other recommendation, would be sufficient to transmit it to posterity. John Albert, king of Poland, died here in 1501. It was taken by the Swedes in the year 1655, and regained by the Poles in 1658. Then the Swedes possessed themselves of it again, and the Poles retook it by surprise in the year 1665.

6. Marienburgh, built in the year 1310, as a place of residence for the master and knights of the Teutonick order, as may yet be seen by the several stalls in the chapel of the castle erected for them. It lies seated upon the river Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, about six miles from Dantzick, and is

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